Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 27

FTMK LECTURER'S APPOINTMENT SYSTEM (FLAS)

NORAHAYU BTNTI MOHD RAMLY

This report is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the


Bachelor in Computer Science (Software Development)

FACULTY OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY


UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSlA MELAKA
2008

ABSTRACT

The title of Projek Sarjana Muda 1 (PSM 1) is ''FIIWK Lectu~*ev'.~


Appointment
Systenz that will be developed to Faculty of Information and Communication
Technology (FTMK). The main objective of the development of this system is to
overcome the problems exist in the current manual system. The medium for this system
is the Internet so students can access the system wherever they are as long as here is
Internet connection. This system will be developed as a web-based platform and will be
created using server side scripting such as PHE' with Apache Web Server, user side
scripting such as
and MYSQL as a database for the system. The target users of
this system are students, lecturers and administrator. Generally; fils system explanation
about background project, methodology that will be used, bow the analysis executed,
design of database apd interface, implementation and testing of system. The online
system becomes systeqatic and also regular missing data. Besides, extra features in the
system such as security protection by using password.
"

ABSTRAK

Tajuk Projek Sarjana Muda 1 (PSM 1) ialah "FTMK Lecttrre-ev'sAppoirztment


System " yang dibangununtuk Fakulti Tehologi Maklumat dan Komunikasi
(FTMK). Objektif utama membangunkan aplikasi ini adalah untuk mengatasi masalah
yang dihadapi oleh sistem manual sedia ada. Medium perantaraan untuk sistem ini
adalah talian Internet bagi membolehkan pelajar-peiajar melayari sistem ini di mana
sahaja mereka berada selagi terdapatnya talian Internet. Sistem ini dibangunkan
berlandaskan web dan dihasilkan menggunakan bahasa pengaturcaraan web seperti
PHP, H-TML dan MYSQL sebagai pangkalan data untuk sistem ini. Sasaran pengguna
sistem ini terdiri daripada pelajar, pensyarah dan pentadbir sistem. Secara
keseluruhannya, sistem ini menerangkan latarbelakang projek, metodologi yang
digunakan, bagaimana analisis dilaksanakan, rekabentuk pangkalan data dan
antaramuka, perlaksanaan dan seterusnya melaksanakan pengujian kepada sistem
tersebut. Sistem yang berasaskan komputer lebih sistematik dan teratur serta
mengelakkan kehilangan data. Selain dari itu, fungsi-hngsi tambahan yang ada pada
sistem seperti penggunaan katalaluan sebagai langkah keselamatan.

1.1

Project Background
FTMK Lecturer's Appointment System (FLAS) is a proposed system for the

Projek Sarjana Muda (PSM) that allows students to book appointment with their
Iecturers in order to reduce difficulties between students and lecturers. The medium
for this system is the Internet so students can access the system wherever they are as
long as there is Znternet connection.
This system will be developed as a web-based platform and will be created
using server side scripting such as PHP with Apache Web Server, user side scripting
such as HTML and MYSQL as a database for the system.
The target users of this project are students, lecturers and administrator. The
system is develop to help students makes an appointment online with lecturer that
they want to meet depends on the lecturer's timetable. Only students who had
registered can use this system. User must login before use this system.
In this system the lecturer must always update new information in their
timetable so that the students will know about new information of the lecturer
whether the lecturer is on leave or have a meeting. Students can check the timetable
of the lecturer before going to meet the lecturer. The task of administrator is to
register the new user, edit or delete the information of the users. Other than that,

administrator also can addledit latest news or information about faculty or other
news about 1nr"omdtionTechoiogy.
The main purpose of FTMK Lecturer's Appointment System (FLAS) is to
provide more easy and convenient way of booking appointment and to propose new
way of data management and data processing. The main task for the system is to
process all the data and provide a good result.

