Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 2

# GROUP 2

## ACTIVITY #2: EQUILIBRIUM

OBJECTIVE
To determine the resultant and equilibrant of any number of forces
using the force table.

DISCUSSION
All measurable quantities may be classified either as scalar quantities
or as vector quantities. Scalar quantities are those that have only
magnitude. Vector quantities are those that have direction as well as
magnitude.
To add scalar quantities, one has to make the algebraic addition. When
adding two vector quantities, the process is more difficult because the
direction must be considered. The vector sum of two vector quantities
is the single vector quantity that would produce the same result as the
original pair.
When vectors do not have the same line of actin, their vector sum is
not their algebraic sum but a geometric sum. This geometric sum may
be determined by either graphical or analytical methods. Graphical
methods are simple and direct but are limited in precision to that
obtainable by drawing instruments. Analytical methods have no such
inherent limitations.
The vector sum, or resultant of a set of forces, is the single force that
will have the same effect, insofar as motion is concerned, as the joint
action of the several forces; the polygon method is used when there
are more than two.
Graphical methods for the solution of vector problems are frequently
not accurate enough for the purpose in hand. In such case analytical
methods are used. When only two vectors must be added, the
resultant is readily obtained by the use of the law of cosines and the
law of sine. If there are more than two vectors the component method
is easier.
The equilibrant of a set of forces is the single forces that must be
combined with the set of forces to maintain the system in equilibrium.
The equilibrant must be equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to
the resultant. If the equilibrant or the resultant has zero magnitude the
system is in equilibrium and the vector diagram is a closed polygon. A
body is I equilibrium, insofar as linear motion is concerned, if the
vector sum of all the forces acting on it is zero.

MATERIALS

GROUP 2
ACTIVITY #2: EQUILIBRIUM

## Force table, string, 3 pulleys and set of weights.

ILLUSTRATION
PROCEDURE
Mount the force table. Place a pulley on the 0 mark of the force table.
Tie a string to the ring at the center of the force table and pass the free
end of the string over the pulley, then hang a weight at this end. Mount
a second pulley on the force table and hang a weight at the free end of
the string which passes over the pulley. Get the included angle
between the two forces and determine the resultant using the cosine
law.
Mount the third pulley on the force table. Pass the string over this
pulley and hang a weight at the free end of the string. Adjust the
position of the third pulley by moving it left or right until the three
forces are at the equilibrium. They are at equilibrium if by moving the
pin at the center of the force table; the circular ring will stay in its
position.
Determine the angle that the third force makes with the two forces by
reading the position of the third pulley on the force table. This third
force is in fact the resultant and the equilibrant of the first two forces.
Determine the difference and the percentage difference.
Determine the resultant of the three forces; F 1, F2 and F3 graphically
using the polygon method and analytically using the component
method.

TABLE
COMPUTATION/SOLUTION
OBSERVATION & CONCLUSION