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LAB REPORT OF EEE 3209 (ELECTRICAL MACHINES) NAME: MUHAMMAD SHAFIQ ID:I15009504 TITLE: EXPERIMENT 1 (DC MACHINES)

LAB REPORT OF EEE 3209 (ELECTRICAL MACHINES)

NAME: MUHAMMAD SHAFIQ

ID:I15009504

TITLE: EXPERIMENT 1 (DC MACHINES) DATE: 1 MARCH 2016

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TABLE OF CONTETS

  • 1.0 INTRODUCTION

PAGE 3-5

  • 2.0 EXPERIMENT DETAILS

PAGE 6-14

  • 3.0 RESULTS

PAGE 15-24

  • 4.0 DISCUSSION

PAGE 25-26

  • 5.0 CONCLUSION

PAGE 27

  • 6.0 REFERENCES

PAGE 28

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1.0 INTRODUCTION

A DC machine can run either as a motor or as a generator. A motor converts electrical power into mechanical power while a generator converts mechanical power into electrical power. A generator must, therefore, be mechanically driven in order that it may produce electricity. Since the field winding is an electromagnet, current must flow through it to produce a magnetic field. This current is called the excitation current, and can be supplied to the field winding in one of two ways: it can come from a separate, external dc source, in which case the generator is called a separately excited generator; or it can come from the generator's own output, in which case the generator is called a self-excited generator. Assume that the shunt field is excited by a dc current, thereby setting up a magnetic flux in the generator. If the rotor (or more correctly, the armature) is rotated by applying mechanical effort to the shaft, the armature coils will cut the magnetic flux, and a voltage will be induced in them. This voltage is ac and in order to get dc out of the generator, a rectifier must be employed. This role is carried out by the commutator and the brushes. The voltage induced in the coils (and, therefore, the dc voltage at the brushes) depends only upon two things - the speed of rotation and the strength of the magnetic field. If the speed is doubled, the voltage doubles. If the field strength is increased by 20%, the voltage also increases by 20%. Although separate excitation requires a separate dc power source, it is useful in cases where a generator must respond quickly and precisely to an external control source, or when the output voltage must be varied over a wide range. With no electrical load connected to the generator, no current flows and only a voltage appears at the output. But if a resistance load is connected across the output, current will flow and the generator will begin to deliver electric power to the load. The machine driving the generator must then furnish additional mechanical power to the generator. This is often accompanied by increased noise and vibration of the motor and the generator, together with a drop in speed.

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The separately excited generator has many applications. However, it does have the disadvantage that a separate direct current power source is needed to excite the shunt field. This is costly and sometimes inconvenient; and the self-excited DC generator is often more suitable. In a self-excited generator, the field winding is connected to the generator output. It may be connected across the output, in series with the output, or a combination of the two. The way in which the field is connected (shunt, series or compound) determines many of the generator's characteristics. All of the above generators can have identical construction. Self-excitation is possible because of the residual magnetism in the stator pole pieces. As the armature rotates a small

voltage is induced across its windings. When the field winding is connected in parallel (shunt) with the armature a small field current will flow. If this small field current is flowing in the proper direction, the residual magnetism will be reinforced which further increases the armature voltage and thus, a rapid voltage buildup occurs. If the field current flows in the wrong direction, the residual magnetism will be reduced and voltage build-up cannot occur. In this case, interchanging the shunt field leads will correct the situation. Self-excited shunt generators have the disadvantage in that changes in their load current from no load to full-load cause their output voltage to change also. Their poor voltage regulation is due to three factors:

  • a) The magnetic field strength drops as the armature voltage drops, which further reduces the

magnetic field strength, which in turn reduces the armature voltage etc.

  • b) The armature voltage drop (I2R losses) from no-load to full-load.

  • c) The running speed of the driving motor may change with load. (This is particularly true of

internal combustion engines and induction motors). The two field windings (shunt and series) on the compound generator are connected so that their magnetic fields aid each other. Thus, when the load current increases, the current through the shunt field winding decreases reducing the strength of the magnetic field. However, if the same increase in load current is made to flow through the series field winding, it will increase the strength of the magnetic field.

