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COMPRESSOR

LUBE OIL SYSTEM


1. What is the type of oil being used for lubrication ?
2. What is the function of lube oil in compressor turbine system ?
3. What are the parts of machine to witch lube oil is supplied ? What is the difference
between journal bearing and thrust bearing ? What are the recommended oil pressure to
different bearing ? How can the oil pressure be varied ?
4. Why is the material for L.O. header to bearing housing of S.S. while that of governor
header of C.S. ?
5. Why are the L.O. Cooler provided ? What is the l.o. temp . recommended after the cooler
?
6. What type of filter are used for l. o . system ? Are the l. o . filter reusable ? When does
we decide to change the l. o . filter ? What are the instrument incorporated with l. o .
filter ?
7. Why are the overhead tank provided ? Why the turbine bearings are lubricated longer
than the compressor in case of failure of l. o . system ?
8. For what purpose , an oil clarifier is provided ?
9. Draw a net sketch of an over head tank along with the incoming and outgoing lines
to / from l. o . header to tank ?
10. What are the precaution taken against l. o . failure in compressor and turbine ?
11. What are the properties of oil to be analyzed for monitoring its quality ? What are its
danger values ?
12. What are the types of pump used for l. o . system ? Why do we normally use positive
displacement pump as main l. o . pump ?
13. What is the advantage of using a combination of turbine driven and electric driven
pumps for l. o . system ?
14. What are the major mechanical safety device incorporated in l. o . system ?
15. What are the turbine/compressor trips associated with l. o . system ?
16. When do we use an electric heater ? Why ?
17. What is the capacity of l. o . console and l. o . overhead tank ? Describe the
constructional features of a l. o . consol ?
18. Write down the steps involved in changeover of a l. o . cooler or l. o . filter from one to
another ?
19. What is an emergency oil pump ? When it is used ?
20. What is l. o . accumulator ? What is its working principle ?
21. What are the specification of P-24/P-25/TP-24 ? Which of the pump is connected with
emergency power / Why ?
22. How do we prepare the l. o . system for start up ?
23. What activities to be perform in l. o . system after shut down ?
24. Mention the steps involved in changeover of l. o . pump and from turbine driven to
electric driven and visa versa ?What difficulty do we observe during changeover ? What
precaution do you take to overcome those difficulties ?
25. Suggest seven most important checks of the l/o/system which you would like to touch
upon during every plant round ?

26. What are the major changes incorporated with l. o . system after the commissioning ?
GOVERNING OLI SYSTEM
1. What are the function of trip oil, secondary oil, and pressure oil ?
2. What is trip solenoid valve /
3. What are the different components of governing system ?
4. What are the testing devices incorporated with governing system ?
5. What are the trip logics in the governing system ? Also mention the trip values ?
6. What are the mechanical protection in the governing system /
7. What are the major problems being faced in the governing system ?
8. Explain the governing system functional diagram?
9. What is the basic operating principal used to measure (a) axial displacement (b)
vibration (c)speed of the turbine compressor system ?
10. What is the mil and micron ? Write its relationship with (a) millimeters (B) each other ?
11. What is T.T.D. ? Why is provided ?
STEAM AND CONDENSATE SYSTEM
1. What are the design steam inlet/ extraction / exhaust condition of the turbine ?
2. Explain the prime reasons for warming up of steam headers and subsequent slow run of
turbine ?At what rate the steam headers are heated?
3. Draw the start up curve for turbine start up after (a) 4 hrs (b) 8 hrs (c) cold start up .
4. What is QCNRV ? How does it function ? What is the arrangement to make it free to
swing during the start up ?
5. Why is the exhaust steam subjected to vacuum ? What is the exhaust pressure ? What is
the effect of higher pressure ( poor vacuum) in the performance of the turbine ?
6. Draw a neat sketch of turbine vacuum system ?
7. What is the cooling media in E-37 A/B ? What is the material of construction of E-37 ?
What are the problem faced with E-37 ? What corrective action was taken ?
8. Why is the sealing steam require in the turbine ? What are the sources of seal steam ?
What is the pressure maintained ?
9. Why is the gland sealing of valves provided in the turbine vacuum system ?
10. Where do we use the steam traps in turbine vacuum system ?
11. What are the trips connected with turbine steam and condensate system ?
12. How do we prepare the steam and condensate system during turbine start up ?
13. Why is the U-loop provided in the primary or inter stage condenser line going to E-28 ?
14. Write down the specification of P-27 and TP-27 ?
15. There are two sets of cooling water inlet and outlet connection for surface condensers of
turbine Why ?
16. What is hot well temp. and its effect on turbine performance ?
17. Mention the operating inlet extraction, and exhaust steam flow for any one of the
streams ?
18. How many stages are there for impulse and reaction stages of the turbine ?
PROCESS GAS SYSTEM
1. What is the design composition and actual composition of CO2 at battery limit ?

