15 vues

Transféré par enmavel

Hot Spot

- Trans Effic
- Live Human Being Detection Using Robot Using DTMF Technology
- l205en
- 20. Mems Controlled Intelligent Wheel Chair
- ECTE290 Lab Report
- OSKF Current Transformers - ENG-epslanguage=en-GB
- Datasheet MPS2222A
- Conv Loco Items
- Experiment 5_on-Off Controller
- Supression of Numerical Oscillations in the EMTP
- COMPACT POWER TRANSFORMERS FOR SUBSTATION IN URBAN AREAS USING HYBRID INSULATION SYSTEM
- CPE562 (6)
- ES710_DB
- How to Select the Suitable OLTC
- BC182
- Tipps Tricks 004 Measuring Magnetizing Current Update En
- Checklist for Mechanical Completion (2)
- San-Diego-Gas-and-Electric-Co-Schedule-A,-General-Service
- EM Problems
- COMMNG-ELEC-053 PMCC Charging Procedure

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 9

3, JULY 2009

1257

Hot-Spot Temperature

Dejan Susa, Member, IEEE, and Hasse Nordman

AbstractA simple model for calculating the hot-spot temperature is introduced. The model is based on the hot-spot to ambient gradient. The model considers the changes of the oil viscosity

and winding losses with temperature. The results are compared

with temperatures calculated by IEEE Annex G method and measured results at varying load for the following transformer units:

250-MVA ONAF, 400-MVA ONAF, and 605-MVA OFAF.

Index TermsHot-spot temperature, oil viscosity, top-oil temperature, winding losses.

kilograms).

Weight of the oil (in kilograms).

Weight of the tank and fittings (in kilograms).

Correction factor of oil.

No-load losses.

DC losses per unit value.

Relative winding eddy losses, per unit of dc

loss.

NOMENCLATURE

Specific heat capacity of winding material.

Stray losses (in watts).

Specific heat capacity of the tank and fittings.

Heat generation.

A constant.

resistance.

Thermal capacitance of the core.

metal parts.

Constant.

Load current.

transformer losses.

Load factor.

transformer losses.

Minute.

Weight of the tank and fittings (in kilograms).

transformer losses.

Oil viscosity.

Ambient temperature.

Top-oil temperature.

Top-oil temperature rise over ambient.

Manuscript received January 25, 2008; revised January 16, 2009. Current version published June 24, 2009. This work was supported in part by the SINTEF

Energy Research Department, Trondheim, Norway. Paper no. TPWRD-000362008.

D. Susa is with the SINTEF Energy Research Department, Trondheim

NO-7465 , Norway (e-mail: dejan.susa@ sintef.no).

H. Nordman is with the ABB, Power Transformers, Vaasa 65101, Finland

(e-mail: hase.nordman@fi.abb.com).

Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online

at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPWRD.2009.2022670

Hot-spot temperature.

Rated hot-spot to ambient temperature

gradient.W

Winding time constant.

Winding time constant.

Oil time constant.

Authorized licensed use limited to: Norges Teknisk-Naturvitenskapelige Universitet. Downloaded on July 3, 2009 at 10:22 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

1258

R

pu

I. INTRODUCTION

capital investment in transmission and distribution

substations. In addition, power transformer outages have a

considerable economic impact on the operation of an electrical

network. One of the most important parameters governing a

transformers life expectancy is the hot-spot temperature value.

The classical approach has been to consider the hot-spot temperature as the sum of the ambient temperature, the top-oil temperature rise in tank, and the hot-spot-to-top-oil (in tank) gradient [1], [2]. During the last 20 years, fiber-optic probes have

been used by many authors [3][5] in order to obtain as accurate

values for transformer temperatures as possible. When the load

is increased, it takes some time before the corresponding oil circulation adapts its speed [4] due to lower temperature and higher

oil viscosity at the preceding loads. Consequently, the hot-spot

temperature rises rapidly during the first 1020 min with a time

constant that is equivalent approximately to the winding time

constant [6] (Fig. 1). Nevertheless, this time period is different

for each transformer and it is very dependent on the transformer

design. Conveniently, it has been further observed that 50% of

the temperature change occurs during the rapid rise. When the

temperature threshold level is reached, the oil circulation is established at a rate, which is defined as critical, preventing further

rapid temperature rise. Therefore, the hot-spot temperature will

continue to rise slower with a time constant that is equivalent to

the top-oil time constant (Fig. 1).