1.2

Problem Statement

Generally, process of making appointment or booking consultation hour


between lecturers and students still using manual way. This system is develop to
solve the list of following problems :

i)

Students difficult to meet lecturers


There are many situations that students did not fmd lecturers in their
room even that lecturer was in consultation hour. Sometimes the lecturers
did not write a notice or announce if they have meeting or other important
things. Students also don't know lecturer's timetable and contact's
number.

ii)

Difficult to manage appointment records


From manual system, appointment record of students just only kept in
lecturer's notebook. With this proposed system, record of appointment time
will be store more systematic and regular that means the lecturer did not
worry about losing their notebook. This system will remind the lecturers and
students about their appointment.

iii)

Apply appointment with lecturers manually


The process to apply or booking appointment with lecturers is still
manually. Students need to meet lecturer and request to get permission in
order to have an appointment with himher. If heishe not available in their

room, the student must leave the note to the lecturer or come again to meet

int: iecturer. it is di~icuitbecause the students require spending a iots of time


and have to come at lecturer's room for many times Thus, an expert system is
needed to reduce waiting time for the lecturers. Students may know the status
of the lecturer before going to meet them.

1.3

Objective

In order to ensure that the system will develop smoothly, many objectives had
been stated. Objectives of this project are :
To build a system that has function that can help user manage booking
application.
To build the system with provides user level and security level and manage
the certain process with the authorization. The system was complete with the
password because some of the data may contain sensitive data and private
information.
To develop computerized lecturer's appointment system that can replace
manual system.

1.4

Scope

FLAS is developed based on FTMK lecturer's daily routine to ease the user in
managing their task. This part defines the limitations, functionality and target users
of the system. The scope of the system is as following :

Target User

- The target user of the system is committee members in FTMK who had
registered such as lecturers, students and administrator.

Functionality
..
1)

Frovicit: user a u h e n ~ i ~ a ~l"or


i o nuala s e ~ u r i ~
purpose.
y

ii)

Record users information, schedule information and appointment


information.

Type of System

- FTMK Lecturer's Appointment System (FLAS) is a web-based system that


develop with the properties of custom made software product.

1.5

Project Significance

FLAS is a web-based system that will give a lot of benefit to users and
system administrator. The system consists of databases that keep information about
lecturer's information, student's information and appointment information. This
system will help to reduce time consuming that occurs in daily routine when using
manual way.

The database is the most critical part of the system because it requires
complex data handling, detail design of the database can help prevent duplicate data
and easier for system administrator to maintain the database. Thus, it will reduce
workload for administrator to manage and maintain the data in the database. This
system also will display in a very user-friendly graphical user interface to ease the
users to use the system.

1.6

Expected Output

At the end of the project development, FTMK Lecturer's Appointment


System (FLAS) enables users to use computerized appointment system that provides
several functions such as booking appointment, view the lecturer's schedule, view
list of appointment and view application status.

1.7

Conclusion
The main idea of developing FTMK Lecturer's Appointment System (FLAS)

is to improve the current manual system to make the process of making appointment
become more manageable, effective, and efficient in order to reduce time consuming.
It can bring a lot of benefits to students, lecturers and administrator.

The next activities will be developed is chapter 11. This part will review the
previous project and make a comparison with project that has been proposed. Besides
that, this chapter also explains about the methodology that will be used in this
project.

LITERATURE REVIEW AND PROJECT METHODOLOGY

2.1

Introduction
This chapter focuses about literature review and project methodology that

will be used for developing this system. Literature review are searching, collecting,
analyzing and drawing conclusion from all arguments raised in relevant body of
literature. It is important to give the explanations of choosing the project. "According
to Cooper (1988), a literature review uses as its database reports of primary or
original scholarship, and does not report new primary scholarshp itself'.
Fact and finding will discuss and review about approach and related research,
reference and other findings about this system. Besides that, it also states other
approaches that will be used in this project by making comparison with previous
approach.

2.2

Fact And Finding

There are some reasons that cause the development of the system to solve the
existing problems. The sources for the finding in this topic can be found fiom
internet, magazine and book. Then, the literature review can be complete through
study, analysis and drawing conclusion from those sources.

