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One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Acoustic Waves

MAGIC045

R. Erdélyi

SP 2 RC, Department of Applied Mathematics University of Sheffield

email: robertus@sheffield.ac.uk web: robertus.staff.shef.ac.uk

With special thanx to

!

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

email: robertus@sheffield.ac.uk web: robertus.staff.shef.ac.uk With special thanx to ! R. Erdélyi Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Outline

1 One-dimensional sound waves

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves Outline 1 One-dimensional sound waves R. Erdélyi Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Outline

1 One-dimensional sound waves

2 The equation of continuity of 3D fluid

waves Outline 1 One-dimensional sound waves 2 The equation of continuity of 3D fluid R. Erdélyi

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Outline

1 One-dimensional sound waves

2 The equation of continuity of 3D fluid

3 Three-dimensional acoustic waves

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

sound waves 2 The equation of continuity of 3D fluid 3 Three-dimensional acoustic waves R. Erdélyi

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Outline

1

2

3

One-dimensional sound waves

The equation of continuity of 3D fluid

Three-dimensional acoustic waves

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves R. Erdélyi Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Mass conservation

In general most phenomena associated with sound propagation can be described well by assuming that air (or the underlying fluid) has uniform density ρ 0 and uniform pressure p 0 in the undisturbed state, and that sound generation causes

small changes in density ρ and pressure p, and a small velocity

u.

generation causes small changes in density ρ and pressure p , and a small velocity u

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Mass conservation

In general most phenomena associated with sound

propagation can be described well by assuming that air (or the underlying fluid) has uniform density ρ 0 and uniform pressure p 0 in the undisturbed state, and that sound generation causes

small changes in density ρ and pressure p, and a small velocity

u.

We shall suppose that p and ρ are uniquely related:

p = p(ρ) ρ = ρ(p)

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

(1)

shall suppose that p and ρ are uniquely related: p = p ( ρ ) ↔

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Mass conservation

In general most phenomena associated with sound

propagation can be described well by assuming that air (or the underlying fluid) has uniform density ρ 0 and uniform pressure p 0 in the undisturbed state, and that sound generation causes

small changes in density ρ and pressure p, and a small velocity

u.

We shall suppose that p and ρ are uniquely related:

p = p(ρ) ρ = ρ(p)

(1)

We begin by assuming that the motion is 1D

u = u(x, t)i,

p = p(x, t), ρ = ρ(x, t) R. Erdélyi Acoustic Waves
p = p(x, t),
ρ = ρ(x, t)
R. Erdélyi
Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Mass conservation

Now ρ and u are not independent since mass must be conserved.

and u are not independent since mass must be conserved. Consider a small tube of length

Consider a small tube of length δx and cross-sectional area A. At time t the mass of fluid in the tube is

ρ(x, t)δxA

and at time t + δt it is

[ρ(x, t) + δρ]δxA = ρ(x, t)δxA + ρ(x, t t) δxδtA.

t ) + δρ ] δ xA = ρ ( x , t ) δ xA
t ) + δρ ] δ xA = ρ ( x , t ) δ xA

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Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Mass conservation

The mass has increased by an amount

ρ t δxδtA,

due to mass flowing into the tube: in time δt this is equal to

ρu| (x,t) ρu| (x+δx,t) δtA

=

=

x (ρu)δxδtA

∂ρ

ρ u δxδtA u x δxδtA.

x

But u and ∂ρ/∂x are small (we linearize) this is equal to

δ x δ tA . ∂ x But u and ∂ρ/∂ x are small (we linearize

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Mass conservation

The mass has increased by an amount

ρ t δxδtA,

due to mass flowing into the tube: in time δt this is equal to

ρu| (x,t) ρu| (x+δx,t) δtA =

=

x (ρu)δxδtA

∂ρ

ρ u δxδtA u x δxδtA.

x

But u and ∂ρ/∂x are small (we linearize) this is equal to

u

δxδtA

x to highest order. Thus the 1D equation of continuity becomes

= ρ 0

u δ x δ tA ∂ x to highest order. Thus the 1D equation of continuity

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Mass conservation

The mass has increased by an amount

ρ t δxδtA,

due to mass flowing into the tube: in time δt this is equal to

ρu| (x,t) ρu| (x+δx,t) δtA

=

=

x (ρu)δxδtA

∂ρ

ρ u δxδtA u x δxδtA.

