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11/22/2014

(c) DR.A.M.SURENDRA KUMAR

PSYCHROMETRY
The name Psychrometry is given to the study
of the properties of air-water vapour mixtures.
Atmospheric air is considered to be a mixture of
dry air and water vapour.

TEMPERATURES
Dry Bulb Temperature : DBT( tdb) the actual temperature of gas or
mixture of gases indicated by an error-free temperature measuring
device.
Wet bulb temperature : WBT(twb) It is the temperature obtained by
an accurate thermometer having a wick moistened with distilled

water .
Dew point temperature: DPT(tdp) It is the temperature at which the
liquid droplets just appear when the moist air is cooled continuously.
The equipment used for measuring the dry bulb temperature and
wet bulb temperature simultaneously is known as Psychrometer.

WET BULB THERMOMETER

PSYCHROMETER

PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

Absolute humidity :
Humidity ratio (Relative humidity)
Degree of saturation :

MIXING PROCESS

[a]Adiabatic Mixing of Air streams

[b]

Mixing Process on
Psychrometric chart

Simplifying the expression :

m a1t1 m a2 t 2
t3
ma 3

BASIC PROCESSES IN CONDITIONING OF AIR


1. Sensible heating Process OA

2. Sensible cooling Process OB


3. Humidifying Process - Process OC
4. Dehumidifying Process- Process OD
5. Heating and Humidifying Process OE
6. Cooling and Dehumidifying Process OF
7. Cooling and Humidifying Process OG
8. Heating and Dehumidifying Process OH

SENSIBLE HEAT PROCESS


HEATING OR COOLING
Heating or cooling of air without addition or subtraction of
moisture is termed as SENSIBLE HEATING OR COOLING .

Heating can be achieved by passing the air over heating coil like

electric resistance heating coils or steam coils.

Sensible cooling can be achieved

by passing the air over

cooling coli like evaporating coil of the refrigerant cycle or


secondary brine coil.

HEATING COILS
Sensible heating : Air flows over a heating coil
Surface temperature ts higher than tdb of air
Heating medium flowing through the coil steam, hot gases from furnace
Methods employed for winter heating of air:
1. Hot water or steam coils
2. direct-fired furnace gases coils
3. finned eclectic strip heaters

SENSIBLE HEAT PROCESS HEATING OR COOLING

SENSIBLE HEAT PROCESS HEATING OR COOLING


This heat denoted by S is called Sensible heat.
If a building to be air conditioned receives or losses heat due to
transmission or other reasons, it is supposed to have sensible heat load

For the purpose of calculations, std air is taken at 200C


and 50% RH.
The density of std air is 1.2 kg/m3.
The value of Cp is taken as 1.0216kJ/kgK

LATENT HEAT PROCESS- HUMIDIFICATION/DEHUMIDIFICATION


When the state of air is altered along t= constant moisture in the form of
vapour has to be transferred to change in humidity ratio of air

Latent heat transfer

If a building gains or lose moisture, it is supposed to have Latent


heat.
A gain of moisture will require the condensation of moisture
(Dehumidification ) Hence cooling load

Loss of moisture require evaporation of water (Humidification)


Hence Heating load

Where hfg0 =2501, we obtain

(cmm)(1.2)(2501)
QL
w
60
50(cmm)w kW

SENSIBLE HEAT FACTOR [SHF]


The ratio of the sensible heat transfer to the total heat transfer is sensible
heat factor

Pont B divides hC-hA - SHF: 1-SHF


Sensible heat - along AB
Latent heat along BC
The process line AC is called Sensible Heat factor line or Process or
condition line

Sensible factor unity- No latent heat transfer- SHF line is


horizontal in psychrometric chart
Zero SHF line vertical on psychrometric chart No Sensible heat
SHF = 0.75 to 0.8 common in Air conditioning practice at normal
dry climate.
A lower value of SHF such as 0.65 implies a high latent heat load
common in a humid climate

0.0204(tc t ADP )
SHF
0.0204(tc t ADP ) 50( wc wADP )
Where tc, wc at the conditions at C
tADP is known as Apparatus dew point temperature
It is the temperature at point S where the SHF- line CA cuts the
saturation curve when extended.

PSYCHROMETRIC PROCESSES IN
AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT
Eight basic parametric processes together cannot be achieved
in practice in air conditioning equipment.
Different types of equipments are used for this purpose.
By pass factor is a vital parameter signifying the performance
of A/C equipment

1. COOLING & DEHUMIDIFICATION


Industrial applications: air conditioning, cold storages, paper
industry, photography.
Lowering the temperature & reducing the moisture content in air.
Process used in summer air conditioning : air passes over cooling
coil or through cold spray.

COOLING & DEHUMIDIFICATION


The removal of water vapour from the air is termed as dehumidification of

air. The dehumidification of air is only possible if the air is cooled below
the dew point temperature of the air..
It is necessary to maintain the coil surface temperature of air for effective

dehumidification.