On the other hand, at the transformer cold start, 75% of the

temperature change occurs during the rapid rise period due to

more harsh initial oil conditions (i.e., initial oil speed is zero).

In contrast, the initial oil circulation prior to the load decrease

is faster than it will be under the load considered. Therefore, the

temperature will now decrease rapidly with a time constant that

is equivalent to approximately the winding time constant. Once

50% of the final temperature drop is reached, the oil velocity

will be much lower than initially. As a result, the temperature

starts decreasing slowly with a time constant equivalent to the

top-oil time constant.

This paper presents a simpler but still accurate temperature

calculation method, taking into account the findings mentioned

before. With alternate switching between two different time

constants, (the short one being equal to the winding time constant and the long one being equal to the top-oil time constant),

the model is based only on the hot-spot-to-ambient air gradient.

The thermal model is based on heat-transfer theory [7][10],

numerous transformer thermal tests and reports [3][6] and

[11][38], application of the lumped capacitance method, the

thermal-electrical analogy, and the concept of thermal resistance between winding insulation surface and ambient (i.e.,

air).

400-MVA ONAF-cooled transformer at 1.29-p.u. constant load.

and loss variation with temperature into account. The changes in

transformer time constants due to changes in the oil viscosity are

also accounted for. The model requires an iterative calculation

procedure.

The models are validated by using experimental results,

which have been obtained from a series of thermal tests performed on three different power transformers: (250-MVA

ONAF, 400-MVA ONAF, and a 605-MVA OFAF-cooled unit),

[3], [4]. The model is tied to measured parameters that are

readily available (i.e., data obtained from a normal heat-run test

performed by the transformer manufacturer at commissioning).

II. THERMAL MODEL

A. Thermal Circuit

The thermal circuit for the hot-spot temperature rise over

the ambient based on heat-transfer theory, [7][11], [19] and

thermal-electrical analogy [30][36] is given in Fig. 2 with the

following elements:

heat generated by winding losses;

thermal capacitance of the winding;

hot-spot temperature rise over ambient;

winding to ambient nonlinear thermal resistance.

The steady-state temperature rise equation for the natural

convection and heat-exchange phenomena between the winding

insulation surface, (where the sensors are located), and the ambient is given as follows:

Authorized licensed use limited to: Norges Teknisk-Naturvitenskapelige Universitet. Downloaded on July 3, 2009 at 10:22 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

(1)

SUSA AND NORDMAN: SIMPLE MODEL FOR CALCULATING TRANSFORMER HOT-SPOT TEMPERATURE

1259

TABLE I

THRESHOLDS FOR ALL COOLING MODES

where

is the hot-spot-to-ambient temperature gradient.

is a function of the fluid properties and winding characteristic

dimensions and is considered to be a constant [32]. is constant that is partly based on experimental results obtained from

thermal tests [3], [4]. The sensors locations have been discussed

in [3], [4], and [20]. is the viscosity variation with temperature

(in kilograms per millisecond), given by the following equation

[6]:

(2)

where the viscosity is evaluated at the value of

is given as ;

the rated hot-spot to ambient gradient

(9)

;

the heat generated by the winding losses

(10)

where

given by

(11)

(3)

is the ambient

temperature.

The nonlinear thermal resistance between the winding insulation surface and the ambient of the transformer is characterized

by (4), which is derived from (1)

(4)

The differential equation for the thermal circuit in Fig. 2 is

given as follows:

spot temperature

(12)

and

describe the behavior

where

of the dc and eddy losses as a function of temperature [6].

The dc losses vary directly with temperature, whereas the

is the temeddy losses vary inversely with temperature.

perature factor for the loss correction, equal to 225 for aluis the hot-spot temperaminium and 235 for copper.

ture.

Finally, (5) becomes

(5)

(13)

Now, if the following parameters are defined:

the thermal resistance

as

(6)

stand for the rated and relative

where subscripts and

values, respectively,

the winding time constant

The final solution of (13) for the load increase and decrease

is given in the following section. The corresponding values for

the temperature threshold level and oil viscosity exponent are

given in Tables I and II.