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With the proper number of turns in the series winding, the increase in magnetic strength will compensate for the decrease caused by the shunt winding. The combined magnetic field strength remains almost unchanged and little change in output voltage will take place as the load goes from no load to full-load. If the series field is connected so that the armature current flows in such a direction as to oppose the shunt field, we obtain a differential compound generator. This type of generator has poor regulation, but is useful in applications such as welding and arc lights where maintaining a constant output current is more important than a constant output voltage. When the field winding is connected in series with the armature winding, the generator is called a series generator. The exciting current through the field winding of a series generator is the same current the generator delivers to the load. If the load has high resistance, only a minimum output voltage can be generated because of the minimum field current. On an open circuit, the generator will only have a minimum output voltage due to its residual magnetism. If the load draws current, the excitation current increases, the magnetic field becomes stronger and the generator delivers an output voltage. Therefore, in a series generator, changes in load current greatly affect the generator output voltage. A series generator has very poor voltage regulation and is not recommended for use as a power

The generator regulation can be evaluated as follows:

With the proper number of turns in the series winding, the increase in magnetic strength will

where ENL and EFL are the no-load and full-load output voltages of the generator. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate and explain the operation of dc motors and generators.

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2.0 EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS (DESIGN)

  • A. DC GENERATOR CHARACTERISTICS

2.0 EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS (DESIGN) A. DC GENERATOR CHARACTERISTICS Figure 1.8. Separately Excited DC-Generator Coupled to A

Figure 1.8. Separately Excited DC-Generator Coupled to A Prime Mover (No Load)

Figure 1.9: Separately Excited DC Generator Coupled to A prime-mover (With Electrical Load, In this case Resistances)

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Figure 1.10: Shunt Generator Coupled to A Prime Mover (With an Electrical Load) 7 | P

Figure 1.10: Shunt Generator Coupled to A Prime Mover (With an Electrical Load)

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Figure 1-11.Cumulative Compound Generator Couple to a Prime Mover (With Electrical load) 9 | P a

Figure 1-11.Cumulative Compound Generator Couple to a Prime Mover (With Electrical load)

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Figure 1-12. Differential Compound Generator Coupled to a Prime Mover (With Electrical Load) 10 | P

Figure 1-12. Differential Compound Generator Coupled to a Prime Mover (With Electrical Load)

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  • B. DC MOTOR DESIGN

B. DC MOTOR DESIGN Figure 2-6. Separately Excited DC Motor Coupled to Dynamometer. 11 | P

Figure 2-6. Separately Excited DC Motor Coupled to Dynamometer.

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Figure 2-7. Series Motor Coupled to A Dynamometer. 12 | P a g e

Figure 2-7. Series Motor Coupled to A Dynamometer.

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SPEED VS TORQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF SHUNT MOTOR

SPEED VS TORQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF SHUNT MOTOR Figure 2-8. Shunt motor Circuit 13 | P a

Figure 2-8. Shunt motor Circuit

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SPEED VS TORQUE OF A CUMULATIVE COMPOUND MOTOR

SPEED VS TORQUE OF A CUMULATIVE COMPOUND MOTOR Figure 2-9.Cumulative-Compound Motor Circuit 14 | P a

Figure 2-9.Cumulative-Compound Motor Circuit

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3.0 RESULTS

  • A. DC GENERATOR CHARACTERISTICS

Separately Excited DC-Generator Coupled to A Prime Mover (No Load)

3.0 RESULTS A. DC GENERATOR CHARACTERISTICS Separately Excited DC-Generator Coupled to A Prime Mover (No Load)
3.0 RESULTS A. DC GENERATOR CHARACTERISTICS Separately Excited DC-Generator Coupled to A Prime Mover (No Load)

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Separately Excited DC Generator Coupled to A prime-mover (With Electrical Load, In this case Resistances)

Separately Excited DC Generator Coupled to A prime-mover (With Electrical Load, In this case Resistances) 16
Separately Excited DC Generator Coupled to A prime-mover (With Electrical Load, In this case Resistances) 16

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Shunt Generator Coupled to A Prime Mover (With an Electrical Load)

Shunt Generator Coupled to A Prime Mover (With an Electrical Load) 17 | P a g
Shunt Generator Coupled to A Prime Mover (With an Electrical Load) 17 | P a g

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Cumulative Compound Generator Couple to a Prime Mover (With Electrical load)

