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INTRODUCTION OF TAX

According to Black's Law Dictionary, a tax is a "pecuniary burden laid upon individuals or
property owners to support the government a payment exacted by legislative authority." It
"is not a voluntary payment or donation, but an enforced contribution, exacted pursuant to
legislative authority" and is "any contribution imposed by government whether under the
name of toll, tribute, tallage, gabel, impost, duty, custom, excise, subsidy, aid, supply, or
other name."
The legal definition and the economic definition of taxes differ in that economists
do not consider many transfers to governments to be taxes. For example, some transfers to
the public sector are comparable to prices. Examples include tuition at public universities
and fees for utilities provided by local governments. Governments also obtain resources by
creating money (e.g., printing bills and minting coins), through voluntary gifts (e.g.,
contributions to public universities and museums), by imposing penalties (e.g., traffic
fines), by borrowing, and by confiscating wealth. From the view of economists, a tax is a
non-penal, yet compulsory transfer of resources from the private to the Public sector levied
on a basis of predetermined criteria and without reference to specific benefit received.
In modern taxation systems, taxes are levied in money; but, in-kind and corve
taxation are characteristic of traditional or pre-capitalist states and their functional
equivalents. The method of taxation and the government expenditure of taxes raised is
often highly debated in politics and economics. Tax collection is performed by a
government agency such as Canada Revenue Agency, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS)
in the United States, or Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs (HMRC) in the United
Kingdom. When taxes are not fully paid, civil penalties (such as fines or forfeiture) or
criminal penalties (such as incarceration) may be imposed on the non-paying entity.

Types of Tax

Taxes on income
Income tax
Many jurisdictions tax the income of individuals and business entities, including
corporations. Generally the tax is imposed on net profits from business, net gains, and
other income. Computation of income subject to tax may be determined under accounting
principles used in the jurisdiction, which may be modified or replaced by tax law principles
in the jurisdiction. The incidence of taxation varies by system, and some systems may be
viewed as progressive or regressive. Rates of tax may vary or be constant (flat) by income
level. Many systems allow individuals certain personal allowances and other non-business
reductions to taxable income.
Personal income tax is often collected on a pay-as-you-earn basis, with
small corrections made soon after the end of the tax year. These corrections take
one of two forms: payments to the government, for taxpayers who have not paid
enough during the tax year; and tax refunds from the government for those who

have overpaid. Income tax systems will often have deductions available that lessen
the total tax liability by reducing total taxable income. They may allow losses from
one type of income to be counted against another. For example, a loss on the stock
market may be deducted against taxes paid on wages. Other tax systems may isolate
the loss, such that business losses can only be deducted against business tax by
carrying forward the loss to later tax years.

Negative income tax


In economics, a negative income tax (abbreviated NIT) is a progressive
income tax system where people earning below a certain amount receive
supplemental pay from the government instead of paying taxes to the government.

Capital gains tax


Most jurisdictions imposing an income tax treat capital gains as part of income subject to
tax. Capital gain is generally gain on sale of capital assets, i.e., those assets not held for
sale in the ordinary course of business. Capital assets include personal assets in many
jurisdictions. Some jurisdictions provide preferential rates of tax or only partial taxation for
capital gains. Some jurisdictions impose different rates or levels of capital gains taxation
based on the length of time the asset was held.

Corporate tax
Corporate tax refers to income, capital, net worth, or other taxes imposed on
corporations. Rates of tax and the taxable base for corporations may differ from
those for individuals or other taxable persons.

PROFITS FROM BUSINESS AND PROFESSSION

The lesson intends to explain one of the most important and complex heads of income in
simple terms beginning from the basic concepts of business, profession, vocation, trade,
commerce, manufacture. It also covers the computation of taxable profit and gains of
business and profession, various general and specific deductions including depreciation
allowable and items not allowed as deduction to the extent contained in Sections 28 to 32,
35, 36 , 37, 40, 40A, 43 B

CONCEPT OF BUSINESS AND PROFESSION :

Section 13, includes profits and gains of business and profession in the list of heads of
income, hence the Business and Profession become the two significant terms. Business
is defined in Sec. 2 (13) in an inclusive definition that Business includes any trade,
commerce, manufacture or any adventure or concern in the nature of trade, commerce or
manufacture and profession is defined in section Sec. 2((36), which merely says that
profession" includes vocation;
A collective reading of the three sections implies that business means a business as it is
commonly understood and it also includes Trade, Commerce, Manufacture and any
adventure in the nature of trade, commerce or manufacture. Similarly a profession means
a profession in common parlance and also includes a vocation. Trade, commerce and,
business refer to normal commercial activities of dealing or trading in goods or services for
profit. Producing new goods or articles will constitute manufacture. Profession covers the
skilled Personalised services like doctors, architects, lawyers, chartered accountants form
the profession and vocation will include all the other services even priests, astrologers,
plumbers, mechanics, delivering discourse, performing pooja etc . Importantly, the phrase
adventure in the nature of trade, commerce or manufacture indicates that business or
profession need not be organised, systematic or regular. A single act may be treated as the
business or profession. Accordingly, when a land was purchased developed and subdivided
in smaller plots for resale was held as an adventure in the nature of trade or commerce or
manufacture.