x

But u and ∂ρ/∂x are small (we linearize) this is equal to

u

δxδtA

x to highest order. Thus the 1D equation of continuity becomes

= ρ 0

∂ρ t = ρ 0

u

x

(2)
(2)

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Conservation of momentum

Now we apply N2 to the fluid in the small tube. From Figure below the force on the fluid is

small tube. From Figure below the force on the fluid is [ p ( x ,

[p(x, t)A p(x + δx, t)A] = x p δxA,

neglecting gravity and this is equal to

by N2. Thus

ρδxA u t

u ρ 0 t

δxA

u

t

= 1

ρ

0

p

x .

(3)
(3)

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Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Wave equation in 1D

Now, by Eq. (1),

where

p = p ∂ρ

x

x

∂ρ

dp = dρ

ρ=ρ 0

∂ρ

x := c 2 ρ

x ,

c 2 = (p/∂ρ).

Thus, from Eq. (2),

t 2 2 ρ = ρ 0

2 u

xt =

2 ρ

t 2

ρ 0

x 1

ρ

0

=

c 2 2 ρ

x 2 .

c 2

∂ρ ∂x ,

(4)

Likewise, the same equation holds for u (and p). Thus

2 u t 2

= c 2 x 2 u 2

R. Erdélyi

&

∂ 2 p = c 2 ∂ 2 p . (5) ∂t 2 ∂x 2
∂ 2 p
=
c 2 ∂ 2 p .
(5)
∂t 2
∂x 2
Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Sound in air

For sound in gases, the appropriate relationship Eq. (1) between p and ρ is the adiabatic law

0 =

p

p

ρ 0 γ p

ρ

∂ρ =

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

p and ρ is the adiabatic law ∗ 0 = p p ρ 0 γ ⇒

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Sound in air

For sound in gases, the appropriate relationship Eq. (1) between p and ρ is the adiabatic law

0 =

p

p

ρ 0 γ p = γp 0

ρ

∂ρ

ρ

0

0 γ1

ρ

ρ

.

law ∗ 0 = p p ρ 0 γ ⇒ ∂ p = γ p 0

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Sound in air

For sound in gases, the appropriate relationship Eq. (1) between p and ρ is the adiabatic law

0 =

p

p

ρ 0 γ p = γp 0

ρ

∂ρ

ρ

0

0 γ1

ρ

ρ

.

NB: No heat exchange change occurs quickly. Newton derived Eq. (5), but assumed that p and ρ were related by the isothermal law (Boyle’s Law)

c

= p 0

ρ

0

p

= p 0

ρ 0

ρ

1/2

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

by the isothermal law (Boyle’s Law) ⇒ c = p 0 ρ 0 p = p

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Sound in air

For sound in gases, the appropriate relationship Eq. (1) between p and ρ is the adiabatic law

0 =

p

p

ρ 0 γ p = γp 0

ρ

∂ρ

ρ

0

0 γ1

ρ

ρ

.

NB: No heat exchange change occurs quickly. Newton derived Eq. (5), but assumed that p and ρ were related by the isothermal law (Boyle’s Law)

p

ρ

= p 0

ρ 0

c = p 0 1/2 280 m s 1

ρ

0

0 ⇒ c = p 0 1 / 2 ≈ 280 m s − 1 ρ

Correct expression due to Laplace!

0 ⇒ c = p 0 1 / 2 ≈ 280 m s − 1 ρ

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Sound in air

By Eq. (4), the velocity of sound in air is

c

=

γp 0

ρ

0

1/2

(6)

at standard temperature and pressure, e.g. T=288 K; γ = 1.4,, p 0 1.013 × 10 5 Nm 2 , ρ 0 1.293 kgm 3 .

, , p 0 ≈ 1 . 013 × 10 5 Nm − 2 , ρ

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Sound in air

By Eq. (4), the velocity of sound in air is

c = γp 0 1/2 330 m s 1

ρ

0

(6)

at standard temperature and pressure, e.g. T=288 K; γ = 1.4,, p 0 1.013 × 10 5 Nm 2 , ρ 0 1.293 kgm 3 .

Eq. (6) agrees

?

