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One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Acoustic Waves

MAGIC045

R. Erdélyi

SP 2 RC, Department of Applied Mathematics University of Shefﬁeld

email: robertus@shefﬁeld.ac.uk web: robertus.staff.shef.ac.uk

With special thanx to

!

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Outline

1 One-dimensional sound waves

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Outline

1 One-dimensional sound waves

2 The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Outline

1 One-dimensional sound waves

2 The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid

3 Three-dimensional acoustic waves

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Outline

1

2

3

One-dimensional sound waves

The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid

Three-dimensional acoustic waves

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Mass conservation

In general most phenomena associated with sound propagation can be described well by assuming that air (or the underlying ﬂuid) has uniform density ρ 0 and uniform pressure p 0 in the undisturbed state, and that sound generation causes

small changes in density ρ and pressure p, and a small velocity

u.

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Mass conservation

In general most phenomena associated with sound

propagation can be described well by assuming that air (or the underlying ﬂuid) has uniform density ρ 0 and uniform pressure p 0 in the undisturbed state, and that sound generation causes

small changes in density ρ and pressure p, and a small velocity

u.

We shall suppose that p and ρ are uniquely related:

p = p(ρ) ρ = ρ(p)

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

(1)

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Mass conservation

In general most phenomena associated with sound

propagation can be described well by assuming that air (or the underlying ﬂuid) has uniform density ρ 0 and uniform pressure p 0 in the undisturbed state, and that sound generation causes

small changes in density ρ and pressure p, and a small velocity

u.

We shall suppose that p and ρ are uniquely related:

p = p(ρ) ρ = ρ(p)

(1)

We begin by assuming that the motion is 1D

u = u(x, t)i,

p = p(x, t),
ρ = ρ(x, t)
R. Erdélyi
Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Mass conservation

Now ρ and u are not independent since mass must be conserved.

Consider a small tube of length δx and cross-sectional area A. At time t the mass of ﬂuid in the tube is

ρ(x, t)δxA

and at time t + δt it is

[ρ(x, t) + δρ]δxA = ρ(x, t)δxA + ρ(x, t t) δxδtA.

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Mass conservation

The mass has increased by an amount

ρ t δxδtA,

due to mass ﬂowing into the tube: in time δt this is equal to

ρu| (x,t) ρu| (x+δx,t) δtA

=

=

x (ρu)δxδtA

∂ρ

ρ u δxδtA u x δxδtA.

x

But u and ∂ρ/∂x are small (we linearize) this is equal to

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Mass conservation

The mass has increased by an amount

ρ t δxδtA,

due to mass ﬂowing into the tube: in time δt this is equal to

ρu| (x,t) ρu| (x+δx,t) δtA =

=

x (ρu)δxδtA

∂ρ

ρ u δxδtA u x δxδtA.

x

But u and ∂ρ/∂x are small (we linearize) this is equal to

u

δxδtA

x to highest order. Thus the 1D equation of continuity becomes

= ρ 0

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Mass conservation

The mass has increased by an amount

ρ t δxδtA,

due to mass ﬂowing into the tube: in time δt this is equal to

ρu| (x,t) ρu| (x+δx,t) δtA

=

=

x (ρu)δxδtA

∂ρ

ρ u δxδtA u x δxδtA.

x

But u and ∂ρ/∂x are small (we linearize) this is equal to

u

δxδtA

x to highest order. Thus the 1D equation of continuity becomes

= ρ 0

∂ρ t = ρ 0

u

x

(2)

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Conservation of momentum

Now we apply N2 to the ﬂuid in the small tube. From Figure below the force on the ﬂuid is

[p(x, t)A p(x + δx, t)A] = x p δxA,

neglecting gravity and this is equal to

by N2. Thus

ρδxA u t

u ρ 0 t

δxA

u

t

= 1

ρ

0

p

x .

(3)

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Wave equation in 1D

Now, by Eq. (1),

where

p = p ∂ρ

x

x

∂ρ

dp = dρ

ρ=ρ 0

∂ρ

x := c 2 ρ

x ,

c 2 = (p/∂ρ).