SCHEME OF COMPUTATION -SEC. 28-29


3.1.

Basic Scheme Of Computation

Sections 28 to Sec 44D deal with various aspects of business income. Sec. 28 is the
charging section, which defines what constitutes business income and Sec. 29 provides for
mode of computation of business income by deducting expenses from income.
Sections, 30 to 35 cover expenses allowed to be deducted only by some of the businesses,
which are expressly allowed as deduction and sections 36 and 37 deal with general
deductions allowed to all the businesses.
Sections 40, 40A and 43B cover expenses which are not deductible in certain
circumstances
Lately, business profits are computed on presumptive basis in case of smaller assessees like
retailers, construction contractors, transporters etc. these provisions are not covered in the
syllabus.

3.2.

Chargeable Income- Sec 28 :

Section 28 defines the scope of business to inter alia include the income from following
sources:
The profits and gains of any business or profession which was carried on by the assessee at
any time during the previous year;
Speculation income treated as separate and distinct source. Speculative transactions are
defined to be the transactions settled by payment of difference in price of goods or
securities and not by actual delivery. Loss from this head cannot be set off against any
other head of income but carried forward for 8 years.
Compensation for agency termination etc
Export incentives: cash assistance, duty drawback, DEPB etc.
Profits on sale of import licences
Income derived by a trade, professional or similar association from specific services
performed for its members;
Partners remuneration from a firm by way of salary fees , commission etc
Value of any benefit or perquisites like gifts whether in cash or kind
Non-compete agreements
Any sum received under a Keyman insurance policy including the sum allocated by way of
bonus on such policy.
Amount recovered on account of bad debts allowed in the earlier years.

Profits on sale of capital assets if used for scientific research and allowed in the earlier
years.

3.3. Computation Of Business Income -S.29:


Business income is the aggregate income from all the sources specified in Sec 28 in respect
of a business / profession carried on by the assessee in the relevant previous year as
reduced by the expenses and deductions laid down in S. 30 to 44 D .On a collective reading
of the two sections, following
characteristics and conditions are essential : There must be a business or profession.
Such business or profession must be carried on by the assesse
The business or profession must be carried out during the previous year.
If a business or profession is closed down the expenses can not be deducted.
Expenses will be allowed as a deduction from gross receipts only if they have been
incurred in the relevant previous year.
Expenses incurred before setting of the business will not be allowed except where
specifically provided by law.
Taxable business or professional income or profit is computed by deducting expenses
incurred for earning the income, from the gross income or gross receipts or gross sales
subject to modifications given in S. 30 to 44 D.

General Deductions S. 37
All the expenses, which are not covered by any other section will be allowed as a
deduction under section 37 subject to conditions mentioned below section 37(1):
The expenses are not covered specifically under the provisions of section 30 to 36.
The expenses are not personal in the nature. Personal income tax, wealth tax, drawings, etc
are held to be personal in nature The expenses are not in the nature of capital expenditure.
Thus expenses for acquiring fixed assets, or renovation thereof, conveyance of land,
expenses for eviction of a tenant etc are some examples of capital expenses not allowable.
The expenses are incurred wholly and exclusively for the purpose of such business. Such
expenses should be incurred in the previous year only. The expense should be in respect of

a business carried on by the assessee and the profits of which are to be computed and
assessed and should be incurred after the business set up. Any illegal expenses are not
allowed. Thus penalty, bribery, composition money paid in respect of any offences or
breach of law, and even penal interest is held to be not allowable under this section.
Political advertisements have been specifically excluded from the purview of the section -.
S. 37(2B) All the expenses whether by way of cost of raw materials, tools, spares etc, cost
of labour, salary , brokerage, commission, legal fees, litigation expenses, professional tax,
trade mark registration , lease rent etc and various expenses incurred by the assessee will
be allowed to be deducted under this section.

SPECIFIC DISALLOWANCES S.40-40A-43 B


Disallowance of expenses may be due to much reason such as some expenses are expressly
disallowed; while u/s 40, 40A and 43B some expenses are disallowed because the expenses
do not satisfy the conditions attached with the allowance. For instance personal and capital
expenses will be disallowed because sec. 37 allows all the expenses which are not personal
or which are not of capital in nature. Similarly, S. 37(2B) provides that any expenditure
incurred by way of advertisement expenses for giving an advertisement in any publication
of a political party will not be allowed as deduction. Sections 40, 40A and 43B expressly
disallow some expenses while computing income chargeable under the head Profits and
gains of business or profession. Some disallowances are absolute and others are
conditional like default in deduction of tax at source notwithstanding anything to the
contrary in sections
30 to 38.. Theses disallowances are discussed below

Disallowance in the case of any assessee S. 40


Payments to Non-Residents without TDS [S. 40(a)( i )]
Any Interest, Royalty, Fees for Technical Services payable to a Non-Resident outside India
chargeable to tax under the Income Tax Act, if tax has not been deducted on those amounts
or if the tax has been deducted at source but not paid during the previous year or in the
subsequent year before the prescribed time i.e. April 30 .If however at a later date, tax on
such amounts is paid or deducted at source such amounts will be allowed as deduction in
the year in which the tax has been paid or deducted

Payments made to residents without TDS [S.40 (a) ( ia )]


Any interest, commission or brokerage, rent, royalty fees for professional services or fees
for technical services payable to a resident, or amounts payable to a contractor or subcontractor, being resident, for carrying out any work (including supply of labour for
carrying out any work), on which tax is deductible at source if tax-has not been deducted
on those amounts or if tax has been deducted at source but has not been paid on or before
the due date specified U/s 139(1).