2.2.1 Domain

FTMK Lecturer's Appointment System will be use by Faculty of


Information and Communication Technology. This system is being developed based
on online system that allows users to access through Internet. Other than that, this
system will improve the way to make an appointment become more effective and
manageable.

2.2.2 Existing System


i)

Research for Methodology


Methodology is a collection of methods which apply to all phases of the

software development life cycle. There are several types of model in software
development life cycle such as Waterfall model, Spiral model, Prototyping model,
Rapid Application Development model (RAD), Incremental Model, WIM.;lrM Spiral
model, Concurrent Development model, Component-based model and Formal
Method model.

ii)

Casestudy
There are three systems has been used for the case study. Those are list as

following :
Health Campus Universiti Sains Malaysia Quality Bulletin Website Fixed
Appointment System
This website is used by health campus of Universiti Sains Malaysia. The scope of
implementation of the Fixed Appointment System is to include Nephrology,
Cardiology and Hematology Clinics. According to Department of Health & Social
Security Report, NHS, UK said that "XheAppointment System succeeded in reducing
waiting times where doctors and stafS were committed to the implementation of the
systerrz, andfailed where they were not." .
The Cardiology Clinic is among the busiest clinics of HUSM managing
approximately 500 patients each month. Cardiologist, Dr. Mohd. Sapawi Moharned,
took on the challenge of implementing the fixed appointment system at the
Cardiology Clinic. His team reorganized systems and schedules to ensure clinics
were manned and operated according to schedule. Results have been impressive. In
August '06, 90% of patients who kept appointment time were seen within 1 hour of
the appointment. Staff at the clinic have also benefited from the more orderly
outpatient process.
The Nephrology Clinic, headed by AP Dr. Kamaliah herself, brought down
waiting times of patients. In February '06, only 12% of patients were seen within 1
hour of appointment, while in the first month of implementation, June '06 this went
up to 89%. The below graph is the graph that show statistics of patients see within
one hour of appointment.

FIXED ABPQiNTlvlENT $I'$TEM


Cardiology and Nephmlogy Clinics

% of patients seen within one


hour of appoirrtm ent

FEE -06 : Ple kn~Ae~nabt,alio~o


UJN '06 : Post In~plernerlf~~oll

Figrrre 2.1: Statistics of patients see within one hour of appointment.

According to Sr. Zaleha, Medical Specialist Clinic of HUSM, she said that

"

With the implementation of the system, work is less stressful, clinics are cleared early
and patient complaints have reduced. "

Seetec- Appointment Systems


Seetec Appointment System is a system that used by clinic. Patients can book an
appointment with doctor by daily or weekly. This system is developed based on a
fast and flexible search engine by searching through appointment schedules. This
allows for single or many staff to be identified together with the variable
requirements of customer demands. Once a slot is chosen, users have various options
such as length of appointment, reason for appointment and additional notes that may
be usefbl when the patient arrives.

On-line Appointment System (OLAS)

This system is used by Harvard University that allows students to make own
appointment with an advisor in the Harvard International Ofice (HIO) to discuss
immigration issues related to your studies or work. Students also can make a call to
HI0 or visit the H I 0 to schedule an appointment. Appointments regarding
permanent residency for faculty and high level researchers, health insurance
information, spouse and family related questions, and other matters not related to
immigration should be made by telephone in order to be scheduled with the
appropriate staff member.

Based on the case study above, here are several ways to use the appointment
system by searching through search engine and via the appointment schedule. The
comparison between existing system are stated as below :

Table 2.1: Comparison Existing System


Name
system

of Heatth Campus
Universiti Sains

Seetec- Appointment

On-line

Systems

Appointment

Malaysia Quality

System (OLAS)