B. Complete Model

1) Load Increase: The hot-spot temperature increases to a

level corresponding to a load factor of K

(7)

stands for the rated winding time constant

where

given in Section II-C and it is assumed that

, [32];

the load factor

(14)

The initial hot-spot rise over ambient is

. The hot-spot

rise calculated for the end of previous load step is used as the

is

initial hot-spot rise for the next load step calculation.

the ultimate hot-spot rise given by the following equation:

(8)

Authorized licensed use limited to: Norges Teknisk-Naturvitenskapelige Universitet. Downloaded on July 3, 2009 at 10:22 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

(15)

1260

TABLE II

LOAD STEPS FOR THE 250-MVA TRANSFORMER

(25)

Equation (21) is applicable here as well.

Equations require an iterative calculation procedure.

3) Winding Exponent and Change Levels: The viscosity ex0.5). In

ponent for all cooling modes is equal to 0.5 (i.e.,

addition, the temperature change thresholds are given in Table I.

C. Time Constants

1) Winding Time Constant: The winding time constant [19]

is as follows:

The function

describes the relative increase of the hot-spot

temperature rise until the corresponding threshold is reached

(16)

for

(26)

for

(27)

where

load;

(17)

rated load;

will be replaced by function

once

The function

the threshold level for a given load is reached as suggested in

Table I

corrected for the hot-spot temperature;

current density in A/mm2 at the rated load.

(18)

is the winding time constant after the change

rated load is given as follows:

(28)

(19)

is the rated oil time constant given in Section II-C.

is the time delay correction for the following condition:

where

rated top-oil time constant (in minutes);

(20)

temperature (in Kelvin (K));

(21)

is the time when the function

reaches the corresponding

threshold level.

Equations require an iterative calculation procedure.

2) Load Decrease: The hot-spot temperature decreases to a

level corresponding to a load factor of K

(22)

The function

describes the relative decrease of the

hot-spot temperature rise until the corresponding threshold is

reached

(23)

The function

will be replaced by function

once the

change level for a given load is reached as suggested in Table I

(24)

a the rated load;

equivalent thermal capacitance of the

transformer oil

.

The equivalent thermal capacitance of the transformer oil for

transformers with external cooling and a zigzag oil flow through

the windings is given by

(29)

where

weight of the winding material (use only the

excited parts) (in kilograms);

weight of the core (in kilograms);

weight of the tank and fittings (in kilograms);

Authorized licensed use limited to: Norges Teknisk-Naturvitenskapelige Universitet. Downloaded on July 3, 2009 at 10:22 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

SUSA AND NORDMAN: SIMPLE MODEL FOR CALCULATING TRANSFORMER HOT-SPOT TEMPERATURE

1261

TABLE III

MAXIMUM AND AVERAGE ERROR FOR THE 250-MVA TRANSFORMER

IEEE: IEEE-Annex G

specific heat capacity of the winding material

and

) in

, [32];

(

specific heat capacity of the core

, [32];

0.13) in

0.13) in

, [32];

specific heat capacity of the oil

, [32];

Fig. 3. Hot-spot temperature of the 118-kV winding in the 250-MVA ONAFcooled transformer.

0.51) in

and OFAF cooling modes;

correction factor for the oil in the ODAF cooling

mode;

portion of the stray losses in the total losses;

portion of the core losses in the total losses;

portion of the winding losses in the total losses.

Equation (29) is an empirical formula based on observations

from different thermal tests and the modeling that has already

been performed and validated in the authors previous work

[33], [34].

The equivalent thermal capacitance of the transformer oil

for transformers without either external cooling or guided

horizontal oil flow through the windings (where the lack of

radiators and the lack of the horizontal oil flow through the

winding directly affects the oil flow inside the transformer tank,

thus slowing down the cooling process) is calculated according

to the IEEE Loading Guide-Annex G [2] and [6].

III. COMPARISON

The measured temperature results, which are recorded for

three different transformer units during different varying load

tests, are compared by the new calculation method presented in

this paper and the IEEE Annex G method. The input data for

both methods are given in the Appendix. The maximum and average errors obtained for both models are given in Tables III,

V, and VII. The maximum error is obtained as the maximum

difference between the measured and calculated curve. The average error is obtained as the sum of the data values divided by

the number of data values. The error plots are also shown in

Figs. 35.

A. The 250-MVA ONAF

The rated voltages of the 250-MVA transformer were

1.5%/118/21 kV. The windings were seen from

the limb side, the 118-kV and 230-kV main windings, the

regulating winding, and the 21-kV tertiary winding. The connection was YNyn0d11, and the short-circuit impedance in the

250/250-MVA main direction was 12%. The oil flow through

the windings was guided by oil guiding rings in a zigzag pattern.