From the above it follows that if TDS has not been collected or paid at all , the relevant
expenditure will not be allowed altogether but if the TDS is paid before the due date of
fling the return , it will be allowed as a deduction in that year. However , if at a later date,
tax on such amounts is paid or deducted at source such amounts will be allowed as
deduction in the year in which the tax has been paid or deducted. Any sum paid on account
of securities transaction tax
[S. 40(a)(ib)]:
4.Any sum paid on account of any rate or tax levied on the profits or gains of any business
or profession or assessed at a proportion of, or otherwise on the basis of, any such profits
or gains such as Income Tax, interest and penalty; Fringe Benefit Tax etc
[S. 40(a) ( ii )]
Any sum paid on account of wealth-tax. [S. 40(a) ( iia )]
Salary payable outside India; or to a non-resident, and if the tax has not been deducted or
deducted and has not been paid therefrom under Chapter XVII-B. However such salaries
will be allowed as a deduction in the year in which the tax has been paid in respect of the
salary.
[S. 40(a) ( iii )]
Any payment to a provident or other fund established for the benefit of employees of the
assessee, unless the assessee has made effective arrangements to secure that tax shall be
deducted at source from any payments made from the fund which are chargeable to tax
under the head Salaries. Such payment will not be allowed as a deduction if tax has not
been deducted in the year in which such payments have been made. However these
payments will be allowed as a deduction in the year in which tax has been paid
.[S.40(a) (iv)
Any tax actually paid by an employer on perquisites u/s10 (10CC)-[S. 40(a) ( v )]

B. Disallowances in the case of any firms- S.40


1. Disallowance of Remuneration to Partners S. 40(b)
Any payment of remuneration, to any partner who is not a working partner; or

any payment of remuneration to any partner who is a working partner, which, in either
case, is not authorised by, or is not in accordance with, the terms of the partnership deed; or
Remuneration, to working partner though authorised, relating to any period falling prior to
the date of such partnership deed or Remuneration, to working partner though authorised
and otherwise allowable, if the remuneration to all partners in aggregate exceeds the
following limits:
Book Profits

Remuneration allowable

on the first Rs. 3,00,000 of the Rs.1,50,000

or

90

of

book profit or in case of a loss

bookprofit, whichever is more;

on

60 % of the book profits

the balance of the

the

bookprofit
Book-profit means the net profit, as shown in the profit and loss account for the relevant
previous year, computed in the manner laid down in Chapter IV-D as increased by the
aggregate amount of the remuneration paid or payable to all the partners of the firm if such
amount has been deducted while computing the net profit. In other words Book Profit
means net profit before providing for remuneration to partners. Working partner means
an individual who is actively engaged in conducting the affairs of the business or
profession of the firm of which he is a partner. A non-working partner is one who is not a
working partner.
Remuneration means any payment of salary, bonus, commission or remuneration by
whatever name called.
2. Disallowance of Interest to Partners-S. 40(b)
Any payment of interest to any partner which is not authorised by or is not in accordance
with, the terms of the partnership deed; or Interest, to partner thought authorised, relating
to any period falling prior to the date of such partnership deed or Interest in accordance
with the deed of partnership but in excess of the amount calculated at the rate of twelve per
cent simple interest per annum;

Following points should be kept in mind:


A partnership deed may, at any time during the said previous year be amended to provide
for payment of interest but such amendment will be applicable only prospectively.
Retrospective effect can not be given to such terms. The interest will be taken into account
in the same capacity in which it is paid. For instance, A is a partner in his capacity of a

trustee of B, interest payable to A in his capacity of trustee alone will be considered.


Interest paid in his individual capacity will be ignored. On the other hand, if A is a partner
in individual capacity, interest paid to him in his representative capacity shall be ignored.

3. Disallowances of Remuneration/Interest in the case of any AOP/BOI-S.


40(ba )
Any payment of interest, salary, bonus, commission or remuneration, by whatever name
called, made by such association or body to a member of such association or body.
AOP/BOI do not include a company or a co-operative society or a society registered
under the Societies Registration Act, 1860, or other registered charitable trusts).

Following points are noteworthy:


The capacity of the member will be considered in the same manner as firm.
If interest is paid to a member on funds borrowed by him, the disallowances will be only
on the net amount receivable by such members. Disallowance in case of AOP/BOI is total
unlike the firms, where the disallowance is partial and conditional. As a result,
remuneration or interest to members of AOP/BOI are not allowed to be deducted for
computing income from business and profession.