2. Why is it necessary to add air in CO2 ? Why is oxygen analyzed at 3 rd stage of


compressor ?
3. What is hydrogen removal reactor ? What are the specified hydrogen concentrations at
inlet and outlet of R-2 ? What quality of air will be required at R -2 inlet to get O2 conc.
Of 0.35% at R-2 outlet ? What type of catalyst has been need ?
4. At what stage is air introduced in CO2 compressor and why ? Why is air blower not run
during pressurization process of CO2 compressor ?
5. Write all inter stage pressure and temperature of CO2 compressor ( Design v/s operating).
6. What are the interconnecting piping material at suction , discharge of each stage and why
?
7. Why is necessary to have temperature controller for 4 th stage suction gas ? What is the
critical temp. and pressure of CO2 ?
8. What are the sealing system in CO2 compressor ?
9. Explain the seal gas recovery scheme ?
10. What is the minimum flow at which the anti-surge valve HV-62 actuates ?
11. What are the compressor trips for gas system ?What are its trip value ?
12. With Sp. Conc . of CO2 as 0.735 and passivation oxygen at 0.35 % what will be FR-1
reading for 1100 MTD plant ? Support your answer on the basis of calculation ?
13. What is the speed of MCL and BCL at normal design load ?
14. What is critical speed ? What is the range of 1st critical speed for CO2 compressor and
turbine system ?
15. What is the provision to avoid surging of MCL and BCL at calculation.
16. Why is NRV provided in 3rd stage suction of CO2 compressor ?
17. Why is HV-61 provided ?
18. Give the salient features of inter stage separators ? What is the effect of poor condensate
separation on compressor performance ?
19. Why is the bearing housing vents of BCL-305 and BCL-205 connected to seal gas
system?
20. Why is the suction pressure of CO2 , low as compared to the design value ?What is the
disadvantage of operating CO2 compressor at low suction pressure ?
21. What modification have been incurred in the anti surge system of CO comp.?
22. What is the type of blower used for passivation air ? What is the quantity of air required
for 100% plant load so as to maintain 0.35 % O2 in CO2 ?
23. What are safety provisions on cooling water side of CO2 inter stage cooler against
possible pressurization of shell side by excess gas leak or otherwise ?
24. What is I-1 trip in turbine compressor system ?
COMPRESSOR GENERAL
1. Why is the centrifugal compressor widely used in process industries ?
2. What is difference between compressor and blower ?
3. The specified limit of silica in DM water is a function of boiler pressure. Is it true ?
4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of centrifugal comp. over reciprocating
comp. ?
5. What are the classification of turbine with respect to exhaust condition and mention the
criteria for choosing the above turbine ?