Bulletin Website
( F i e d Appointment
System)
User friendly

User friendly

secured

secured

Technology Online system

Online system

Online system

Objective

achieve objective

Not complete objective

achieve objective

Function

Understanding and easy Ease to use

Understanding

to use

and easy to use

Security

secured

2.2.3

Technique
According to H.A.Simon (1969), there are three approaches to build a

system, which are traditional approach, Object-Oriented methodology, and


component- based methodology".
The example of traditional approach is spiral model which reflect the
relationship of tasks with rapid prototyping, increased parallelism, and concurrency
in design and build activities. The spiral model is a model that had been proposed by
Boehm (BOE88) is an evaluation software process model and provides the potential
for rapid development of increment versions of the software. The spiral model, also
known as the spiral lifecycle model, is a systems development lifecycle (SDLC)
model used in information technology (IT).
According to Dr. Dorsey and R,Heidicka(l999), Object Oriented
Methodology had greatly design, where the number of entities in the model had
decreased, the structure are much more robust, flexible and easy to maintain". In
object-oriented methodology, a designer will use Unified Modeling Language

(W)
Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a language for capturing knowledge
(partial semantics) and for expressing that knowledge (syntax). It provides a visual
illustration of that model and for modeling of systems. The major advantage of UML
is addition of process information into data model for an instance, when association
entities arise fiom many to many relationships there are no way to show the exact
number of business rule. In the case, LTML can show the accurate cardinality.
The third approach is waterfall model which become popular version for
software engineering in systems development life cycle model. This model is a linear
progression of the project activities, where an input is received by an activity,
processed and the output is delivered to the next sequential activity as the input to
that activity. Waterfall development has distinct goals for each phase of
development. Once a phase of development is completed, the development proceeds
to the next phase and there is no turning back.

From three-approach comparison, waterfall modef is an approach that will be


used during implementation phase. The advantage of waterfall development is that it
allows for departmentalization and managerial control. A schedule can be set with

deadlines for each stage of development .and a product can proceed through the
development process like a car in a carwash, and theoretically, be delivered on time.
Development moves from concept, through design, implementation, testing,
installation, troubleshooting, and ends up at operation and maintenance. Each phase
of development proceeds in strict order, without any overlapping.or iterative steps.

2.3

Project Methodology
Software engineering must integrate a development strategy to solve definite

problem in an industry environment. This strategy refers to process model in system


development life cycle. The systems development life cycle (SDLC) is a conceptual
model used in project management that describes the stages involved in an
information system development project, from an initial feasibility study through
maintenance of the completed application. A process model that used is based on the
nature of the project and application, the methods and tools to be used. The method
that is chosen to develop FTMK Lecturer's Appointment System (FLAS) is
Waterfall Model.

2.3.1

Waterfall Model
Waterfall model is the most popular version of software development life

cycle for software engineer. This model also known as Linear Sequential Model
where an input is received by an activity, processed and the output is delivered to the
next sequential activity as the input to that activity. Below are representing 6 stages
in Waterfall Model.

Figure 2.2 :Waterfall Model

1. In the requirements analysis phase

(a) The problem is specified along with the desired service objectives
(goals)
(b) The constraints are identified

In the speczfzcation phase the system specification is produced from the

2.

detailed definitions of (a) and (b) above. This document should clearly define
the product hnction.

In the system and software design phase, the system specifications are

3.

translated into a software representation. The software engineer at this stage


is concerned with:
rn

Data structure

rn

Software architecture

rn

Algorithmic detail and

rn

Interface representations

4. In the implenzentation and testing phase stage the designs are translated into

the software domain


rn

Detailed documentation from the design phase can significantly


reduce the coding effort.
Testing at this stage focuses on making sure that any errors are
identified and that the software meets its required specification.

5. In the integration and system testing phase all the program units are

integrated and tested to ensure that the complete system meets the software
requirements. After this stage the software is delivered to the customer
[Deliverable - The software product is delivered to the client for acceptance
testing.]