C. Disallowances In the case of all assesses S.40A


S. 40A provides for disallowance of certain expenses in certain circumstances like cash
payments of Rs. 20,000 or more excessive payment to relatives etc mainly as anti
avoidance measures. Theses disallowances are overriding in nature and prevail even if
normally such expenses should have been allowed.

1. Excessive payment to relatives -S. 40A (2):


Any expenditure resulting in any payment to any specified person will be disallowed to the
extent it is excessive or unreasonable in the opinion of the assessing officer, having regard
to the market value of the goods or services and the benefit to the business or profession.
The specified persons include the following:A.

Persons connected with the assessee

Class of assessee

Specified person

Individual

any relative of the assessee;

Company

any director of the company

Firm

any partner of the firm

Association of Persons

any member of the association

Hindu Undivided Family

any member of the family

Any relative of suc h director, partner or member


B. Si ster concerns
Person holding a substantial Specified person
interest in the business or
profession of the
Assesse
Individual

Individual

Company

any director of the company

Firm

any partner of the firm

Association of Persons

any member of the association

Hindu Undivided Family

any member of the family

Any relative of such individual director, partner or member


11 Persons connected with the sister concerns
If partner of a firm, or director of company or member of a HUF ,
AOP hold substantial interest , then such company , firm, AoP or
HUF will be the specified person also other directors, partners ,
members and their relatives will be the specified persons ( The above
table will be applicable to the concerns of where such persons are
partners directors or members)
D : Reverse connection :
Where assessee or his relatives, or if the assessee is a company, firm , HUF ,AOP its
directors , members or partners etc or their relatives ), hold substantial interest in the
business of other individual, company, firm, AOP or HUF . the latter will be treated as the
specified persons .
Relative in this context means husband, wife, and brother, sister or any lineal ascendant
or descendent of the individual. A person holding Substantial interest means a person
holding 20% voting power in a company at any time during the previous year or twenty per
cent of the profits of other concern viz proprietary concern, HUF, AOP, BOI etc.

2. Payments exceeding Rs 20,000 /35,000 other than by way of crossed


cheque or demand draft S. 40A(3).

Where in respect of any expenditure, payment exceeding Rs. 20,000 (Rs. 35,000 in cases
of payments made for plying, hiring or leasing goods carriages) during a single day is made
otherwise than by way of crossed bank cheque or draft; whole of this expenditure will be
disallowed.

Following points require attention:


The disallowance is on total payment if it crosses the limit of Rs. 20,000 or Rs. 35,000 i.e.
on payments of Rs 20,001 ( or 35,001) and more . Limit of Rs. 20,000 or Rs. 35,000 will
be considered with reference to the aggregate of all the payments made in a single day. If
expenditure is allowed in past on the basis of its accrual and subsequently cash payment is
made in respect of such liability, in excess of Rs. 20,000 or Rs. 35,000 , such excess
payment will be deemed to be the business profit in the year of payment. However, Rule
6D provides some case where, no disallowance will be made even if the payment exceeds
Rs 20,000 and is made otherwise than by way of crossed cheque or crossed bank draft
some of theses circumstances are: new buyer, bank holiday, lack of banking facility, etc. S
40A (4) forbids a person to raise an issue in a suit for being offered payment by account
payee cheque or draft and not in cash.

Provision for Gratuity-S. 40A (7)


No deduction shall be allowed in respect of any provision made by the assessee for the
payment of gratuity to his employees on their retirement or on termination of their
employment for any reason except any provision made by the assessee for the purpose of
payment of a sum by way of any contribution towards an approved gratuity fund, or for the
purpose of payment of any gratuity, that has become payable during the previous year.
Thus gratuity will be allowed only when it has become due and payable. But once the
provision for gratuity has been allowed as deduction in any year, and then subsequent
payment of gratuity will not be deductible again.

Provision for non- statutory funds -S.40A (9):


No deduction shall be allowed in respect of any sum paid by the assessee as an employer
towards the setting up or formation of, or as contribution to, any fund, trust, company,
association of persons, body of individuals, society or other institution for any purpose,
except where such sum is so paid, for the purposes and to the extent provided by or under
S. 36(1)(iv)/ (v) or as required by or under any other law for the time being in force like

approved provident/gratuity funds etc. However bonafide expenditure out of such fund
may be allowed if actually spent S.40 (10). Further u/s S.40 (11) assessee will be entitled to
receive back the unutilised part of any such fund/assets.