COOLING & DEHUMIDIFICATION

Air may be cooled and dehumidified by


1. By placing the evaporator coil across the air flow
2. By circulating chilled water in a tube placed across the air flow
3. By spraying chilled water to air in the form of fine mist to expose a
large surface area.

[b] by circulating chilled water in


a tube across the air flow

[c] By spraying chilled water to air in


the form of fine mist

HEATING AND HUMIDIFICATION

In winter air conditioning , heating and humidification are very


common.
System consists of a coil for sensible heating of air from state 1 to 3
then along the wet bulb temperature line through state 2. then

humidification along wet bulb


added to reach state 2.

line until the required moisture is

HEATING AND HUMIDIFICATION

BYPASS FACTOR & CONTACT FACTOR


For large commercial systems, adopt simpler and economical
technique.
Part of air should be cooled to such a low temperature that the
desired mass of moisture is removed.
Air at state 1 is at much higher temperature than at state 2, it would
work as heating of the cooled air. Hence no extra energy for heating
and cooling is needed.
This type of cooling and dehumidification is accomplished using
By-pass as shown in fig.
A part of the inlet air is by passed without being cooled and rest air
is cooled over the coil.
X- By pass factor, 1-X amount of air cooled over the coil from state 1
to temp ts of the coil surface, is mixed with the rest air to get it at
state 2, a desired value.
This desired lowest temperature is called apparatus dew point ADP

BYPASS FACTOR & CONTACT FACTOR

COOLING & DEHUMIDIFYING COILS ADP OF COIL

AIR WASHER

Air washer flow of air through a spray of water.


During the course of flow, the air may be cooled or heated or

dehumidified, depending on the mean surface temperature of water.


Water

accordingly,

externally

cooled

or

heated

or

simply

recalculated by a pump.

Eliminator plates are provided to minimize the loss of water


Droplets of water act as wetted surface, both sensible and latent
heat transfer take place.

Different possible processes:


1. Process 1-2 A : Heating & Humidification[ ts > t1] ,
where ts is the mean surface temperature of water droplets. Mean
surface temperature (ts) greater than the dry bulb temperature. Here

water is externally heated.


2. Process 1-2 B : Humidification [ts =t1]
Enthalpy of air increases. Water is required to be externally heated.
3. Process 1-2 C: Cooling & Humidification[ t1 < ts < t1]
where is t1 wet temperature. Air is cooled, enthalpy increases as a

result of humidification. Water is required to be externally heated.


4. Process 1-2 D Adiabatic saturation [ t1 = ts ]
where is t1 wet temperature .Pumped circulation of water. Without
any external heating or cooling.

5. Process 1-2 E : Cooling & Humidification[ td < ts < t1 1]


Similar to 1-2C with difference that the enthalpy of air decreases.
Water is required to be externally cooled.

6. Process 1-2 F : Cooling [ts = td] where td is the dew point


temperature. . Water is required to be externally cooled.
7. Process 1-2 G: Cooling & Dehumidification[ts < td ] air is
simultaneously cooled and dehumidified.

Conclusions
1. If the spray water is cooled external to the washer,
the WBT of air decreases.
2. If the spray water is heated external to the washer,
the WBT of air increases.
3. If the spray water is neither heated nor cooled external
to washer, the WBT of air is not changed.

SIMPLE AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM

WINTER AIR CONDITIONING


The winter conditions are say 150C & 20% R.H.
Required comfort conditions are 240C & 60%.
In general,
Air conditioning apparatus for winter air conditioning for
comfort involves heating and humidifying.

In winter Building loss sensible heat partially


compensated by solar heat gains, internal heat gains from
occupancy, lighting etc.

Latent heat loss due low outside air humidity


compensated by latent heat gains from occupancy.

In winter heating load is less than cooling load in summer.


Actual situation depends swing of the outside
temperature and humidity w.r.to inside conditions.

SUMMER AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS


Example: Summer A/C system for Hot & Dry Outdoor
conditions:
Such

systems are used

places like Nagpur, Delhi,

Bhopal etc.
Required comfort conditions are 240C & 60%..
Atmospheric conditions in summer are 400C DBT
20%.

&

YEAR ROUND AIR CONDITIONING

SUMMER AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM WITH VENTILATION AIR


ZERO BY PASS FACTOR

0 - represents the outside state


i- Inside air state
1- is the state of air after the mixing of re4circulated room air with
ventilation air.
Mixture entering the conditioning apparatus comprises- recalculates air
mai + ma0
Total load on the Air conditioning apparatus = Q

BREAK UP OF THE LOAD

Room Load:

Ventilation Load :

Air Conditioning Equipment load:

Total Sensible TSH = RSH + OASH


Total latent
TLH = RLH + OALH
-----------------------------------------------------------Grant Total
GTH = TSH + TLH

Sensible
RSH
Latent
RLH
----------------------------------------------------Total
RTH = RSH + RLH

Sensible
OASH
Latent
OALH
-------------------------------------------------------Total
OATH = OASH + OALH

SUMMER AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM WITH VENTILATION AIR


BY PASS FACTOR