6. The maintenance phase the usually the longest stage of the software. In this

phase the software is updated to:


Meet the changing customer needs
Adapted to accommodate changes in the external environment
Correct errors and oversights previously undetected in the testing
phases
Enhancing the efficiency of the software
(Adrian Als & Charles Greenidge, 2003)

2.3.1.1 Benefits of Waterfall Lifecycle Model

The waterfall lifecycle model is a traditional models, it had been used widely
by professional system developers. It also has been proved can help models the
system and produce a good product or system.
One reason of choosing waterfall models as the role model for developing
FTMK Lecturer's Appointment System (FLAS) is a good decision because waterfall
model offers a lot of benefits such as high quality product and enables developer to
reduce overhead and other benefits. Before developing FTMK Lecturer's
Appointment System (FLAS), user requirement, project specification and other must
be documented. The documents will enable developer to cautiously plan the
activities and stages in development process. This will help to reduce overhead and
finish the project on time.
Every phase in waterfall model is critical so that the developer must finish
previous phase before moving to the next phases. Since every phase is critical, at the
end of each phase, it must be tested and documented to prevent phase streaming
where previous phase had to restart while the next phase is still running. If this
ys
and
happen, developer had to spent more time and money to redo the p ~ e v i ~ phases
cancel the running phase.

2.4

Project Requirement
Project requirements for software development tools and hardware

requirement will define and listed at below to be used for FLAS purposes.

2.4.1 Software Requirements

Table 2.1: Software Requirements

SOFTWARE

DESCRIPTION

Edit Plus

Used to write text editor such as Notepad with


extra features that make it easier to write
correct HTML.

Macromedia Dreamweaver

Provides a strong web developer tool for


creating interactive web applications.

Adobe Photoshop I Paint

To create and edit images.

PHP 5 I MySQLI MS-SQL Server

Used to write dynamically generated web pages


and used to create database driven web site.

Microsoft Project

Used to management the project purpose such


as Gantt Chart

Microsoft Visio

Used to cfeate or draw diagra~s.

Microsoft Windows W

As an operating system f ~ rdevelopment


I

purpose.

2.4.2 Hardware Requirements

PC with minimum specification:

a)

Windows 98/ME/XP/2000/Vista

b)

Pentium 3 800MHz or higher

c)

DVD 1 VCD Rom

d)

256MB RAM or higher

2.4.3 Other requirements

Network and internet connection

2.5

Project Schedule And Milestones

There are two kind of project coordination technique that will be use in order
to make sure that this FTMK Lecturer's Appointment System project success. The
first is formal, impersonal approaches. This includes project milestone and related
documentation. The second are formal, interpersonal procedures. This involves
quality assurance activities, meetings, and planning, analysis and design phase. There
are activities and duration for PSM 1 milestones.

Table 2.3: Schedule and Milestones

Responsibility

Activities

- Submit the proposal

Student

form to be approval by

Supervisor

the supervisor and

mPSM 1

Start

End

Date

Date

Week 1

Week 1

- Project proposal
form.

- List of
Supervisor-Student

committee

agreed by the PSM 1

Revenue

committee.

- Start to define project


background, scope,

Student
n

Week 1

Week 3

Report of an
introduction,

Supervisor

objective, problem

literature review

statement and etc at

and methodology

chapter I, literature

project.

review and project


methodology at
chapter 11.

- Language supervisor

Supervisor

given and submit

Language

chapter I & 2.

Supervisor

- Discussion Chapter I &


11with Language

Student

Week 3

Week 3

- List of Language
Supervisor-Student

Week 3

Week 4

-Evaluate the level

Language

of student

Supervisor

language

Supervisor

(English).

Responsibility

Activities

- Define the

Student

Start

End

Date

Date

Week 3

Week 4

Revenue

- Analysis Report

requirement analysis

Supervisor

-Progress Analysis

and completing the

Language

Report.

analysis report

Supervisor

-Evaluate the level

(Chapter ID) and

of student language

monitor the project

(English).

status.

- Language Workshop

Student

and submit Chapter 111

Language

to Language

Supervisor

Week 4

Week 4

Week 5

Week 5 Primary design

Supervisor.

- Primary design and

Student

completing the report

Supervisor

(Chapter IV) and

Language

review the project

Supervisor

progress.