The transformer was equipped with a total of 16 fiber-optic

sensors, eight in the 118-kV winding and eight in the 230-kV

winding, according to the principles explained in [4]. In total,

14 thermocouples were located in the tie plates and outer core

packets at the top level of the main windings of phase B.

In addition to the normal delivery tests, including the ONAN

and ONAF heat-run tests, the following load tests were performed on the unit operating in the ONAF cooling mode:

constant load current; 1.28 p.u.; duration 13.5 h;

constant load current; 1.49 p.u.; duration 15 h;

varying load current Table II.

The measured hot-spot temperature results of the hottest

winding and sensor, recorded during the varying load current

test, are compared with the results obtained from the thermal

models in Fig. 3.

The maximum and average errors are given in Table III.

B. The 400-MVA ONAF

The rated voltages of the transformer were 410 6 1.33%/

120/21 kV. The windings were, seen from the limb side: 120-kV

and 410-kV main windings, a regulating winding, and a 21-kV

1262

TABLE IV

LOAD STEPS FOR THE 400-MVA TRANSFORMER

TABLE V

MAXIMUM AND AVERAGE ERROR FOR THE 400-MVA TRANSFORMER

IEEE: IEEE-Annex G

Fig. 4. Hot-spot temperature of the 410-kV winding in the 400-MVA ONAFcooled transformer.

probes (eight in each winding), and the tie plates, outer core

packets, and yoke clamps had a total of 37 thermocouples.

Additional load tests with ONAF cooling were the following:

constant load current: 1.0 p.u.; duration 12 h:

constant load current: 1.29 p.u.; duration 10 h;

constant load current: 1.60 p.u.; duration 15 h;

varying load current (Table IV).

The measured hot-spot temperature results of the hottest

winding and sensor, which were recorded during the varying

load current test, are compared with results obtained from the

thermal models in Fig. 4.

The maximum and average errors are given in Table V.

C. The 605-MVA OFAF

Fig. 5. Hot-spot temperature of the 362-kV winding in the 605-MVA OFAFcooled transformer.

tertiary winding. The connection was YNynd, and the short-circuit impedance in the 400/400-MVA main direction was 20%.

The oil flow through the windings was guided by the oil guiding

rings in a zigzag pattern. The main windings in this transformer

are representative of two basic cases: 1) restricted oil flow

(2-mm radial spacers in the 120-kV winding) and 2) unrestricted oil flow (3-mm radial spacers in the 410-kV winding).

The main windings were equipped with a total of 16 fiber-optic

unit with the windings seen from the limb side: part of the HV

winding (i.e., 362 kV-winding), the double shell LV winding

(i.e., 22 kV-winding), and the main part of the HV winding.

The oil circulation through the windings was guided by the oil

guiding rings in a zigzag pattern in such a way that the oil flow

through the LV winding was restricted (2-mm radial spacer) and

through the HV winding unrestricted (3-mm radial spacer). The

transformer was not a sealed OD (i.e., the oil circulation was

not forced through the winding block). In total, 24 fiber-optic

sensors were installed in the top disc/turns of the outer shell of

the LV winding and the outer part of the HV winding.

In addition to the normal heat-run tests, the following load

tests were made with OFAF cooling:

constant load current: 1.00 p.u.; duration 12 h;

constant load current: 1.30 p.u.; duration 1.2 h;

varying load current (Table VI).

The measured hot-spot temperature results of the hottest

winding and sensor, which were recorded during the varying

load current test, are compared with results obtained from the

thermal models and are shown in Fig 5.

SUSA AND NORDMAN: SIMPLE MODEL FOR CALCULATING TRANSFORMER HOT-SPOT TEMPERATURE

1263

TABLE VI

LOAD STEPS FOR THE 605-MVA TRANSFORMER

TABLE VII

MAXIMUM AND AVERAGE ERROR FOR 605-MVA TRANSFORMER

IEEE: IEEE-Annex G.

IV. CONCLUSION

The athors have already developed a few transformer thermal

models [30][34]. All models take into account the oil viscosity

change with temperature as one of the parameters defining the

temperature curve. Also, the hot-spot to top-oil temperature gradient and the top-oil temperature rise are defined as two separate

systems but cascadely interconnected. Thus, any change of the

top-oil temperature will affect the hot-spot to top-oil gradient

and further on the hot-spot temperature.