6. What is the difference between impulse stage and reaction stage and what are the
advantages and disadvantages of impulse and reaction stage ?
7. What are adiabatic and isothermal compressor ? Why the inter stage coolers are provided
in multistage compressor ?
8. What is the effect of temp., pres., and molecular weight of gas on compressor
performance ?
9. What is the compression ratio and what is the what is the optimum value of inter stage
compression ?
10. Why is super heated steam is normally used in turbines ?
11. What are the types of casing and up to what pressure are they used ?
12. What types of insulation are used in turbine and compressor system ?
13. What are the parts of turbine and mention the functions of above parts ?
14. What are the parts of comp. and why are they used ? What is surge in a compressor ?
15. What are the difference type of seals used in the compressor ?
HIGH PRESSURE PUMP SECTION
1. What is the minimum and maximum capacity of P-1 & P-2 & the corresponding speed in
RPM ? Write the speed Vs capacity relationship for P-1 & P-2 ?
2. What is the anticipated RPM & capacity of P-1/P-2 pumps at 100% plant load ? What can
be the possible reasons of high RPM of P-1 than the anticipated ?
3. What are the distinguishing features of P-1 & P-2 ?
4. Why is seal oil used in P-1 ? What are the problems associated with the use of seal oil ?
What corrective action has been taken so far to reduce the associated problem ? What is
the latest proposal in consideration ?
5. What is MV-10 & MV-11 ? How is oil/NH3 separated in these two vassals ? What is the
sat value for MV-10 PSV ? Where is the recover NH3 sent from NH3 ?
6. What is the torque converter ? How does it work ?
7. What is the function of dampener ?
8. Write the specification of P-1 & P-2 ?
9. What is the function of 3-way valve in P-1 Dis. PSV d/s line ?
10. What are the set value of PSVs of P-1 & P-2 ?
11. What s the recurring problem associated with P- dis. PSV ?
12. What are the symptoms indicating that P-1 dis. PSV is passing ?
13. What is the type of seal oil pump ? At what oil pressure , S.O. pumps are being set to
operate ?
14. Narrate the steps for hand over pumps for
15. Mech maintenance Job for internal replacement
16. For welding job inside the manifold.
17. Narrate the steps for hand over P-2 pumps for mech. m/ ce . Job for internal replacement.
18. Write down I-2 / I-3 / I-4 trips ?
19. What do you understand by (a) simultaneous trip of P-1 pumps (b) Over load protection
in P-1 / P-2 ?
20. What are the precautions to be taken for changing the speed control from local to C/R &
vice-versa ?

21. What is the purpose of H.P. and L.P. Flushing fluids in P-2 Pumps ? What is the source of
the flushing fluids ? Where are they routed from P-2 packing ?
22. What is the modification incorporated to reduce the associated problems of L.P. Packing
flushing fluid ?
23. What is the material of construction of P-1 P-2 ?
SYNTHESIS SECTION
1. Mention important specification of R-1,E-1,E-5 ?
2. What are the reaction involved in urea manufacture from liquid ammonia and CO2 gas
show the nature of the reaction ?
3. List out the factor that effect the conversion process.
4. Why are the trays provided in reactor ?
5. Why are the out let of reactor is taken out from the middle of the reactor near stripper ?
6. What is the use of HV-5 ? Why is the stripper operated at lower pressure and higher than
reactor ?
7. What are the advantages of excess ammonia in reactor ?
8. Why is HV-2 provided ?
9. Why is the stripper gas line taken to the level of carbamate separator ?
10. What is the function of O2 in H.P, Loop ? Why is the gas outlet from MV-1 taken to
M.P. Loop ?
11. Write the composition of the materials used in synthesis loop ?
12. Why is 316 LM not used as stripper tubes as being used in stemi - carbon process
13. How is the liner leakage in synthesis loop vessels be detected ?
14. What care should be taken during H.P. Loop draining after hydro testing ?
15. Given the composition of R-1 outlet, How can the reactor conversion , NH3 : CO2 mole
ratio be calculated ?
16. Given the composition of E-1 solution outlet, How can the stripper efficiency be
calculated ?
17. What are the symptoms indicating excess ammonia in the synthesis loop ?
18. What are the symptoms indicating excess CO2 in syn. loop ?
19. What is the stripping agent in stripper ? How is the stripping done ? What is the law
which explain the stripping action ?
20. The synthesis of urea from ammonia and CO2 fever at high pressure Explain the
principal which helps in deriving the statement ?
21.
What is ferrule in the stripper ? What are the problems being faced in the stripper ?
What corrective action have been taken so far ?
22.
Why have we replaced the stripper solution outlet spool pieces up stream of LV-2 ?
23. Why is the D.P. cell flushing pump provided ?
24. What is the alternative arrangement to know the level in stripper ? How is the level
measured in case of the alternative arrangement ?
25. What is EJ-1 ? Can it be functionally compared with the pump ? What is the material of
construction of EJ-1 needle and nozzle ?
26. Why is the urea reactor sometime call an autoclave ?
27. Draw the H.P. Loop heating and ammoniation curve with time Vs temperature as the
axis .