I
I

Semester Break

- Discussion Chapter 111


with Language

Student
18

Language

Supervisor

Supervisor

- Review the project's

Supervisor

performance and

I report and progress

analysis report.

Week 6

Week 6

Week 7

Week 7

I
Week 7

Week 7

Student status was

1 defined.

progress.
Week 9 Design report

and review the project


progress.

- Submit the chapter IV

Student

to Language

Language

Supervisor.

Supervisor

1
Week 9

I
Week 9

Activities

Respmsibility

Revenue

Start
Date

. Discussion Chapter I11

with Language

Week 10 Week

Student
Language

Supervisor

Supervisor

Completing the

Student

mplementation phase

Supervisor

I
1

Week 10 Week

- Implementation
Report
-Progress Report

Chapter 5) and review


he project progress Part I
-

70% (Prototype).
Project Progress

Supervisor

1 Week 1 2

Student status was


defined.

- Completing and submit

Student

3 complete copy

the draft PSM I report

PSM

(draft-

Supervisor,
Assessor

&

Language
Supervisor)

- Distribute the
presentation schedule

HPSM1

Presentation

committee

Schedule

- Presentation of PSMl

Student

project.

- Mark submission of
Language Supervisor
to supervisor

- Total mark submission


to PSM I committee.

Supervisor

Language
Supervisor

I Week 15 / Week

PSM I Report and


Evaluation.

1 Week 15

Week

Language
Evaluation Report

I
Supervisor

report of PSM I.

2.6

Conclusion
As the conclusion, literature review phase plays an important role before the

FTMK Lecturer's Appointment System (FLAS) starts to develop. The purpose of


research not merely to collect data and information but it is important to make our
system that will be developed have improvement from existing system. Thus, this
matter supports the idea to develop FLAS to change the existing manual way to
online system.
Besides that, this chapter also describe about searching and analyze the
methodology that are use to develop the system. In the next chapter it will discuss
about analysis of the system.

CHAPTER 111

ANALYSIS

Introduction

3.1

Analysis phase defines the requirements of the system, depends on how these
requirements will be accomplished. It contains problem analysis and requirement
analysis. This phase will determine the details of project requirement and how these
requirements will be accomplished. Problem analysis consist investigating and
description about existing system. For the requirement analysis, programmer must
list down and analyze the requirement to develop the project and the flow of the
system.
Developer should make the research about the analysis before starting to
develop the proposed system. Through the analysis, developer will identify the user
requirements after gather the information on their research. Consequently, the
problems that occur in the existing system will be solved according their capability.
The advantages that can achieve after analysis is developer can identify the
organization needs and also will define all weaknesses in existing system. The
developer can improve the weaknesses for a new system to make the new system
will accomplish user requirements.

Problem Analysis

3.2

After doing observation and studying the existing manual system, developer
will face the problem that need to identify and solve it. The problem analysis part
will provide the excellent understanding about the project. This part includes the
system improvement that can be use in new system. Below is the problem that have
been identified in the manual system :

i)

Apply appointment with lecturers manually


The process to apply or booking appointment with lecturers is still
manually. Students need to meet lecturer and request to get permission in
order to have an appointment with hidher. If helshe not available in their
room, the student must leave the note to the lecturer or come again to
meet the lecturer. It is difficult because the students require spending a
lots of time and have to come at lecturer's room for many times Thus, an
expert system is needed to reduce waiting time for the lecturers. Students
may know the status of the lecturer before going to meet them.

ii)

Students or staffs have difficulties to meet lecturers


There are many situations that students did not find lecturers in their
room even that lecturer was in consultation hour. Sometimes the lecturers
did not write a notice or announce if they have meeting or other important
things. Students also don't know lecturer's timetable and contact's
number.

iii)

Students have waste their time to wait the lecturer


UTeM students are busy with the classes or other important things.
Sometimes they can't wait too long for the lecturer and this make they
waste their time. Thus, an expert system is needed to reduce waiting time
for the lecturers. Students can know the status of the lecturer before going
to meet them.
.-