RESIDENTIAL STATUS S6

Concept of Residential Status


Under Section 5 total income of an assessee is be chargeable to tax
depending upon the residential status of a person and place and time of
accrual of such income and the rules for determining residential status of
various types of persons are contained in Section 6. These provisions are
discussed in detail below:

Classification of persons:
Provisions for determination of the residential status are different
for different categories of the assessee viz:
a) individuals;
b) Hindu Undivided Families(HUF
c) Firms or Associations ofPersons(AOP);
d) Companies;and
e) Every otherperson

Residential status of individual:


Resident or Non-resident (NR) -Section6(1):

To determine the residential status of an individual, it is to be ascertained


whether he is resident or a non resident during the previousyear.
An individual will be a resident in India in any previous year, if he
satisfies at least one of the following TWO basic conditions
1) He is in India in the previous year for a period of 182 days or
more
OR

2) He is in India for a period of 60 days or more during the previous


year AND 365 days or more during 4 years immediately preceding
the previous year
Exception:
The Second condition of 60 days or more is extended to182 days
or more in following two circumstances:
i.

An Indian citizen leaves India during the previousyear

for the purpose of taking up employment outside India


.OR

as a member of the crew of an Indian ship


OR.

ii.

An Indian citizen or a person of Indian origin comes on


visit to India during the previous year.

3) For this purpose, a person is said to be of Indian origin if either he


or any of his parents or any of his grandparents was born in
undivided India.
4) In both the above cases, an individual needs to be present in India
for a minimum of 182 days or more to become resident in India
instead of 60days.
5) If the individual satisfies any of the two conditions, he is a resident
in India and if he does not satisfy any of the conditions, he is a
non- resident during that particular assessment year.
Resident and Ordinarily Resident [R & O R ]-S-6(6)

Once an individual satisfies any of the above two basic conditions


for a particular assessment year, next step would be to determine whether
he will be a resident and ordinarily resident of India in that assessment
year. S 6(6) provides that a person will be resident and ordinarily
resident in India in any assessment year if he satisfies BOTH of the

following two conditions Viz he has been:-

1) resident in India in at least 2 out of 10 previous years according to


the above basic conditions immediately proceeding the relevant
previous year.
AND
2) In India for a period of 730 days or more during 7 years
immediately preceding the relevant previous year.

Resident and Not Ordinarily Resident [R &N O R]


A resident individual, who does not satisfy BOTH of the above
conditions given above, will be a Resident but Not Ordinarily Resident
inIndia.
In other words, an individual becomes resident but not ordinarily
resident in India If he

Satisfies at least one of thebasic conditions but satisfies


NONE of the additional conditions
OR

Satisfies ONLY ONE of the two additional conditions

NonResident

An individual is a non-resident in India if he satisfies none of the


basic conditions. It must be noted that if a person satisfies the additional
conditions but does not satisfy the basic conditions, he will still be treated
as Non-Resident. In such a case, additional conditions are notrelevant.

SUMMARY
From the above discussion it is brought out that an individual can
eitherbe:
(a) resident and ordinarily resident inIndia;
(b) resident but not ordinarily resident in India or
(c)non-resident

This can be depicted in the followingdiagram:

RESIDENTIAL STATUS OFINDIVIDUAL

Resident

Residentand
OrdinarilyResident
(ROR)

Non- Resident(Nr)

Resident butNot
OrdinarilyResident
(RNOR)
Figure1

Some Important points:


Following points are important in determine the residential status of a
person
a) A person need not stay at one place only. Stay may be at different
places in India.
b) A person may stay in India in intervals. Stay need not be
continuous.

c) In computing the stay period, the day on which a person enters


India as well as the day on which .he leaves India shall be taken
into consideration even if on such days the person is in India only
for a part of aday.
Note: According to decided cases, a total of 24 hours of stay
spread over a number of days is to be counted as being equivalent
to the stay of one day.. But in most questions the hours of arrival
and departure are not given. In all such cases day of departure
and arrival both shall be computed as twodays}.
d) A person, who is in India for 182 days or more will always be a
resident of India.
e) Conversely, a person, who is in India for 59 days or less,

will

always be Non-Resident ofIndia.


f)

An Indian citizen must leave India for employment or as crew to


get extended limit of 182 days instead of 60 days. A person leaving
India as tourist or for medical treatment will not get the limit of
182 days. Further, the condition is relaxed only for Indian citizens
and NOT for persons, who are not Indiancitizens.

g) Persons of Indian origin must come to India on visit for any


purpose pilgrimage, medical treatment or tourism but NOT
business or job. Indian citizenship is not the requirement for
thispurpose.
h) In computing the days of stay, one must be careful to note the leap
years -2000,2004 and 2008 and 2012.

Illustration-1:
i)

Mahesh comes to India, for the first time, on April 16, 2009. He
stays in Chennai up to April 10, 2011 and thereafter shifts to
Mumbai. He departs from Mumbai for his native country

on

October 2, 2011. Determine his residential status for the


assessment year2012-13.

.Solution:
As Mahesh was in India for 185 days* from April, 1, 2011 to
October 2, 2011, which is 182 days .he satisfies the first condition
u/s 6(1) of staying in India for 182 days or more during the
previous year 2011-12, he is a resident inIndia
Month/2011 April May J u n e July A u g u s t S e p t O c t . Total
D a y s
0
1
0
1
3
1
0
185
In the previous year 2009-10, Mahesh was in India for 350 days
from 16/04/2009 to 31/03/2010 and in the subsequent year 2010-11
, he was in India for the whole year. As result Mahesh was resident
in India for these two years. Hence he fulfills the first additional
condition under Section 6(6) that he must be a resident in India in
at least two year out of the ten preceding year i.e. from 2001-02 to
2010-11.