28. Why is the cabamate condenser required to be diluted after every 4 hrs during bottling ?
29. Why is the sacrificial sleeve provided at stripper inlet nozzle ?
30. Why is the carbamate outlet line from E-5 extended to very low level ?
31. What problem is faced with the existing carbamate condensers ? What corrective action
can be envisaged ?
32. How many weep holes are there in each of the H.P. Loop equipments ?
33. How can we know intensity of corrosion in H.P. Loop equipments during normal plant
running condition ?
34. Why is the level hold up volume in case of stripper quite large as compare to any other
equipments of the plants ?
35. What are the latest modification being incorporated in newly design stripper to reduced ,
if not to eliminate, the existing problems in the stripper ?
36. What problem do we faced with pressure transmitters PT-7 ?
37. How is LT-1 on MV-1 differ from the LTs of the other equipments ? Where is P/I
converter used ?
38. What is I-2 trip ?
39. What can be done to improve the reactor conversion in existing condition ?
40. Narrate the stapes for handing over R-1 and E-1 for vessel entry ?
41. Safety valve on reactor is not provided, Why ?
42. What are the stochiometric requirements of liquid ammonia and gaseous CO2 per tone of
urea ? How much excess is the design requirement of NH3 and CO2 as compare to
stochiometric requirement ?
43. Mention the loss areas in to justify the higher sp. Conc. Of raw materials (design) as
compare to stochiometric requirement ?
44. How much excess NH3 ( in vol. % ) is fed to the reactor as compare to the theoretical
requirement ?
MEDIUM & LOW PRESSURE DECOMPESITION
1. Why is nitrogen purging required prior to NH3 charging ?
2. What problem do we face with V-1 ? Why is the future course of planning to resolve
the problem ?
3. Why do we add ammonical solution in V-1 ?
4. What is the use of M.P. Decomposition as such stage is not encountered in other
stripping process like stamicarbon ? Why 18 ata. has been chosen for M.P.
Decomposition ?
5. Why are the packing provided in MV-2 ?
6. What type of level probe is used in ME-2 ? What modification has been incorporated
in the level control system of ME-2 ?
7. What is the CO2 break through ?Under what condition does it occur ? What is the
permissible CO2 sleep from C-1 outlet ?
8. What course of action can be suggest in the event of CO2 break through ?
9. Draw a neat sketch of M.P. Decomposer and give its specification ?
10. Why is M.P. section vent diluted with L.P. Steam ? What is the M.P. Section vent
composition in case of normal plant condition ?