Similarly, by switching from the winding time constant to the

top-oil time constant, the model presented in this paper takes

into account this additional top-oil effect on the hot-spot temperature rise.

A new feature in the thermal model developed in this paper

is that it is based directly on the hot-spot -to-ambient air gradient without splitting up this gradient into the two gradients

hot-spot-to-top oil and top oil-to-ambient air.

The oil viscosity effect and loss change with temperature are

also taken into account.

The model is based on an exponential iterative calculation

procedure. Nevertheless, more rigid and more precise mathematical procedures could be applied as well. The authors have

decided to use an exponential approach to follow well-known

temperature calculation procedures given in [1] and [2].

Comparably, the results obtained by the IEEE Annex G

method and the results plotted by the proposed model are in

good agreement with the measured values for the load increase

and load decrease. However, one could conclude that models

yield values either on the conservative side or with reasonable

accuracy. The main advantage of the proposed model is a

reduced number of the input data and its simplicity.

Nevertheless, both models develop higher error at the load

increase. This can be straightforwardly observed in Figs. 35.

The models simply predict a much faster initial temperature rise

of the error is more pronounced as the oil viscosity effect is underestimated. In other words, the established oil circulation is

1264

TABLE VIII

INPUT DATA FOR THE THERMAL MODELS

temperature computation as an integrated part of a monitoring

system, (i.e., indirect hot-spot measurement). Furthermore, the

model application will allow both transformer manufactures

and users to run different loading and ambient scenarios and,

by analyzing the results, improve the transformer design (costs,

size, and load carrying capacity).

Input data necessary for the suggested thermal model.

models. The way to overcome the problem is in the further improvement of the winding time constant equation assuming that

the oil viscosity equation is correct.

Therefore, future work should consider additional thermal

tests and investigations to derive general and simpler winding

and top-oil time constants calculation procedures.

The concept for the model application in transformer monitoring, the model computation algorithm, Fig. 6, and the model

validation are given in the Appendix, respectively.

APPENDIX

A. Transformer Monitoring

A transformer online monitoring system, which collects

information from several measurable variables, should also

include real-time application of the thermal models to provide

an accurate picture of the operating condition of the transformer, allowing the operator to detect the early signs of faults

and correct them. In general, the monitoring system identifies

faults by comparing the results of measurements with prediction of the models. Consequently, the complete application of

the suggested model is only possible in the systems used for

transformers equipped with the fiber-optic sensors as is the

case with all developed hot-spot thermal models. However,

B. Model Algorithm

The algorithm that describes the steps to follow in order to

calculate the hot-spot temperature is given in Fig. 6.

C. Model Validation

The model can be validated in an extended heat-run test (Fig.

7) made on a transformer with installed fiber-optic sensors by

using fitting and extrapolation techniques. Note that these techniques should be applied in a manner consistent with the modeling presented in this paper. An application example as well as

a corresponding mathematical procedure are given in [35]. The

extended heat-run test consists of a regular heat-run test with

added an overload test (Fig. 7). The overload should be applied

three hours after the cooling curve is recorded in order to obtain

a prolonged cooling curve as well. In this way, different oil-flow

modes (i.e., due to cold start, load increase, and load decrease),

are considered as well as their effect on the model parameter.

The duration and size of the applied overload should be limited

with the maximum steady-state hot-spot temperature of 140 ,

[1].

REFERENCES

[1] Loading Guide for Oil-immersed Power Transformers, IEC 60076-7,

2005.

[2] IEEE Guide for Loading Mineral-Oil-Immersed Transformers, IEEE

Std. C57.91, 1995.

[3] H. Nordman and M. Lahtinen, Thermal Overload Tests on a 400 MVA

Power Transformer with a Special 2.5 pu Short Time Loading Capability, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 107112, Jan. 2003.

SUSA AND NORDMAN: SIMPLE MODEL FOR CALCULATING TRANSFORMER HOT-SPOT TEMPERATURE

changes in the load current of power transformers, IEEE Trans. Power

Del., to be published.

[5] Z. Radakovic and K. Feser, A new method for the calculation of the

hot-spot temperature in power transformers with ONAN cooling,

IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 12841292, Oct. 2003.

[6] L. W. Pierce, An investigation of the thermal performance of an oil

filled transformer winding, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 7, no. 3, pp.

13471358, Jul. 1992.

