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Personal perception: the process of forming impression of others

2. Stereotypes widely held beliefs that people have a certain characteristic
because of their association with a certain group
a. Gender stereotypes, age stereotypes, cultural stereotypes
3. Illusory correlation occurs when people estimate that they have
encountered more conformations of social traits than they have actually
seen. Ex: people see what expect to see even if its not accurate. Woman as
emotional and man with same attitude as aggressive
4. Ingroup group one belongs to and identifies with.
5. Outgroup group one does not identify with. Tend to be viewed with
negative stereotypes
6. Attributions inferences people draw about the causes of events, others
behavior and own.
a. Internal attributions: causes of behavior to personal dispositions, traits
or feelings
b. External attributions: causes of behavior due to situational demands
and environment
7. Fundamental attribution error observers bias in favor of internal
attributions in explaining others behavior
a. When looking at self people tend to favor external attributions for
why things happened that were not favorable
8. Defensive attribution tendency to blame vicitms for their misfortune so
that one feels less likely to be victimized in similar way. Ex: friend getting

1. Individualism vs collectivism
a. Defining ones identity in terms of personal attributes vs group
b. Collectivist cultures higher priority on shared values and
resources, cooperation and mutual interdependence.
i. W Europe individualistic.. Asia, Africa, L. America
ii. Collectivist cultures less likely to exhibit attributional biases.
More likely to assume that someones behavior is not just them
but group norms/ beliefs
2. Attitudes positive or negative evaluations of objects of thought.
3. Explicit attitudes conscious attitudes we can readily describe
4. Implicit attitudes covert attitudes expressed subtly with little conscious
5. Normative influence when people conform to social norms for fear of
negative social cons.
6. Informational influence ppl. Look to others for guidance on how to
behave in ambiguous sit.
7. Obedience form of compliance when ppl. Follow direct commands from
someone in authority

Freud psychosexual development stages

1. Oral stage childs feeding first year in life. Can predict future acts like
chances of smoking
2. Anal stage potty trained. First attempt by society to suppress infants bodily
3. Phallic stage Oedipus complex emerges. Girls and penis envy
4. Latency and Genital stages expanding social interaction beyond family.
With puberty child progresses to genital stage. Sexual energy channeled
towards peers of other sex.
Alfred Adler
1. Striving for superiority drive to adapt and improve and master lifes
challenges. Striving for superiority is main goal in life not physical
gratification like Freud believed
2. Compensation efforts to overcome real inferiorities by developing ones
a. Overcompensation some people engage in this to conceal even their
own feelings of inferiority. Instead of working to master lifes
challenges, these peope, work for money, fame and other trappings of
success. (material proof of worth)
Albert Bandura
1. Social cognitive theory likes behaviorism. Believes that personality is
largely shaped through learning. People are self-organizing, reflective and
self- regulating.
2. Recipricol determinism like Skinner (behaviorist believes) Bandura agrees
that environment determines behavior however, he also thinks behavior
determines environment. People can choose their environment and change it
by who and what they souround themselves with.
3. Observational learning occurs when an organisms responding is infleucned
by the observation of others called models. Ex: watching someone
cheatmake you suspicious of ppl.
4. Behavior influenced by Self Efficacy refers to one;s ability to perform
behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes. High self-efficacy ppl.
Feel they can execute necessary responses to earn reinforcers. Greater selfefficacy less procrastination, greater success in quiting things