But Mahesh was in India for a period of 715 days only [350 days
in 2009-10 and 365 days in 2010-11] which is less than 730 days
stay required in the seven preceding year from 2004-05 to 2010-11
as per the second additionalcondition.

Therefore, Mahesh satisfies one of the basic conditions and only


one of the two additional conditions, he is, therefore, resident but
not ordinarily resident in India for the assessment year2012-13
Illustration-2:
2. Determine residential status for the assessment year 2012-13,
of Venkat, an Indian Citizen who leaves India for employment in
Canada on July, 1,2011.

Solution:

Venkat was in India for 92 days in 2011-12 ( April 2011 : 30 days


May 2011 : 31 days; June 2011: 30 days and ; July 2011: 1 days). Venkat is an
Indian citizen, leaving India to take up a job. Hence he will be get the
extended limit of 182 days stay in India during 2011-2012
Hence Venkat will be a Non resident although he was in India for more than
365 days during the four years preceding the previous year.

Illustration -3:
What will be the position in the above case, if Venkat leaves India

for world tour?

Solution:
Venkat will be Resident and Ordinarily Resident of India as he
satisfies the second basic condition u/s 6(1) of 365 days stay in the
preceding four years and 60 days stay during 2011-12 and also the two
additional condition of section 6(6), as being a person born in India,
Venkat satisfies both the additional conditions of being resident in India
for two years in preceding 10 years and stay of
preceding years

730 days in seven

1. INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES:

Among the five heads of income listed by S.14, Salaries is the


first and most important head of income. The concept of Salaries is very
wide and includes not only the salary in common parlance but also various
other receipts, gifts, perquisites and benefits.

The lesson is divided into various sections dealing with the concept
of salary income and its characteristics, which define as to what
constitutes salaries followed by the incomes falling under this head the
computation of basic salary, types of allowances and perquisites, valuation
of the perquisites, various income tax provisions for computing taxable
value of allowances etc and their detailed descriptions along with the
applicable legal provisions of incometax.

2. SCOPE OF SALARY INCOME

Section 15 provided the basis of charging salary income and section 17


explains it. Section 17 gives an inclusive definition ofsalary.

Salary includes:
a. Wages;
b. Any Pension orAnnuity;
c. AnyGratuity;
d. Any fees, commission, perquisites or profits in lieu of or in
addition to salary orwages;
e. Any advance ofsalary;
f. Any encashment of leavesalary;
g. Annual

accreditation

prescribed limits and

to

provident

fund

above

the

h. Any amount of credit to provident fund of employee to the


extent it is taxable.

The term salary" includes not only the basic salary but also Fees,
Commission, Bonus, taxable value of cash allowances and perquisites,
Retirement Benefits, encashment of leave salary, advance of salary,
arrears of salary, various allowances such as dearness allowance,
entertainment allowance,

house

rent

allowance,

conveyance

allowance and also includes perquisites by way of free housing, free car, free
schooling for children of employees, etc.

FORM NO.16
[See rule 31(1)(a)]
PART A
Certificate under section 203 of the Income-tax Act, 1961 for tax deducted
at source on salary
Certificate No. ZTIYHZI
Name and address

of

Last updated on 26 AUGUST 2015


the
Name and address of the Employee

Employer
LIC BR.890 MALAD GR
FLOOR, HEMU CLASSIC BLDG,

ROHIT LALAN MOURYA

S.V.RD MALAD WEST,MUMBAI

CHITRAKUT SEVA SAMITI VASARI HILL LINK

400064 MAHARASHTRA +(91) 22- RD GOREGAON WEST MUMBAI 400062


61221250 bo_890@licindia.com

MAHARASHTRA

+(91) 9768832877
TAN of the Deductor
PAN of
PAN of the Deductor

Employee Reference

the

No. provided by

Emplo

the Employer

yee
(If available)
MUML04671C
BWDPM0842C
Assessment Year Period with the Employer

AAACL0582H
CIT (TDS)

From

Address.The Commissioner of Income

To

01/04/2014 31/03/2015

Tax (TDS) Room no.900A,9th Floor,

2015-16

K.G. Hospital, Charni Rd,Mumbai


400002

Summary of amount paid/credited and tax deducted at source thereon in


respect of the employee
Quarter(s) Receipt Numb ers of
original quarterly
state ments of
TDS under sub-

Amount Amount of tax


p

deducted

aid/credited

( Rs. )

Amount of
tax deposited/
remitted

(Rs. )

se ction (3) of
section 200
Total (Rs.)

263264

24000

24000

I. DETAILS OF TAX DEDUCTED AND DEPOSITED IN THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT


ACCOUNT THROUGH BOOK ADJUSTMENT
(The deductor to provide payment wise details of tax deducted and deposited with
Sl. No.