[7] F. P. Incropera and D. P. DeWitt, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass

Transfer, 4th ed. New York: Wiley, 1996, p. 886.

[8] W. J. King, The basic laws and data of heat transmission, Mech. Eng.,

p. 191, Mar.Aug. 1932.

[9] R. W. Chester, Free and forced convection of heat in gases and liquides-II, Phys. Rev., vol. 21, Apr. 1923, and AIEE Trans., 1923, p.

1288.

[10] R. W. Chester, Free and forced convection of heat in gases and liquidesII, AIEE Trans., p. 131, Feb. 1924.

[11] J. Aubin, R. Bergeron, and R. Morin, Distribution transformer overloading capability under cold-load pickup conditions, IEEE Trans.

Power Del., vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 18831891, Oct. 1990.

[12] J. Aubin and Y. Langhame, Effect of oil viscosity on transformer

loading capability at low ambient temperatures, IEEE Trans. Power

Del., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 516524, Apr. 1992.

[13] L. F. Blume, A. Boyajian, G. Camilli, T. C. Lennox, S. Minneci, and V.

M. Montsinger, Transformer Engineering, 1st ed. New York: Wiley,

1938.

[14] L. F. Blume, A. Boyajian, G. Camilli, T. C. Lennox, S. Minneci, and V.

M. Montsinger, Transformer Engineering, 2nd ed. New York: Wiley,

1951.

[15] R. E. Doherty and E. S. Carter, Effect of altitude on temperature rise,

AIEE Trans., vol. 43, Jun. 1924, pp..

[16] K. Eckholz, W. Knorr, and M. Schfer, New developments in transformer cooling calculations, presented at the Int. Conf. Large High

Voltage Electric Systems, Aug. 29Sep. 6 2004, CIGRE, Rep. 12-09.

[17] Heat-run test procedure for power transformers CIGR Working Group

1209, vol. 129, 1990.

[18] R. L. Grubb, M. Hudis, and A. R. Traut, A transformer thermal duct

study of various insulating fluids, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol.

PAS-100, no. 2, pp. 466473, Feb. 1981.

[19] K. Karsai, D. Kerenyi, and L. Kiss, Large Power Transformers. New

York: Elsevier, 1987.

[20] W. Lampe, L. Pettersson, C. Ovren, and B. Wahlstrm, Hot-spot measurements in power transformers, presented at the Int. Conf. Large

High Voltage Electric Systems, Aug. 29Sep. 6 1984, CIGRE, Rep.

12-02.

[21] V. M. Montsinger, Effect of barometric pressure on temperature

rise of self-cooled stationary induction apparatus, AIEE Trans., pp.

599633, 1916.

[22] V. M. Montsinger, Cooling of transformer windings after shut-down,

AIEE Trans., vol. 36, p. 711, 1917.

[23] V. M. Montsinger and W. H. Cooney, Temperature rise of stationary

electrical apparaturs as influenced by radiation, convection, and altitude, AIEE Trans., vol. 43, p. 803, 1924.

[24] V. M. Montsinger and L. Wetherill, Effect of color of tank on the on

temperature self-cooled transformers under service conditions, AIEE

Trans., vol. 49, p. 41, 1930.

[25] V. M. Montsinger, Loading transformer by temperature, AIEE

Trans., vol. 49, p. 776, 1930.

[26] V. M. Montsinger and W. M. Dann, Overloading of power transformers, Elect. Eng., Oct. 1934.

[27] V. M. Montsinger and M. P. Ketchum, Emergency overloading of

air-cooled transformers by hot-spot temperature, Supplemental Issue

Elect. Eng, Dec. 1942.

[28] H. Nordman, E. Hironniemi, and A. J. Pesonen, Determination of hotspot temperature rise at rated load and at overload, presented at the

CIGRE Paris Session, 1990, CIGRE Paper 12-103.

[29] E. G. teNyenhuis, R. S. Girgis, G. F. Mechler, and G. Zhou, Calculation of core hot-spot temperature in power and distribution transformers, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 991995, Oct.

2002.

1265

of distribution transformers, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 20, no. 4,

pp. 19191929, Oct. 2005.

[31] D. Susa, J. Palola, M. Lehtonen, and M. Hyvarinen, Temperature rises

in an OFAF transformer at OFAN cooling mode in service, IEEE

Trans. Power Del., vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 11101117, Oct. 2003.