11. Draw a tempered water circuit for E-7 ?


12. What is the purpose of reflux in C-1 ? What are the trays temperatures in normal
conditions ?
13. What is the type of trays used in C-1 ? What types of packing are recommended for
C-1 trays to avoid short circuiting of the liquid from the trays ?
14. What is ME-2/ME-3 solution out let composition ? (write actual Vs design )
15. What happen if the C.W. inlet to E-7 is maintain 35 degree Celsius ?
16. Why is P-3 E-8- V-3 circulation valve kept slight open ?
17. What is the effect of erratic behavior of LT for C-1 ?
18. Why is LIC-102 preferred to operate on manual in case of level disturbing in C-1 ?
19. Why is balancing line provided between MV-2 & C-1 ? Under what condition it is
used ?
20. Why is solution from M.P.Condenser E-7, pass through a distributor in M.P.absorber
C-1 ?
21. Under normal condition or otherwise , P-2 starts vapor locking ? What are the
possible reasons ? What are the remedial measures on panel or in the field ?
22. What precaution do you suggest for handing over V-1 for vessel entry ?
23. Why is the earthling of the vessels required ?
24. Why is PV-108 provided with aluminum jump over ?
25. Why is M.P. Section vent diverted to ME-15 ? what is the special features in ME-15
that differentiate it from ME-14 ?
26. What is the function of C-3/E-11 ?
27. What was the probable cause for frequent failure of P-7 MECH.Seals during first two
years of operation after commissioning ? What changes have been made there after to
increase the seal life ?
28. Why M.P. Decomposer bottom temp. is control to 156-158 degree c. What is the
boiling point of water at 18 ata ?
29. What precaution can be taken to avoid P-5 vapor locking during plant start up ?
30. What is the purpose of ethylene glycol in mech. Seal system of P-5 & P-7 ? What is
the special property of ethylene glycol due to which it is used in mech .seal of P-5/P-7
?
31. What is the capacity of V-1 / V-3 /How do we do with the contents of V-1/V-3 in case
the vessel get fill up to 100 % ( without causing pollution problem )?
32. What are the provision to reduced NH3 loses from L.P.Section vent ?
33. Given the C-3 gas outlet NH3 composition , B.L.CO2 composition and passivation
air flow , How will you calculated NH3 Loss in Kg/hr from C-3 vents ?
EVAPORATION AND PRILLING SECTION
1. Why is it necessary to concentrate urea solution under vacuum ?
2. What are the two different pressure levels at which 1st and 2nd evaporators are
operated ? Why ?
3. What is the concentration of urea solution at outlet of 1st and 2nd vacuum system ?
4. Why is an ejector on 1st vacuum system ( similar to EJ-2 on 2 nd vacuum system ) at
MV-6 gas outlet not used ?

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In spite of higher level of conc. Being achieved in 1 st vacuum system why is the
steam requirement as ejector motive fluid less in case of MV-6 as compared to that of
MV-7 ?
What is the vapor load on 1st vacuum system and that on 2nd vacuum system ?
What is the advantages of keeping MV-6 at higher elevation than MV-7 ?
What is the minimum pressure difference between MV-6 7 MV-7 maintained during
circulation of solution ?
Draw a sketch of vacuum and explain control of vacuum through PIC-140 & PIC 141
?
How does an ejector function ?
At what stage vacuum in system pulled ? What are the parameter being watch ?
What do you understand by tor flushing and EJ-2 or nozzle flushing ?
What is the function of booster ejector ? Why it is required ?
What is a barometric leg ? Why the vacuum condensers are located at much higher
elevation then V-9 ?
What are the probable reasons for vacuum not getting established in the system ?
Write the biuret formation reaction ? What are the conditions that favor biuret
formation ?
What is the effect of higher biuret conc. In urea prills during its agriculture use ?
What all is done during design stage to avoid biuret formation in urea plant ?
What safety measure is taken to avoid line choking from P-8 to prills bucket ?
What do you understand by polymer formation in vacuum system ? What
modification are carried to avoid polymer formation or to combat polymer
formation ?
What are the parameters being analyzed in product quality ? Write down its values
( design Vs average )
What are the physical properties of urea prills which bear significance in material
handling /
What is the height and diameter of prilling tower ? What is free fall height ?
What is the approximate design air flow to prilling tower ?
What do we understand by natural draft ?
What do we understand by (a) urea granulation and (b) urea seeding system ?
What is the meaning of anti caking agent ? Where do they find use in urea plant ?
What are the different anti caking used in market ?
Explain in brief and sequence the performance of various prills buckets tried in urea
plants?
What is relative humidity and critical humidity ? How does the relative humidity
effect the quality of urea product ?
What are the operating parameters of vacuum prilling section ( actual Vs design )
Narrates the probable reasons for the reduction of product rate on MT-3 belt at
constant load ?
Explain in sequence the steps to be taken during P-8 vapor locking in normal plant
running condition ?