. 013 × 10 5 Nm − 2 , ρ 0 ≈ 1 . 293 kgm

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Sound in air

By Eq. (4), the velocity of sound in air is

c = γp 0 1/2 330 m s 1

ρ

0

(6)

at standard temperature and pressure, e.g. T=288 K; γ = 1.4,, p 0 1.013 × 10 5 Nm 2 , ρ 0 1.293 kgm 3 .

Eq. (6) agrees well with experiments.

Nm − 2 , ρ 0 ≈ 1 . 293 kgm − 3 . Eq. (6)

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Sound in water

The same analysis applies to water where experiments show that

(p p 0 ) = κ(ρ ρ 0 )0

c

dp

dρ

?

=

κ

ρ 0

(κ 2.045 × 10 9 kgm 1 s 2 , ρ 0 10 3 kg m 3 )

2 . 045 × 10 9 kgm − 1 s − 2 , ρ 0 ≈

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Sound in water

The same analysis applies to water where experiments show that

(p p 0 ) = κ(ρ ρ 0 )0

dp

dρ

=

κ

ρ 0

c 1.430 × 10 3 m s 1

(κ 2.045 × 10 9 kgm 1 s 2 , ρ 0 10 3 kg m 3 )

One dimensional sound waves can be treated by the same mathematical methods as (one-dimensional) waves on strings. Note, however, that in strings the motion is transverse; in sound waves it is longitudinal.

Note, however, that in strings the motion is transverse ; in sound waves it is longitudinal
Note, however, that in strings the motion is transverse ; in sound waves it is longitudinal

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Outline

1

2

3

One-dimensional sound waves

The equation of continuity of 3D fluid

Three-dimensional acoustic waves

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves R. Erdélyi Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

3D fluid

In reality, sound propagates in 3D (although the 1D result can

be applied approximately to e.g. pipes). We now assume the fluid velocity u is still small but with three non-zero components:

u = u(x, t)i + v (x, t)j + w(x, t)k.

We must again ensure that mass is conserved - the resulting

equation, viz. Eq. (8), is known as the equation of continuity.

Consider a small cuboid with sides parallel to the axes, and of lengths δx, δy , δz.

(7)

a small cuboid with sides parallel to the axes, and of lengths δ x , δ

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Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

3D fluid element δxδy δz

acoustic waves 3D fluid element δ x δ y δ z As above, the increase in

As above, the increase in the mass within this cuboid between

times t and δt is

∂ρ

t

δxδyδzδt.

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

the mass within this cuboid between times t and δ t is ∂ρ ∂ t δ

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Mass conservation in 3D

This is equal to the mass flowing into the cuboid, i.e.

Thus

{ρu| OBCD ρu| O B C D }

δyδzδt

+ {ρv| OO D D ρv| BB C C }

δzδxδt

+ {ρw| OO B B ρw| DD C C } δxδyδt

≈ − x (ρu) + y (ρv) + z (ρw) δxδyδzδt.

x ( ρ u ) + ∂ y ( ρ v ) + ∂ z (

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Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Mass conservation in 3D

This is equal to the mass flowing into the cuboid, i.e.

{ρu| OBCD ρu| O B C D }

δyδzδt

+ {ρv| OO D D ρv| BB C C }

δzδxδt

+ {ρw| OO B B ρw| DD C C } δxδyδt

Thus

≈ − x (ρu) + y (ρv) + z (ρw) δxδyδzδt.

∂ρ

t

+ x (ρu) + y (ρv) + z (ρw) = 0.

(8)

Eq. (8) is exact since no assumption of smallness has yet been made. This is the equation of continuity for any fluid.

assumption of smallness has yet been made. This is the equation of continuity for any fluid.
assumption of smallness has yet been made. This is the equation of continuity for any fluid.

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Outline

1

2

3

One-dimensional sound waves

The equation of continuity of 3D fluid

Three-dimensional acoustic waves

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves R. Erdélyi Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Linear mass conservation in 3D

When ρ ρ 0 and u, v , w are small, Eq. (8) becomes

∂ρ

t

+

ρ 0 u x

+ v + w

y

z

+ (ρ ρ 0 ) u x

+ v + w

y

z

∂ρ

x + v y + w z

∂ρ

∂ρ

+u

= 0.

v + ∂ w ∂ y ∂ z ∂ρ ∂ x + v ∂ y +

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Linear mass conservation in 3D

When ρ ρ 0 and u, v , w are small, Eq. (8) becomes

∂ρ

t

Thus

+

ρ 0 u x

+ v + w

y

z

+ (ρ ρ 0 ) u x

+ v + w

y

z

2nd order

∂ρ

x + v y + w z

∂ρ

∂ρ

+u

2nd order

= 0.