[32] D. Susa, M. Lehtonen, and H. Nordman, Dynamic thermal modelling

of power transformers, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 20, no. 1, pp.

197204, Jan. 2005.

[33] D. Susa and M. Lehtonen, Dynamic thermal modelling of power transformers-further development: Part I, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 21,

no. 4, pp. 19611970, Oct. 2006.

[34] D. Susa and M. Lehtonen, Dynamic thermal modelling of power transformers-further development: Part II, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 21,

no. 4, pp. 19711980, Oct. 2006.

[35] G. Swift, T. S. Molinski, R. Bray, and R. Menzies, A fundamental approach to transformer thermal modelling-II. Field verification, IEEE

Trans. Power Del., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 176180, Apr. 2001.

[36] G. Swift, T. S. Molinski, and W. Lehn, A fundamental approach to

transformer thermal modellingI. Theory and equivalent circuit,

IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 171175, Apr. 2001.

[37] W. H. Tang, Q. H. Wu, and Z. J. Richardson, Equivalent heat circuit

based power transformer thermal model, Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., Elect.

Power Appl., vol. 149, no. 2, pp. 8792, Mar. 2002.

[38] W. H. Tang, Q. H. Wu, and Z. J. Richardson, A simplified transformer

thermal model based on thermal-electric analogy, IEEE Trans. Power

Del., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 11121119, Jul. 2004.

on May 22, 1972. He received the D.Eng. degree

in electrical engineering from the University of

Nis, Nis, Serbia, in 2000, and the M.Sc. and D.Sc.

degrees from the Helsinki University of Technology,

Espoo, Finland, in 2002 and 2005, respectively.

He was with the Power Systems Laboratory,

Helsinki University of Technology, from 2001

to 2006. He has been with the Center for Power

Transformer Monitoring, Diagnostic and Life Management, Monash University, Clayton, Australia,

since 2006. Currently, he is with SINTEF Energy Research Department,

Trondheim, Norway. He is working on different power transformer research

topics (losses, temperatures, moisture, gasses, online monitoring).

Dr. Susa is a member of Norwegian IEC National Committee and of IEC

MT1 (loading guide for oil-immersed power transformers), IEC MT2 (ability

to withstand short circuit), and IEC MT6 (temperature rise).

Hasse Nordman (M08) was born in Overmark, Finland, in 1945. He received the Ph.D. degree in mathematics from the Abo Akademi University, Turku,

Finland, in 1977.

From 1970 to 1982, he was with ABB Corporate

Research (formerly Stromberg Research Centre),

Vaasa, Finland, working on current-related phenomena (losses, temperatures, short-circuit forces)

in electric power equipment. Since 1982, he has been

with the Development Engineering Department in

the Power Transformer Division of ABB, Vaasa. He

is also the leader of the global ABB R&D activity Load Losses and Thermal

Performance.

Dr. Nordman is a member of CIGRE, Chairman of the Finnish National Committee in the IEC Power Transformer Technical Committee (TC 14), and Convenor of the Maintenance Team MT1: Revision of IEC 354: Loading guide for

oil-immersed power transformers.

- Trans EfficTransféré parKlara Wertl
- Live Human Being Detection Using Robot Using DTMF TechnologyTransféré parSpandana Invincible
- l205enTransféré parMili Viviani
- 20. Mems Controlled Intelligent Wheel ChairTransféré parShaik Ashwaq Javed
- ECTE290 Lab ReportTransféré parpoomanpoo
- OSKF Current Transformers - ENG-epslanguage=en-GBTransféré parGrosiran Sepatu
- Datasheet MPS2222ATransféré parRafael González
- Conv Loco ItemsTransféré paronlyforu_125
- Experiment 5_on-Off ControllerTransféré parJitender Yadav
- Supression of Numerical Oscillations in the EMTPTransféré parengelx1x2x3
- COMPACT POWER TRANSFORMERS FOR SUBSTATION IN URBAN AREAS USING HYBRID INSULATION SYSTEMTransféré parR0B0T2013
- CPE562 (6)Transféré parArey Ariena
- ES710_DBTransféré parEnersa Ltda
- How to Select the Suitable OLTCTransféré parTarun Bhateja
- BC182Transféré parGrigoras Laura Ioana
- Tipps Tricks 004 Measuring Magnetizing Current Update EnTransféré parmohsin_engr_63
- Checklist for Mechanical Completion (2)Transféré parAnand Patel
- San-Diego-Gas-and-Electric-Co-Schedule-A,-General-ServiceTransféré parGenability
- EM ProblemsTransféré parShyam Prakash
- COMMNG-ELEC-053 PMCC Charging ProcedureTransféré parsantoshkumar
- Electrical Specifications , Division 16 SECTION 16320 DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERTransféré pareng_asayed
- New Microsoft Office Word DocumentTransféré parshrutisinghal21
- Enabling Tunnel MotorTransféré parbryandown
- Home Assignment.pdf.docxTransféré parArpan Gayen
- 6_TLMSTransféré parVinzoKei
- A Novel Approach of Power Transformer Diagnostic Using 3D FEM Parametrical ModelTransféré parCristian Liviu
- ST303C04CFL0Transféré parmrjunoon
- Transformers Week 6Transféré paraa
- Alokasi Sumber Daya ChandraTransféré parRenault Valentino
- 5. Micom P642 - CatalogueTransféré parArun Kumar