Tax
Deposited in
respect of
the deductee
( Rs. )

respect to the deductee)


Book Identification Number (BIN)
Receipt
DDO serial number
Date of Status of
numbers
of

in Form No.

Form

24G

No. 24G

transfer

matching

voucher with Form


(dd/mm/yyyy No.24G
)

Total
( Rs. )
II. DETAILS OF TAX DEDUCTED AND DEPOSITED IN THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT
ACCOUNT THROUGH CHALLAN
(The deductor to provide payment wise details of tax deducted and deposited with
Sl. No.

Tax
Deposited in
respect of
the deductee

1.
Total (Rs )

( Rs. )
24000

respect to the deductee)


Challan Identification Number (CIN)
BSR Code of Date on which tax
Challan
the Bank
Branch

deposited
(dd/mm/yyyy)

Status of

Serial

matching

Number

with
OLTAS

63903777

31/08/2015

0003

YES

24000
Verification

I,Mr.Rohit Lalan Mourya son/daughter of Lalan Mourya working in the capacity of


Agency Manager (designation) do hereby certify that a sum of Rs. 24000 [Rs.
Twenty Four Thousand Only (in words)] has been deducted and deposited to the

credit of the Central Government. I further certify that the information given above
is true, complete and correct and is based on the books of account, documents, TDS
statements, TDS deposited and other available records.
Mumbai
Place
26/08/2015
Date

(Signature of person responsible for deduction


of tax)
Full Name: Mr.Rohit Lalan Mourya

Designation: Agency Manager

Notes:
1 Government deductors to fill information in item I if tax is paid
without production of an income-tax challan and in item II if tax is
paid accompanied by an income-tax challan.
2 Non-Government deductors to fill information in item II.
3 The deductor shall furnish the address of the Commissioner of
Income-tax (TDS) having jurisdiction as regards TDS statements
of the assessee.
4 If an assessee is employed under one employer only during the
year, certificate in Form No. 16 issued for the quarter ending on
31st March of the financial year shall contain the details of tax
deducted and deposited for all the quarters of the financial year.
5 If an assessee is employed under more than one employer during
the year, each of the employers shall issue Part A of the
certificate in Form No. 16 pertaining to the period for which such
assessee was employed with each of the employers. Part B
(Annexure) of the certificate in Form No.16 may be issued by
each of the employers or the last employer at the option of the
assessee.
6 In items I and II, in column for tax deposited in respect of
deductee, furnish total amount of TDS and education cess.
PART B (Annexure)
Details of Salary paid and any other income and tax deducted
1

Gross Salary

(a)

Salary as per provisions contained in sec.17(1)

Rs.526888

Rs.
Value of perquisites u/s 17(2) (as per Form

(b)

No.12BA, wherever applicable)


(c)
Profits in lieu of salary under section

Rs.

17(3)(as per Form No.12BA, wherever applicable)


(d)
2

Rs. 526888

Total

Less: Allowance to the extent exempt u/s 10


Allowance

Rs.

Rs. 6400
Transport Allowance

6400
Rs.
5204

Balance(1-2)

Deductions :

88

(a)

Entertainment allowance

Rs.

(b)

Tax on employment

Rs. 1700

5
6

Aggregate of 4(a) and (b)


Income chargeable under the head 'salaries' (3-

5)
Add: Any other income reported by the

Rs. 1700
Rs. 518788

employee
Income
Interest on Housing Loan

Rs.
126000
Rs. 126000

Gross total income (6+7)

Rs. 644788

Deductions under Chapter VI-A


(A)

sections 80C, 80CCC and 80CCD

Gross Amount Deductible amount


Rs.

section 80C

PPF

Rs.12000

Rs.

Rs.138081

Rs. Rs.

Insurance Premium
iii

.
.

Rs.

Rs. 150081

.
vii

.
b

section 80CCC

section 80CCD

Note: 1. Aggregate amount deductible under sections


80C, 80CCC and 80CCD(1) shall not exceed one
lakh rupees.
(B)

Other sections (e.g. 80E, 80G, 80TTA, etc.) under

Chapter VI-A.

Gross amount
(i)

section 80D Rs. 8370

Qualifying

Deductible amount

amount
Rs. 8370

Rs. 8370

Rs.

Rs.

(ii)

section..

Rs.

(iii)

section..

Rs.

(iv)

section..

Rs.

Rs.

(v)

section..

Rs.

Rs.

Rs.

Rs.
Rs.
Rs.