Cumulative Compound Generator Couple to a Prime Mover (With Electrical load) Differential Compound Generator Coupled to
Cumulative Compound Generator Couple to a Prime Mover (With Electrical load) Differential Compound Generator Coupled to

Differential Compound Generator Coupled to a Prime Mover (With Electrical Load)

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B. DC MOTOR Separately Excited DC Motor Coupled to Dynamometer 19 | P a g e
B. DC MOTOR Separately Excited DC Motor Coupled to Dynamometer 19 | P a g e
  • B. DC MOTOR Separately Excited DC Motor Coupled to Dynamometer

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  • I) SPEED VERSUS ARMATURE VOLTAGE

I) SPEED VERSUS ARMATURE VOLTAGE II) TORQUE VS ARMATURE CURRENT 20 | P a g e

II)

TORQUE VS ARMATURE CURRENT

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Series Motor Coupled to A Dynamometer. SPEED VERSUS TORQUE OF A SERIES MOTOR 21 | P
Series Motor Coupled to A Dynamometer. SPEED VERSUS TORQUE OF A SERIES MOTOR 21 | P

Series Motor Coupled to A Dynamometer.

SPEED VERSUS TORQUE OF A SERIES MOTOR

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SPEED VS TORQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF SHUNT MOTOR 22 | P a g e
SPEED VS TORQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF SHUNT MOTOR 22 | P a g e

SPEED VS TORQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF SHUNT MOTOR

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SPEED VS TORQUE OF A CUMULATIVE COMPOUND MOTOR 23 | P a g e
SPEED VS TORQUE OF A CUMULATIVE COMPOUND MOTOR 23 | P a g e

SPEED VS TORQUE OF A CUMULATIVE COMPOUND MOTOR

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4.0 DISCUSSION A. DC GENERATOR 24 | P a g e
4.0 DISCUSSION A. DC GENERATOR 24 | P a g e

4.0 DISCUSSION

  • A. DC GENERATOR

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Output Voltage versus Speed Characteristics of a separately Excited DC Generator

From Separately Excited DC-Generator Coupled to A Prime Mover (No Load) Graph it is

confirming that the separately excited dc generator is equivalent to speed-to-voltage

converter with higher speed producing the greater output voltage.

SLOPE= E 2 E 1 =

255.530

n 1 n 2 1513.630

=0.1688

V

r/min

Output Current Versus Torque Characteristics of a separately Excited DC-Generator

From Separately Excited DC Generator Coupled to A prime-mover (With Electrical Load, In this

case Resistances) Graph confirm that the separately excited Dc generator is equivalent to a linear

torque-to current converter with higher torque producing greater output current.

SLOPE= I 2 I 1 =

0.780

T 1 T 2 1.370

=−0.5694

A

Nm(lbf¿)

  • B. DC MOTOR Speed versus Armature Voltage Characteristics of a Separately Excited DC Motor

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SLOPE= E n 2 2 n E 1 1 =

2098.94164.07

292.3928.38

=7.3287 r/min

V

Torque versus Armature Current Characteristics of a Separately Excited DC Motor

SLOPE= T I 2 2 T I 1 1 =

1.530.32 =1.1523 Nm(lbf¿)

1.350.3

A

Speed versus Torque Characteristics of a Series Motor

As the motor torque increases (From the data and Graph) the speed of motor decreases From the table as the initial torque at 0.54(N*m) and the speed was at the highest

2141.05 (r/min) , the final reading on the torque 2.31 (N*m) and the speed was at the

lowest with 995.34 (r/min)

5.0 CONCLUSION

  • DC Generator : From the experiment , in separately excited DC Generator as the speed of

generator increase also result in increase of the voltage of the Generator (No Load

Situation) . In additional it is also confirming that as the current increases the torque also

increases. The relation is Directly proportional for both situation.

  • DC Motor: From the experiment, in separately excited DC Motor as the speed of motor

increase also result in increase of the voltage of the Motor. The relation is directly

proportional. As for Current as it is increases also resulting increases of Torque of DC

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Motor. But as for when speed of motor increases the torque of motor decreases. The

relation is inversely proportional.

6.0 REFERENCES

  • 1. Mohamed Nour. (2016). DC Generator. Available:

https://www.wattpad.com/5619935-dc-generators. Last accessed 1st March 2016.

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