- Oip Bushing ThvsTransféré parenmavel
- Grading CapacitorsTransféré parenmavel
- 10_Reasons_to_Specify_Trench_COTA_Bushings.pdfTransféré parenmavel
- RPH3 Point on wave controller-epslanguage=en-GB.pdfTransféré parenmavel
- SIESTORAGE - Energy ArbitrageTransféré parenmavel
- Catalogue Page 69 - Cable Gland Sizing Charts.pdfTransféré parenmavel
- SchneiderTransféré parenmavel
- Http Www.trenchgroup.com Ps Tools Download.php File= Docudb Psfile Doc 83 Import4cd7ff1c2563f.pdf&Name=Transformer Bushings COTA 25kV to 765kvTransféré parhenny_el3306
- usa tourTransféré parenmavel
- usa tourTransféré parenmavel
- Dispute FormTransféré parenmavel
- 261016-Pii- Pro Indemnity InsuranceTransféré parenmavel
- USTransféré parenmavel
- Zero-Crossing Breaker vs Pre-Insertion ResistorTransféré parabhi120783
- AP#43_low-resTransféré parenmavel
- Voltage Division Over the Interrupter Units of a High Voltage Circuit Breaker Without Grading CapacitorsTransféré parRagavan

- VoltammetryTransféré parMahander Pratap Singh
- Ternary simulationTransféré parChelo Zubieta
- IITJEE Tips McqsTransféré parpankajbhai1joshi
- 3341905 M & I.pdfTransféré parvirendra
- RP_VP_WV500_DTTransféré parapi-3736776
- Programming and Data Management for IBM SPSS Statistics 20Transféré parMartín Pérez H
- Remember MeTransféré parMofoluso Aribisala
- 11 History Notes 07 Changing Cultural TraditionsTransféré parDivya Kaul
- Aqa Chm3x w Qp Jun10Transféré parIllharm Sherrif
- 1. Fodor Jerry Representations Philosophical Essays on the Foundations of Cognitive Science Harvester Studies in Cognitive Science 1981Transféré parXimena Cano
- Geometric Progression of Gear RatiosTransféré parSelva Kumar
- author jim grayTransféré parapi-233448344
- SQL Injection Pocket ReferenceTransféré parhackmeyou
- Comprehensive Report2013Transféré parbigblue12
- Guide to Make a Patch for Solving ConflictsTransféré parZrynoth
- Quaternary Break-out Flood Sediments in the Peshawar BasinTransféré parJonathan Roberts
- online winchell resumeTransféré parapi-218120038
- HRMS BrochureTransféré parapi-3801793
- 10 139 Apostolopoulos-DimitrovTransféré parsklong138
- DLL_SCIENCE 4_Q3_W2Transféré parmary grace
- Lab ManualTransféré parvijay9994
- Allenby Earth System Engineering ManagementTransféré parChristian Castro
- IAS Prelims Syllabus 2016_ Tips for IAS Prelims @ByjusTransféré parVarun Aryan Gopal
- najat 1Transféré parapi-300889911
- Product Design and Development SyllabusTransféré parharshottam2977
- hibernatecaching.pdfTransféré parPijush Karmakar
- Lab 2Transféré parmrsplooge
- Tagg, Philip - Introductory Notes to the Semiotics of MusicTransféré parJulián Woodside
- Britool TORQUE WRENCH.pdfTransféré parShruthi Madhu
- Arthur Cayley Research PaperTransféré parWilliam Li