10 Aggregate of deductible amount under Chapter VI-A

Rs. 158370

11 Total Income (8-10)

Rs. 486420

12 Tax on total income

Rs. 21642

13 Education cess @ 3% (on tax computed at S. No. 12)

Rs. 649

14 Tax Payable (12+13)

Rs. 22291

15 Less: Relief under section 89 (attach details)

Rs

16 Tax payable (14-15)

Rs. 22291

17 Tax Deducted at Source u/s 192

Rs. 24000
Verification

Mr.Rohit Lalan Mourya, son/daughter of Lalan Mourya working in the capacity of Agency Manager (designation) do
hereby certify that the information given above is true, complete and correct and is based on the books of account,
documents, TDS statements, and other available records.
Place
Mumbai
Date

26/08/2015
(Signature of person responsible for deduction of tax)

Designation: Agency Manager

Full Name: Mr.Rohit Lalan Mourya,

COMPUTATION OF PROFITS & GAINS OF BUSINESS OR


PROFESSION:

Sections: 28- Chargeability :-Under head Profits and gains of business or profession
Section: 29 -Computation of profits and gains from business or profession
( Permits deductions/ allowances )
Sections 30 to section 37 : deductions expressly allowed in respect
of expenses and allowances
Section: 30- Deduction of Rent, rates, taxes, repairs and insurance for buildings
Section 31 - Deductions of Repairs and insurance of machinery, plant and furniture
Section: 32 Depreciation (excluding Depreciation Rates)

Section 36: Deductions (Restricted to following clauses).

Sec. 36 (1) (i) Insurance Premium


Sec. 36 (1) (ii) Bonus/Commission to employees.

Sec. 36 (1) (iii) Interest on Borrowed Capital


Sec. 36 (1) (iv) Employers Contribution to recognized Provident Fund &
Approved Superannuation Fund.
Sec. 36 (1) (v) Contribution towards Approved Gratuity Fund
Sec. 36 (1) (vii) Bad Debts

General deductions

Sec. 37 (1) General Deduction.

Sec. 37 (2B) Advertisement Expenses in Souvenir etc. of a Political Party.

Amount not deductible Sec 40

Sec. 40 (a) Interest , Royalty, fees for technical services payable outside India or
payable to non- resident in India is disallowed where TDS is not deducted

40A(2) Payments to relatives 40 A(2)

40A(3) payment exceeding Rs 20,000 paid otherwise than by account payee


cheques or Bank drafts

43B Disallowance of unpaid liabilities ( applicable in case of mercantile


system ).

Special provisions

Sec. 44AA Provisions in relation to maintenance of books of accounts

44AB Audit of accounts of certain persons

44AD Computation of income on estimated basis in case of taxpayer engaged in


certain business

44AE computation of income on estimated basis in case of taxpayer engaged in the


business of plying, leasing or hiring trucks

Section 28 Chargeability :- Profits and gains of business or profession

Profits and gains of any business or profession

Any compensation or other payments due to or received by any person specified in


section

Income derived by a trade, professional or similar association from specific services


performed for its members

The value of any benefit or perquisite, whether convertible into money or not,
arising from business or the exercise of a profession

Export incentive available to exporters

Income chargeable

Any interest, salary, bonus, commission or remuneration received by a partner from


firm

Any sum received for not carrying out any activity in relation to any business or not
to share any know-how, patent, copyright, trademark, etc.

Any sum received under a Key man insurance policy including bonus

Profits and gains of managing agency

Income from speculative transaction.

Methods of Accounting

Mercantile system of accounting- accrual basis

Cash system of accounting

Section 29:- Computation of profits and gains from business or profession

Determine profit from business or profession

Adjustment in respect of expenses allowable or not allowable

Expenses debited to profit and loss account but are not allowed as per income tax
Act, are to be added to profits

Partly disallowed expenses to be added to profits

Expenses which are admissible but not debited to profit and loss account should be
deducted from profits

Income chargeable but not credited to profit and loss account should be added to
profits

Income which are credited to profit and loss account but not taxable under the head
profits and gain of business or profession , should be deducted

CONCLUSION
This examines the process of defining a taxpayer from a specific point of view, namely the
issue that has to be dealt with beforehand: classifying the legal structure by means of which
the taxable income is acquired. Only in recent decades the fiscal legislator has become
aware of the technique of fiscal transparency and the possibilities and consequences of
conflicting classifications of a single entity under two or more legal systems. The matter of
classifying an entity has, to this very day, hardly been integrated into Belgian legislation.
This thesis is an attempt, by means of a general framework of concepts, to clarify this
issue. However, the way in which an entity is classified, as well as the extent to which
foreign taxation under possibly divergent classifications is taken into consideration,
remains ultimately a matter of government policy. It is for that reason that we have limited
ourselves in this thesis to formulate some proposals. They may or may not be adopted in
both internal national legislation and in double tax conventions that have already been
concluded or may be concluded in the future. It is the hope of the author that this work may
serve to contribute to a furtherawakening to the outlined problems and the proposal of
suitable techniques that may be helpful in the realization of new policies in an efficient and
effective way.

BIBLOGRAPHY:1) www.incometaxindia.gov.in

2) www.icai.in
3) www.indiataxes.com
4) www.finotax.com
5) www.law.incometaxindia.gov.in
6) www.indiabudget.nic.in
http://www.incademy.com/courses/Basic-taxation/Keep-itlegal/2/1101/10002
http://www.slideshare.net/?ss

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MANAN PRAKASHAN (DIRECT TAX)


Fogla manoj ( chartered accountant)

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A first hand report on direct taxes code 2010