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STAGE 2 CHEMISTRY

Analytical Techniques

ASSIGNMENT 2.1

NAME:

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VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS
1. A soft drink manufacturer adds small quantities of sulphur dioxide as a preservative to some of
its drink products. A 1.00 litre sample of such a drink was acidified and titrated with 0.020
mol.L-1 potassium permanganate solution. The end-point was reached when 22.0 mL of
permanganate had been added. The equation for the titration reaction is:
2MnO4-

5SO2

2H2O

2Mn2+

5SO42-

4H+

(a) Calculate the mass (in mg) of sulphur dioxide present in the 1.00 litre sample of drink.

(6)
(b) Convert this concentration to a value in ppm and ppb.

(2)
2. (a) 50.0 mL of an aqueous solution with contained iron (II) sulphate at 0.040 mol.L-1 were
acidified and then titrated with 0.050 mol.L-1 potassium permanganate solution. After the
addition of 8.0 mL of potassium permanganate solution the reaction was complete. The equation
for the titration reaction is:
5Fe2+

MnO4- +

8H+

Mn2+ +

4H2O

(i) What experimental observation indicated that the reaction was complete?
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(1)

(ii) Name an acid which would have been used to acidify the iron (II) sulphate solution.
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(1)

(iii) Explain why an increase in the amount of acid would not have affected the titre value.
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(1)

(iv) By calculating the proportion of moles of iron (II) ions and permanganate ions which react
with each other, show that the reacting mole ratio is in accordance with the given equation.
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(3)

(c) Calculate the mass of potassium permanganate needed to make up 500 mL of a solution of
concentration 0.050 mol.L-1.
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(3)

3. Many transition metals occur naturally as sulphides. The following procedure was used to
determine the sulphur content of a particular metallic sulphide.
0.800g of metallic sulphide was heated in a stream of oxygen until reaction was complete and
the sulphur dioxide produced, after cooling, was absorbed in excess aqueous hydrogen peroxide
to form sulphuric acid. 25.0 mL of 0.2000 mol.L-1 sodium hydroxide solution was required for
complete neutralisation of the sulphuric acid.
(a) Write the equation for the reaction between sulphur dioxide and hydrogen peroxide.
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(2)

(b) Calculate, showing all working:


(i) the number of moles of sulphuric acid formed from the sulphur dioxide.

(4)
(ii) the mass (in g) of sulphur in this sulphuric acid.

(3)
(iii) the percentage (by mass) of sulphur in the metallic sulphide.
(2)
4. When an acidified solution of potassium permanganate takes part in a redox reaction the
following half-equation occurs:
MnO4-

8H+

Mn2+ +

4H2O

(a) Does the permanganate ion act as an oxidising agent or a reducing agent? Give a reason for
your answer.
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(2)

(b) In redox reactions ions of some metals can be converted to forms of that metal with a
higher oxidation state or a lower oxidation state. Iron (II) ions, for example, may be
converted to either iron (III) ions or to iron metal. In an experiment involving M++ ions of
another metal, students were told to pipette 20.0 mL of a 0.100 molL-1 solution of M++ ions
into a conical flask; this solution was then acidified. In the titration exercise that followed
all but one student found that it was necessary to run 20.0 mL of 0.0400 mol.L-1 potassium
permanganate solution from a burette into the acidified solution of M++ ions to reach the
end-point of the reaction.

(i) Calculate the number of moles of M++ ions that would have reacted with one mole of
permanganate ions and hence, by considering each of the following reactions, deduce which of
them correctly represents the reaction of the M++ ions:
Or
Or

M++
M++
M++

eM+++
M4+

+
+

M+
e2e-

(I)
(II)
(III)

(6)
(ii) One student in the class obtained a titre value of only 19.1 mL of potassium permanganate
solution. The incorrect result can be explained by the use of water in the final rinsing of which
of the following?
the burette

the pipette

the conical flask

Give reasons for your answer


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(3)

5. Fluorine compounds are commonly added to our drinking water to give a fluoride concentration
of about 1 ppm.
(a) Convert this concentration to a value in moles per litre of fluoride.
(2)
(b) Calculate the number of fluoride ions you are likely to drink if you have a 250 mL glass of
fluoridated water. (Answer to 2 significant figures. Avogadro Constant: 6.02 x 1023)
(2)

6. You have been provided with the following solutions:


100 mL of standard 1.00 mol.L-1 hydrochloric acid.
100 mL of approximately 0.1 mol.L-1 sodium hydroxide solution.
Ample supplies of distilled water are available.
You may assume that the apparatus and reagents usually found in a laboratory are available and
that the apparatus is clean and accurately calibrated where appropriate.
(a) Describe briefly how you would prepare 250 mL of standard 0.100 mol.L-1 hydrochloric
acid. Be sure to specify the apparatus and solutions you would use and any important practical
details.
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(4)

(b) Describe briefly how you would accurately determine the concentration of the
approximately 0.1 mol.L-1 sodium hydroxide solution in the laboratory. Be sure to specify the
apparatus and solutions you would use and to note essential experimental details and
observations that you think are important.
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(4)

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