33. In what sequence the ejectors are lined up during start up and cut off during shut
down /
34. Explain the brief the field actives associated with (a) Steam failure (b) Power failure
35. What is the dedusting system ? Draw a neat sketch to explain same /
36. What are the design inlet / outlet concentrations for dedusting system ?
37. What is the rated KW for MP-20 ? What is the conc. of dedusting system ?
38. What is the recommended urea solution conc. in a dedusting well during the
operation of dedusting system ?
39. What is the sources of make up water in the dedusting well ? What is the
recommended make up rate during the operation of dedusting system ?
40. What are the probable reasons for prilling diversion ?
41. What are the probable reasons for overflowing of prills bucket ?
42. What are the parts of belt conveyor ? What is zero speed in belt conveyor system ?
43. What are the problems associated with the scrappers in the plants ?
44. What are the problems connected with urea dissolving system ?
WASTE WATER SECTION
1. What is the composition of untreated waste water ?
2. What is the designed and actual effluent quality specifications with (a) only MP
Hydrolyser (b) with MP and HP hydrolyser .
3. What are the no. of trays in C2 ? Why is C2 divided in two section ?
4. At which trays, C2 feed can be entered in to ? What criteria will help in selecting the feed
tray ?
5. What are the condition fevering the hydrolysis reaction ?
6. What are the additional equipments added under deep hydrolyser scheme ?
7. Why is the waste water section at higher loads that anticipated ?
8. What are the exchangers having two passes in shell side ?
9. What problems do we face with E-19 A/B ?
10. What corrective action have been taken reduce problem in E-19 A/B ?
11. Why do we add air in C2 ?
12. What is the function of reflux in C2 ?
13. What is the type of trays used in C2 ? What problems do we face with C2 trays ?
14. What are the conc. Of acid and alkali (a) in storage (b) during regeneration ?
15. What is the acid / alkali requirement for regeneration ?
16. Explain the regeneration sequence of mix bed units ?
17. Write down the caution and anion exchange reactions ?
18. What are the safety precautions to be taken in handling acid and alkali solution ?
19. What are the end specifications of condensate treated in CPU ?
20. What are the various analyzers installed in CPU ?
21. What is the unit of conductivity ? How is it useful in monitoring condensate quality ?
22. What is the harmful effect of silica in boilers and turbines ?
23. What is the total condensate export rate to (a) offside plant (b) power plant ?
24. What types of exchangers is used for process condensate heat recovery ? What is its
advantage ?
25. Why do we cool process condensate prior to its treatment in CPU ?

26. Can we (a) isolate ACF , keeping rest of the section in line (b) isolate M.B., keeping rest
of the section in line (c) isolate CPU , keeping condensate export in line .
MISCELLENEOUS :
1. What are the different safety appliances available in plant for personal protection ?
2. What are the different types of fire extinguishers used in urea plant ? Which fire
extinguishers do you recommended for (a) oil fire in comp. area (b) electric fire in
control room or el.sub station
3. What do you understand by explosive limit of a gas ? What are the values for NH3,
H2 ?
4. What are the different work permits used in plants ?
5. Why is the control air pressurization system employed ?
6. What is wind sock ?
7. What are the different electrical voltage levels used in urea plants ?
8. Which motors are provided with 3-3 KV supply ?
9. What do you understand by UPS system? Where does it supply power ?
10. List the equipment connected with emergency power supply ? What is the sources of
emergency power supply ?
11. What is the over load protection in case of a motor ?
12. What is designed specific power requirement for (a) C.W. Supply system (b)
Dedusting system (c) Rest of the urea plant
13. Write down the flushing water points in the plants for KW, and LW ? Which of the
headers can be isolated in normal plant running without effecting the plant
performance ?
14. Write the designed steam balances for each level of steam ?
15. What is percentage and PPM ? Write the relationship between the two ?
16. What is absolute pressure and gauge pressure ? Write the relationship between the
two ?
COOLING WATER SYSTEM
1. What is the C.W. flow requirement ? (design) for the urea plant ?
2. What is (a) TDS (b) suspended solids ?
3. What is cycle of conce . in C.W. system ?
4. What is range and approach ?
5. What is entrainment or wind age loss and evaporation loss ?
6. Why is the blow down required in CW system ? What is the normal blow down rate ?
What do we do with blow down water ?
7. Why are the side stream filters required ?
8. What is the concept of cathodic protection ?
9. What are the CW chemicals and its dosages level ?
10. Why is CL added in CW ?