Thus, from Eq. (2),

t 2 2 ρ = ρ 0

2 u

xt =

2 ρ

t 2

ρ 0

x 1

ρ

0

=

c 2 2 ρ

x 2 .

c 2

∂ρ ∂x ,

(4)

Likewise, the same equation holds for u (and p). Thus

2 u t 2

= c 2 x 2 u 2

R. Erdélyi

&

∂ 2 p
=
c 2 ∂ 2 p .
(5)
∂t 2
∂x 2
Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Sound in air

For sound in gases, the appropriate relationship Eq. (1) between p and ρ is the adiabatic law

0 =

p

p

ρ 0 γ p

ρ

∂ρ =

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Sound in air

For sound in gases, the appropriate relationship Eq. (1) between p and ρ is the adiabatic law

0 =

p

p

ρ 0 γ p = γp 0

ρ

∂ρ

ρ

0

0 γ1

ρ

ρ

.

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Sound in air

For sound in gases, the appropriate relationship Eq. (1) between p and ρ is the adiabatic law

0 =

p

p

ρ 0 γ p = γp 0

ρ

∂ρ

ρ

0

0 γ1

ρ

ρ

.

NB: No heat exchange change occurs quickly. Newton derived Eq. (5), but assumed that p and ρ were related by the isothermal law (Boyle’s Law)

c

= p 0

ρ

0

p

= p 0

ρ 0

ρ

1/2

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Sound in air

For sound in gases, the appropriate relationship Eq. (1) between p and ρ is the adiabatic law

0 =

p

p

ρ 0 γ p = γp 0

ρ

∂ρ

ρ

0

0 γ1

ρ

ρ

.

NB: No heat exchange change occurs quickly. Newton derived Eq. (5), but assumed that p and ρ were related by the isothermal law (Boyle’s Law)

p

ρ

= p 0

ρ 0

c = p 0 1/2 280 m s 1

ρ

0

Correct expression due to Laplace!

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Sound in air

By Eq. (4), the velocity of sound in air is

c

=

γp 0

ρ

0

1/2

(6)

at standard temperature and pressure, e.g. T=288 K; γ = 1.4,, p 0 1.013 × 10 5 Nm 2 , ρ 0 1.293 kgm 3 .

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Sound in air

By Eq. (4), the velocity of sound in air is

c = γp 0 1/2 330 m s 1

ρ

0

(6)

at standard temperature and pressure, e.g. T=288 K; γ = 1.4,, p 0 1.013 × 10 5 Nm 2 , ρ 0 1.293 kgm 3 .

Eq. (6) agrees

?

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Sound in air

By Eq. (4), the velocity of sound in air is

c = γp 0 1/2 330 m s 1

ρ

0

(6)

at standard temperature and pressure, e.g. T=288 K; γ = 1.4,, p 0 1.013 × 10 5 Nm 2 , ρ 0 1.293 kgm 3 .

Eq. (6) agrees well with experiments.

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Sound in water

The same analysis applies to water where experiments show that

(p p 0 ) = κ(ρ ρ 0 )0

c

dp

dρ

?

=

κ

ρ 0

(κ 2.045 × 10 9 kgm 1 s 2 , ρ 0 10 3 kg m 3 )

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Sound in water

The same analysis applies to water where experiments show that

(p p 0 ) = κ(ρ ρ 0 )0

dp

dρ

=

κ

ρ 0

c 1.430 × 10 3 m s 1

(κ 2.045 × 10 9 kgm 1 s 2 , ρ 0 10 3 kg m 3 )

One dimensional sound waves can be treated by the same mathematical methods as (one-dimensional) waves on strings. Note, however, that in strings the motion is transverse; in sound waves it is longitudinal.

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Outline

1

2

3

One-dimensional sound waves

The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid

Three-dimensional acoustic waves

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

3D ﬂuid

In reality, sound propagates in 3D (although the 1D result can

be applied approximately to e.g. pipes). We now assume the ﬂuid velocity u is still small but with three non-zero components:

u = u(x, t)i + v (x, t)j + w(x, t)k.

We must again ensure that mass is conserved - the resulting

equation, viz. Eq. (8), is known as the equation of continuity.

Consider a small cuboid with sides parallel to the axes, and of lengths δx, δy , δz.

(7)

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

3D ﬂuid element δxδy δz

As above, the increase in the mass within this cuboid between

times t and δt is

∂ρ

t

δxδyδzδt.

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Mass conservation in 3D

This is equal to the mass ﬂowing into the cuboid, i.e.

Thus

 {ρu| OBCD − ρu| O B C D } δyδzδt + {ρv| OO D D − ρv| BB C C } δzδxδt

+ {ρw| OO B B ρw| DD C C } δxδyδt

≈ − x (ρu) + y (ρv) + z (ρw) δxδyδzδt.