∂ρ

t

=

ρ 0 u x

+ v + w

y

z

(9)

replaces Eq. (2) for acoustic waves.

∂ u ∂ x + ∂ v + ∂ w ∂ y ∂ z (9) replaces

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Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Linear conservation of momentum in 3D

N2 gives three equations like Eq. (3) 1 :

or,

u

t

= 1

ρ

0

p ,

x

v

t

= 1

ρ

0

p ,

y

w

t

= 1

ρ

0

p

z

(10)

1 The LHS of Eq. (10) - and Eq. (3) earlier - involve an assumption of u, v , w being small. See § (4.1)

(10) - and Eq. (3) earlier - involve an assumption of u , v , w
(10) - and Eq. (3) earlier - involve an assumption of u , v , w

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Linear conservation of momentum in 3D

N2 gives three equations like Eq. (3) 1 :

u

t

= 1

ρ 0

p ,

x

∂ρ

x ,

or, using Eq. (4):

u

t

= c 2

ρ 0

v

t

v

t

= 1

ρ 0

= c 2

ρ 0

p ,

y

∂ρ

y ,

w

t

w

t

= 1

ρ 0

p

z

∂ρ

= c 2 z

ρ

0

(10)

(11)

1 The LHS of Eq. (10) - and Eq. (3) earlier - involve an assumption of u, v , w being small. See § (4.1)

(10) - and Eq. (3) earlier - involve an assumption of u , v , w
(10) - and Eq. (3) earlier - involve an assumption of u , v , w

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Linear wave equation in 3D

Thus, from Eq. (9)

2 ρ ∂t 2

=

ρ 0 2 u

xt + yt + zt

2 v

2 w

=

0 ∂ 2 u ∂ x ∂ t + ∂ y ∂ t + ∂ z

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Linear wave equation in 3D

Thus, from Eq. (9)

2 ρ

t 2

Hence

= ρ 0

xt + yt + zt

2 u

2 v

2 w

= ∂ρ c 2 x

ρ 0

x

ρ

0

+

y c 2 y + z c 2 z .

ρ

0

∂ρ

ρ

0

∂ρ

y − c 2 ∂ y + ∂ z − c 2 ∂ z . ∂

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Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Linear wave equation in 3D

Thus, from Eq. (9)

2 ρ

t 2

Hence

= ρ 0

xt + yt + zt

2 u

2 v

2 w

=

ρ 0

x c 2

ρ

0

∂ρ

x

+

y c 2 y + z c 2 z .

ρ

0

∂ρ

ρ

0

∂ρ

∂ 2 ρ ∂ 2 ρ ∂ 2 ρ ∂ 2 ρ = c 2
∂ 2 ρ
∂ 2 ρ
∂ 2 ρ
∂ 2 ρ
=
c 2
+
+
.
(12)
∂t 2
∂x 2
∂y 2
∂z 2

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Velocity potential

In most circumstances u = ui + v j + wk, where

u

= φ

x ,

v =

∂φ

y ,

w = φ z ,

(13)

and φ is the velocity potential. It can be shown that φ also satisfies the same equation (so therefore do u, v , w):

. It can be shown that φ also satisfies the same equation (so therefore do u

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves

One-dimensional sound waves The equation of continuity of 3D fluid Three-dimensional acoustic waves

Velocity potential

In most circumstances u = ui + v j + wk, where

u = φ x ,

v = y ∂φ ,

w = φ z ,

(13)

and φ is the velocity potential. It can be shown that φ also satisfies the same equation (so therefore do u, v , w):

2 φ ∂t 2

=

c 2 x 2 φ 2 +

2 φ + 2 φ

z 2

y 2

.

(14)

2 ∂ ∂ x 2 φ 2 + ∂ 2 φ + ∂ 2 φ ∂

R. Erdélyi

Acoustic Waves