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Mass conservation in 3D

This is equal to the mass ﬂowing into the cuboid, i.e.

 {ρu| OBCD − ρu| O B C D } δyδzδt + {ρv| OO D D − ρv| BB C C } δzδxδt

+ {ρw| OO B B ρw| DD C C } δxδyδt

Thus

≈ − x (ρu) + y (ρv) + z (ρw) δxδyδzδt.

∂ρ

t

+ x (ρu) + y (ρv) + z (ρw) = 0.

(8)

Eq. (8) is exact since no assumption of smallness has yet been made. This is the equation of continuity for any ﬂuid.

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Outline

1

2

3

One-dimensional sound waves

The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid

Three-dimensional acoustic waves

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Linear mass conservation in 3D

When ρ ρ 0 and u, v , w are small, Eq. (8) becomes

∂ρ

t

+

ρ 0 u x

+ v + w

y

z

+ (ρ ρ 0 ) u x

+ v + w

y

z

∂ρ

x + v y + w z

∂ρ

∂ρ

+u

= 0.

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Linear mass conservation in 3D

When ρ ρ 0 and u, v , w are small, Eq. (8) becomes

∂ρ

t

Thus

+

ρ 0 u x

+ v + w

y

z

+ (ρ ρ 0 ) u x

+ v + w

y

z

2nd order

∂ρ

x + v y + w z

∂ρ

∂ρ

+u

2nd order

= 0.

∂ρ

t

=

ρ 0 u x

+ v + w

y

z

(9)

replaces Eq. (2) for acoustic waves.

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Linear conservation of momentum in 3D

N2 gives three equations like Eq. (3) 1 :

or,

u

t

= 1

ρ

0

p ,

x

v

t

= 1

ρ

0

p ,

y

w

t

= 1

ρ

0

p

z

(10)

1 The LHS of Eq. (10) - and Eq. (3) earlier - involve an assumption of u, v , w being small. See § (4.1)

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Linear conservation of momentum in 3D

N2 gives three equations like Eq. (3) 1 :

u

t

= 1

ρ 0

p ,

x

∂ρ

x ,

or, using Eq. (4):

u

t

= c 2

ρ 0

v

t

v

t

= 1

ρ 0

= c 2

ρ 0

p ,

y

∂ρ

y ,

w

t

w

t

= 1

ρ 0

p

z

∂ρ

= c 2 z

ρ

0

(10)

(11)

1 The LHS of Eq. (10) - and Eq. (3) earlier - involve an assumption of u, v , w being small. See § (4.1)

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Linear wave equation in 3D

Thus, from Eq. (9)

2 ρ ∂t 2

=

ρ 0 2 u

xt + yt + zt

2 v

2 w

=

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Linear wave equation in 3D

Thus, from Eq. (9)

2 ρ

t 2

Hence

= ρ 0

xt + yt + zt

2 u

2 v

2 w

= ∂ρ c 2 x

ρ 0

x

ρ

0

+

y c 2 y + z c 2 z .

ρ

0

∂ρ

ρ

0

∂ρ

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Linear wave equation in 3D

Thus, from Eq. (9)

2 ρ

t 2

Hence

= ρ 0

xt + yt + zt

2 u

2 v

2 w

=

ρ 0

x c 2

ρ

0

∂ρ

x

+

y c 2 y + z c 2 z .

ρ

0

∂ρ

ρ

0

∂ρ

∂ 2 ρ
∂ 2 ρ
∂ 2 ρ
∂ 2 ρ
=
c 2
+
+
.
(12)
∂t 2
∂x 2
∂y 2
∂z 2

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Velocity potential

In most circumstances u = ui + v j + wk, where

u

= φ

x ,

v =

∂φ

y ,

w = φ z ,

(13)

and φ is the velocity potential. It can be shown that φ also satisﬁes the same equation (so therefore do u, v , w):

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D ﬂuid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Velocity potential

In most circumstances u = ui + v j + wk, where

u = φ x ,

v = y ∂φ ,

w = φ z ,

(13)

and φ is the velocity potential. It can be shown that φ also satisﬁes the same equation (so therefore do u, v , w):

2 φ ∂t 2

=

c 2 x 2 φ 2 +

2 φ + 2 φ

z 2

y 2

.

(14)

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves