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BIOMETRICS

A
SEMINAR REPORT

Submitted by

KULDEEP R. PATIL
(Enrollment No. 1402006474)

In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree


Of

MASTER OF COMPUTER APPLICATION


In

DEPARTMENT OF
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the Seminar titled BIOMETRICS was prepared and presented by
KULDEEP RAGHUNATH PATIL Roll No. 1402006474 of V Semester in partial fulfillment
of requirement for the award of Degree of Masters in Computer Application under Sikkim
Manipal University Directorate of Distance Education.

SEMINAR GUIDE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Apart from the efforts of me, the success of this seminar on BIOMETRICS depends largely on
the encouragement and guidelines of many others. I take this opportunity to express my gratitude
to the people who have been instrumental in the successful completion of this project.
I would like to show my greatest appreciation to faculties and co-students. I cant say thank you
enough for his tremendous support and help. I feel motivated and encouraged every meeting.
Without encouragement and guidance this seminar would not have materialized.
The knowledge acquired during the preparation of the seminar report would definitely help me in
my future ventures.

ABSTRACT

Over the last few years a new area of engineering science has been established whose products
are likely to create a large market in the near future. It has been called ''biometrics". The
Biometric devices which would allow identification of a person on the basis of his/her
''biological'' characteristics: voice, dynamics of movements, features of face and other parts of
the body, retina or iris pattern. Nature has made human beings with different characteristics
which may vary from one person to another. This property is made use of by Biometric
technology to distinctly identify each person.
Biometric system is essentially a pattern recognition system which recognizes a user by
determining the authenticity of a specific physiological or behavioral characteristic possessed by
the user. Several important issues must be considered in designing a practical biometric system.
E.g. a user must be enrolled in the system so that his biometric template can be captured. This
template is securely stored in a central database or a smart card issued to the user. The template
is retrieved when an individual needs to be identified.
This report gives an overview of key biometric technologies and basic technique involved. The
various opportunities for biometrics are mentioned, followed by the uses, benefits, drawbacks,
and applications.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Contents
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT................................................................................................. 2
ABSTRACT................................................................................................................... 3
INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................... 5
HISTORY OF BIOMETRICS............................................................................................ 6
WHERE TO USE BIOMETRICS?..................................................................................... 7
WORKING PRINCIPLE OF BIOMETRICS.........................................................................8
TYPES OF BIOMETRICS................................................................................................ 9
PHYSICAL BIOMETRICS............................................................................................ 9
BEHAVIORAL BIOMETRICS........................................................................................ 9
CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOMETRICS..........................................................................10
ADVANTAGES OF BIOMETRICS..................................................................................12
BASIC MECHANISM................................................................................................... 13
BIOMETRICS COLLECTION..................................................................................... 13
BIOMETRIC TEMPLATES......................................................................................... 14
BIOMETRICS IDENTIFICATION SCHEMES................................................................14
COMPARISON OF VARIOUS BIOMETRIC TECHNOLOGIES........................................14
BIOMETRIC MODALITIES........................................................................................... 15
FINGERPRINT......................................................................................................... 15
FACE...................................................................................................................... 16
HAND GEOMETRY.................................................................................................. 17
SPEAKER/VOICE..................................................................................................... 18
IRIS........................................................................................................................ 19
SIGNATURE VERIFICATION..................................................................................... 19
IRIS RECOGNITION TECHNOLOGY.............................................................................20
HISTORY OF IRIS RECOGNITION TECHNOLOGY......................................................20
PHYSIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF IRIS....................................................................21
WORKING PRINCIPLE OF IRIS RECOGNITION TECHNOLOGY...................................22
PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT.................................................................................23
BIOMETRIC SECURITY............................................................................................... 24
BIOMETRICS DEVICES............................................................................................... 25
LIST OF REFERENCES................................................................................................ 27

INTRODUCTION

DEFINITION
"Biometrics is the automated identification, or verification of human identity through the
measurement of repeatable physiological, or behavioral characteristics.
IDENTIFICATION:
The search of a biometric sample against a database of other samples in order to ascertain
whether the donor is already contained in, or new to the database.
VERIFICATION:
It refers to the 'one to one' comparison between a sample and another to ask the question, 'are you
who you say you are.'
The term "biometrics" is derived from the Greek words bio (life) and metric (to measure). For
our use, biometrics refers to technologies for measuring and analyzing a person's physiological
or behavioral characteristics, such as fingerprints, irises, voice patterns, facial patterns, and hand
measurements, for identification and verification purposes.

Above figure explains the meaning of definition


Identification and verification have long been accomplished by showing something you have,
such as a license or a passport. Sometimes it also required something you know, such as a
password or a PIN. As we move into a time when we need more secure and accurate measures,
we begin to look at using something you are: biometrics.
Biometrics are automated methods of recognizing a person based on a physiological or
behavioral characteristic.

HISTORY OF BIOMETRICS

CHINESE PRECURSOR:
Possibly the first known example of biometrics in practice was a form of finger printing being
used in China in the 14th century, as reported by explorer Joao de Barros. He wrote that the
Chinese merchants were stamping children's palm prints and footprints on paper with ink to
distinguish the young children from one another. This is one of the earliest known cases of
biometrics in use and is still being used today.
EUROPEAN ORIGINS:
Until the late 1800s, identification largely relied upon "photographic memory." In the 1890s, an
anthropologist and police desk clerk in Paris named Alphonse Bertillon sought to fix the problem
of identifying convicted criminals and turned biometrics into a distinct field of study. He
developed a method of multiple body measurements which got named after him (Bertillonage).
His system was used by police authorities throughout the world, until it quickly faded when it
was discovered that some people shared the same measurements and based on the measurements
alone, two people could get treated as one. After the failure of Bertillonage, the police started
using finger printing, which was developed by Richard Edward Henry of Scotland Yard,
essentially reverting to the same methods used by the Chinese for years.
MODERN TIMES:
In the past three decades biometrics has moved from a single method (fingerprinting) to more
than ten discreet methods. Companies involved with new methods number in the hundreds and
continue to improve their methods as the technology available to them advances. Prices for the
hardware required continue to fall making systems more feasible for low and mid-level budgets.
As the industry grows however, so does the public concern over privacy issues. Laws and
regulations continue to be drafted and standards are beginning to be developed. While no other
biometric has yet reached the breadth of use of fingerprinting, some are beginning to be used in
both legal and business areas.

WHERE TO USE BIOMETRICS?

Biometric use involve controlling access to physical locations (laboratories, buildings etc.
Biometrics can be used to determine whether or not a person is already in database such as for
social service or national id applications.
Biometrics can be used in environments where recognition of an individual is required.
Applications vary and range from logical access to a personal computer to physical access of a
secured laboratory. They can be used in a variety of collection environments as identification
systems.
Biometrics are also used for accountability applications such as recording the biometric identities
of individuals.

WORKING PRINCIPLE OF BIOMETRICS

Biometric devices consist of a reader or scanning device, software that converts the gathered
information into digital form, and a database that stores the biometric data for comparison with
previous records. When converting the biometric input, the software identifies specific points of
data as match points. The match points are processed using an algorithm into a value that can be
compared with biometric data in the database.

Figure 1: Enrollment and Verification Technique


ENROLLMENT MODE:
A sample of the biometric trait is captured, processed by a computer, and stored for later
comparison. Biometric recognition can be used in Identification mode, where the biometric
system identifies a person from the entire enrolled population by searching a database for a
match based solely on the biometric. For example, an entire database can be searched to verify a
person has not applied for entitlement benefits under two different names. This is sometimes
called one-to-many matching.
VERIFICATION MODE:
In this mode biometric system authenticates a persons claimed identity from their previously
enrolled pattern. This is also called one-to-one matching. In most computer access or network
access environments, verification mode would be used. A user enters an account, user name, or
Inserts a token such as a smart card, but instead of entering a password, a simple glance at a
camera is enough to authenticate the user.

TYPES OF BIOMETRICS

THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF BIOMETRICS:

PHYSICAL BIOMETRICS -.
BEHAVIORAL BIOMETRICS - Used for verification.

PHYSICAL BIOMETRICS:

Fingerprint - Analyzing fingertip patterns.


Facial Recognition - Measuring facial characteristics.
Hand Geometry - Measuring the shape of the hand.
Iris recognition - Analyzing features of colored ring of the eye.
Vascular Patterns - Analyzing vein patterns.
Retinal Scan - Analyzing blood vessels in the eye.
Bertillonage - Measuring body lengths (no longer used).

BEHAVIORAL BIOMETRICS:

Speaker Recognition - Analyzing vocal behavior.


Signature- Analyzing signature dynamics.
Keystroke - Measuring the time spacing of typed words.

CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOMETRICS
Biometric characteristics can be divided in two main classes, as represented in figure on the
right:

Physiological are related to the shape of the body. The oldest traits that have been used for more
than 100 years are fingerprints. Other examples are face recognition, hand geometry and iris
recognition.
Behavioral are related to the behavior of a person. The first characteristic to be used, still widely
used today, is the signature. More modern approaches are the study of keystroke dynamics and of
voice. According to most experts, the future of biometrics is dependent upon two critical areas:
standardization and the use of hybrid technologies.
1. STANDARDIZATION:
Currently, the biometrics industry is very fragmented, with more than 150 companies with their
own proprietary systems and methodologies. Standards have only recently been established in
order to provide direction for the development of a common interface that will allow for shared
biometric templates. The BioAPI standard created by the BioAPI Consortium, a group of more
than 60 vendors and government agencies, defines a common structure for interfacing with
biometrics. Yet, competitive forces remain as technology giants like Microsoft have abandoned
the consortium and the BioAPI standard in order to develop their own proprietary software
standards. The development and acceptance of a primary standard is critical for the growth and
applicability of the biometrics industry. Only after the technological standard is more established
can systems integrate and interact efficiently.
2. HYBRID TECHNOLOGIES:
One of the critical concerns with the use of biometric technologies is that of privacy and security
of stored personal biometric data. To have personal data stored in a centralized database leaves
the information potentially open to theft or compromise. The concept of combining smart card or
public key infrastructures with biometric readers where the biometric template is stored on an
individually controlled key has been suggested as a solution for the privacy concern and is
considered by some critical to the advancement of biometric applications.
Biometrics is a powerful combination of science and technology that can be used to protect and
secure our most valuable information and property. The future holds no limits for this industry as
more applications are found. Further, the technology itself continues to improve in terms of
application and accuracy. From the application of total body scanning for highest security areas
to speed and accuracy of identification when shopping on-line, the applications are boundless.

Imagine a world where interstate air travel is allowed automatically via a full body scan that not
only verifies identity but simultaneously searches for insecure or illegal paraphernalia. Where
access to one is bank or credit accounts is only granted after identification via iris or retina scan.
Where a shopping trip is made possible by a vehicle that operates only with biometric
verification of ownership and payment is made via a fingerprint scan that links directly to one is
credit account.
In the future, we will live in a faster paced, more secure world where verification of one is
identity is critical for daily activities. While some might argue that privacy and personal
"freedom" are sacrificed with this level of control, most believe that it is the necessary price for a
secure world environment.

ADVANTAGES OF BIOMETRICS

Increase security -Provide a convenient and low-cost additional tier of security.


Reduce fraud by employing hard- to- forge technologies and materials. For e.g. minimize
the opportunity for ID fraud, buddy punching.

Eliminate problems caused by lost IDs or forgotten passwords by using physiological

attributes. For e.g. prevent unauthorized use of lost, stolen or "borrowed" ID cards.
Reduce password administration costs.
Replace hard-to-remember passwords which may be shared or observed.
Integrate a wide range of biometric solutions and technologies, customer applications and

databases into a robust and scalable control solution for facility and network access.
Make it possible, automatically, to know WHO did WHAT, WHERE and WHEN!
Offer significant cost savings or increasing ROI in areas such as Loss Prevention or Time
& Attendance. Unequivocally link an individual to a transaction or event.

BASIC MECHANISM
The diagram shows a simple block diagram of a biometric system. When such a system is
networked together with telecommunications technology, biometric systems become tele
biometric systems. The main operations a system can perform are enrollment and test. During the
enrollment, biometric information from an individual is stored. During the test, biometric

information is detected and compared with the stored information. Note that it is crucial that
storage and retrieval of such systems themselves be secure if the biometric system is be robust.
The first block (sensor) is the interface between the real world and our system; it has to acquire
all the necessary data. Most of the times it is an image acquisition system, but it can change
according to the characteristics desired. The second block performs all the necessary preprocessing: it has to remove artifacts from the sensor, to enhance the input (e.g. removing
background noise), to use some kind of normalization, etc. In the third block features needed are
extracted. This step is an important step as the correct features need to be extracted and the
optimal way. A vector of numbers or an image with particular properties is used to create a
template. A template is a synthesis of all the characteristics extracted from the source, in the
optimal size to allow for adequate identifiability.

BIOMETRICS COLLECTION
Biometrics are typically collected using a device called a sensor. These sensors are used to
acquire the data needed for recognition and to convert the data to a digital form.
The quality of the sensor used has a significant impact on the recognition results. Example
sensors could be digital cameras (for face recognition) or a telephone (for voice recognition).

BIOMETRIC TEMPLATES
A biometric template is a digital representation of an individuals distinct characteristics,
representing information extracted from a biometric sample. Biometric templates are what are
actually compared in a biometric recognition system. Templates can vary between biometric

modalities as well as vendors. Not all biometric devices are template based. For example, voice
recognition is based on models. The difference between templates and models is beyond the
scope of this paper.
BIOMETRICS IDENTIFICATION SCHEMES:
There are several types of biometric identification schemes:

Face: the analysis of facial characteristics


Fingerprint: the analysis of an individuals unique fingerprints
Hand geometry: the analysis of the shape of the hand and the length of the fingers
Retina: the analysis of the capillary vessels located at the back of the eye
Iris: the analysis of the colored ring that surrounds the eyes pupil
Signature: the analysis of the way a person signs his name.
Vein: the analysis of pattern of veins in the back if the hand and the wrist
Voice: the analysis of the tone, pitch, cadence and frequency of a persons voice.

COMPARISON OF VARIOUS BIOMETRIC TECHNOLOGIES


It is possible to understand if a human characteristic can be used for biometrics in terms of
the following parameters:

Uniqueness is how well the biometric separates individually from another.


Permanence measures how well a biometric resists aging.
Collectability eases of acquisition for measurement.
Performance accuracy, speed, and robustness of technology used.
Acceptability degree of approval of a technology.
Circumvention eases of use of a substitute.

BIOMETRIC MODALITIES
Different applications and environments have different constraints. For instance, adequate
fingerprint samples require user cooperation; whereas, a face image can be Captured by a
surveillance camera. Furthermore, Fingerprints are not available for many of the suspects on
Watch lists. There are also multiple biometric modalities for technical and financial reasons.
Wide varieties of modalities are being researched and are available on the market.
FINGERPRINT

The patterns of friction ridges and valleys on an individual's fingertips are unique to that
individual. For decades, law enforcement has been classifying and determining identity by
matching key points of ridge endings and bifurcations. Fingerprints are unique for each finger of
a person including identical twins. One of the most commercially available biometric
technologies, fingerprint recognition devices for desktop and laptop access are now widely
available from many different vendors at a low cost. With these devices, users no longer need to
type passwords - instead, only a touch provides instant access. Fingerprint systems can also be
used in identification mode. Several states check fingerprints for new applicants to social
services benefits to ensure recipients do not fraudulently obtain benefits under fake names.
Advantages:

Subjects have multiple fingers.


Easy to use, with some training
Some systems require little space.
Large amounts of existing data to allow background and/or watch list checks.
Has proven effective in many large scale systems over years of use.

Fingerprints are unique to each finger of each individual and the ridge arrangement remains
permanent during one's lifetime.
Disadvantages:

Public Perceptions.
Privacy concerns of criminal implications.
Health or societal concerns with touching a sensor used by countless individuals.

FACE
The identification of a person by their facial image can be done in a number of different ways
such as by capturing an image of the face in the visible spectrum using an inexpensive camera or
by using the infrared patterns of facial heat emission. Facial recognition in visible light typically
model key features from the central portion of a facial image. Using a wide assortment of
cameras, the visible light systems extract features from the captured image(s) that do not change
over time while avoiding superficial features such as facial expressions or hair. Several
approaches to modeling facial images in the visible spectrum are Principal Component Analysis,
Local Feature Analysis, neural networks, elastic graph theory, and multi-resolution analysis.

Some of the challenges of facial recognition in the visual spectrum include reducing the impact
of variable lighting and detecting a mask or photograph. Some facial recognition systems may
require a stationary or posed user in order to capture the image, though many systems use a realtime process to detect a person's head and locate the face automatically. Major benefits of facial
recognition are that it is non-intrusive, hands-free, and continuous and accepted by most users.
Advantages:

No contact required.
Commonly available sensors (cameras).
Large amounts of existing data to allow background and/or watch list checks.
Easy for humans to verify results.

Disadvantages:

Face can be obstructed by hair, glasses, hats, scarves etc.


Sensitive to changes in lighting, expression, and poses faces change over time.
Propensity for users to provide poor-quality video images yet to expect accurate results.

HAND GEOMETRY
These methods of personal authentication are well established. Hand recognition has been
available for over twenty years. To achieve personal authentication, a system may measure either
physical characteristics of the fingers or the hands. These include length, width, thickness and
surface area of the hand. One interesting characteristic is that some systems require a small
biometric sample (a few bytes). Hand geometry has gained acceptance in a range of applications.
It can frequently be found in physical access control in commercial and residential applications,
in time and attendance systems and in general personal authentication applications
Advantages

Easy to capture.
Believed to be a highly stable pattern over the adult lifespan.

Disadvantages

Use requires some training.


Not sufficiently distinctive for identification over large databases.
Usually used for verification of a claimed Enrollment identity.
System requires a large amount of physical space.

SPEAKER/VOICE
Speaker recognition has a history dating back some four decades, where the output of several
analog filters were averaged over time for matching. Speaker recognition uses the acoustic
features of speech that have been found to differ between individuals. These acoustic patterns
reflect both anatomy (e.g., size and shape of the throat and mouth) and learned behavioral
patterns (e.g., voice pitch, speaking style). This incorporation of learned patterns into the voice
templates (the latter called "voiceprints") has earned speaker recognition its classification as a
"behavioral biometric." Speaker recognition systems employ three styles of spoken input: textdependent, text-prompted and text independent. Most speaker verification applications use textdependent input, which involves selection and enrollment of one or more voice passwords. Textprompted input is used whenever there is concern of imposters. The various technologies used to

process and store voiceprints includes hidden Markov models, pattern matching algorithms,
neural networks, and matrix representation and decision trees. Some systems also use "antispeaker" techniques, such as cohort models, and world models.
Ambient noise levels can impede both collection of the initial and subsequent voice samples.
Performance degradation can result from changes in behavioral attributes of the voice and from
enrollment using one telephone and verification on another telephone. Voice changes due to
aging also need to be addressed by recognition systems. Many companies market speaker
recognition engines, often as part of large voice processing, control and switching systems.
Capture of the biometric is seen as non-invasive. The technology needs little additional hardware
by using existing microphones and voice-transmission technology allowing recognition over
long distances via ordinary telephones (wire line or wireless).
Advantages

Public Acceptance.
No Contact Required.
Commonly Available Sensors (telephones & microphones).

Disadvantages

Difficult to control sensor and channel variances that significantly impact capabilities.
Not sufficiently distinctive for identification over large databases.

IRIS
This recognition method uses the iris of the eye which is the colored area that surrounds the
pupil. Iris patterns are thought unique. The iris patterns are obtained through a video-based
image acquisition system. Iris scanning devices have been used in personal authentication
applications for several years. Systems based on iris recognition have substantially decreased in
price and this trend is expected to continue. The technology works well in both verification and
identification modes (in systems performing one-to-many searches in a database). Current
systems can be used even in the presence of eyeglasses and contact lenses. The technology is not
intrusive. It does not require physical contact with a scanner. Iris recognition has been
demonstrated to work with individuals from different ethnic groups and nationalities

Advantages

No contact required.
Protected internal organ, less prone to injury.
Believed to be highly stable over lifetime.

Disadvantages

Difficult to capture for some individuals.


Easily obscured by eyelashes, eyelids, lens and reflections from the cornea.
Public myths and fears related to scanning the eye with a light source.
Acquisition of an iris image requires more training and attentiveness than most

biometrics.
Lack of existing data deters ability to use for background or watch list checks.
Cannot be verified by a human.

SIGNATURE VERIFICATION
This technology uses the dynamic analysis of a signature to authenticate a person. The
technology is based on measuring speed, pressure and angle used by the person when a signature
is produced. One focus for this technology has been e-business applications and other
applications where signature is an accepted method of personal authentication.

IRIS RECOGNITION TECHNOLOGY

HISTORY OF IRIS RECOGNITION TECHNOLOGY


The idea of using iris patterns for personal identification was originally documented in an
ophthalmology textbook by James Doggarts in 1949, and may have been proposed as early as
1936 by ophthalmologist Frank Burch. By the 1980's the idea had appeared in James Bond films,
but it still remained science fiction and conjecture.
In 1987 two other ophthalmologists, Aran Safir and Leonard Flom, patented this idea, and in
1989 they asked John Daugman (then teaching at Harvard University) to try to create actual
algorithms for iris recognition. These algorithms, which Daugman patented in 1994, are the basis
for all current iris recognition systems and products.

The Daugman algorithms are owned by Iridian Technologies, and the process is licensed to
several other companies who serve as systems integrators and developers of special platforms
exploiting iris recognition.
Iris structure

Figure 2 Iris Structure


The iris is a protected internal organ of the eye, located behind the cornea and the aqueous
humor, but in front of the lens. The false acceptance rate for iris recognition systems is in 1 in 1.2
million that is every 1 in 1.2 million iris is found to be unique in its features. It is seen in crosssection in the anatomical drawing above. It is the only internal organ of the body that is normally
visible externally. Images of the iris adequate for personal identification with very high
confidence can be acquired from distances of up to about 3 feet (1 meter).
Among the visible features of an iris are the trabecular mesh works of connective tissue
(pectinate ligament), the collagenous tissue of the stroma, collierys processes, contraction
furrows, crypts, rings, a corona and pupillary frill, colorations, and sometimes freckles. The
striated anterior layer covering the trabecular meshwork creates the predominant texture seen
with visible light
The human iris begins to form during the third month of gestation. The structures creating its
distinctive pattern are complete by the eighth month of gestation, but pigmentation continues into
the first years after birth. The layers of the iris have both ectodermal and mesodermal
embryological origin, consisting of (from back to front): a darkly pigmented epithelium;
pupillary dilator and sphincter muscles; heavily vascularized stroma (connective tissue of
interlacing ligaments containing melanocytes).
The combined effect is a visible pattern displaying various distinctive features such as arching
ligaments, crypts, furrows, ridges, and a zigzag collarets. Iris color is determined mainly by the
density of the stroma and its melanin content, with blue irises resulting from an absence of
pigment: longer wavelengths differentially penetrate while shorter wavelengths are reflected and
scattered, a phenomenon resembling that which makes the sky blue .

PHYSIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF IRIS


Further properties of the iris that enhance its suitability for use in high confidence identification
systems include:
Its inherent isolation and protection from the external environment.
The impossibility of surgically modifying iris without unacceptable risk to vision. Its
physiological response to light, which provides one of several natural tests against artifice.
A property the iris shares with fingerprints is the random morphogenesis of its minutiae. Because
there is no genetic penetrance in the expression of this organ beyond its anatomical form,
physiology, color and general appearance, the iris texture itself is stochastic or possibly chaotic.
Its detailed morphogenesis depends on initial conditions in the embryonic mesoderm from which
it develops, the phenotypic expression even of two irises with the same genetic genotype (as in
identical twins, or the pair possessed by one individual) have uncorrelated minutiae .
The ease of registering iris image at some distance from a Subject without physical contact,
unobtrusively and perhaps inconspicuously
Its intrinsic polar geometry, which imparts a natural coordinate system and an origin of
coordinates.
The high level of randomness in iris pattern, creating inter-Subject variability spanning about
250 degrees-of-freedom, and an entropy (information density) of about 3.2 bits per squaremillimeter of iris tissue.
WORKING PRINCIPLE OF IRIS RECOGNITION TECHNOLOGY
The iris-scan process begins with a photograph. A specialized camera, typically very close to the
subject, no more than three feet, uses an infrared imager to illuminate the eye and capture a very
high-resolution photograph.

Figure 3 Iris Image after Image Acquisition Process

This process takes only one to two seconds and provides the details of the iris that are mapped,
recorded and stored for future matching/verification.
The inner edge of the iris is located by an iris-scan algorithm, which maps the iris distinct
patterns and characteristics. An algorithm is a series of directives that tell a biometric system
how to interpret a specific problem. Algorithms have a number of steps and are used by the
biometric system to determine if a biometric sample and record is a match
A general iris recognition system for personal identification is composed of four steps:
I) Iris Image Acquisition- an image containing the users eye is captured by the high resolution
Iris Camera. An important and difficult step of an iris recognition system is image acquisition.
Since iris is small in size and dark in color, using some specialized camera iris image can be
easily acquired for analysis.
II) Image Preprocessing- the image is then preprocessed to normalize the scale and illumination
of the iris and localize the iris from the acquired image. The acquired image always contains not
only the useful parts (iris) but also some irrelevant parts (e.g. eyelid, pupil etc.). Under some
conditions, the brightness is not uniformly distributed. In addition, different eye-to camera
distance may result in different image sizes of the same eye.
III) Feature Extraction- features representing the iris patterns are extracted.
IV) Pattern Matching - decision is made by means of matching.

PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT
False accept rate (FAR) or false match rate (FMR): The probability that the system incorrectly
declares a successful match between the input pattern and a non-matching pattern in the
database. It measures the percent of invalid matches. These systems are critical since they are
commonly used to forbid certain actions by disallowed people.
False reject rate (FRR) or false non-match rate (FNMR): The probability that the system
incorrectly declares failure of match between the input pattern and the matching template in the
database. It measures the percent of valid inputs being rejected.

Receiver (or relative) operating characteristic (ROC): In general, the matching algorithm
performs a decision using some parameters (e.g. a threshold). In biometric systems the FAR and
FRR can typically be traded off against each other by changing those parameters. The ROC plot
is obtained by graphing the values of FAR and FRR, changing the variables implicitly. A
common variation is the Detection error trade-off (DET), which is obtained using normal deviate
scales on both axes. This more linear graph illuminates the differences for higher performances
(rarer errors).
Equal error rate (EER): The rate at which both accept and reject errors are equal. ROC or DET
plotting is used because how FAR and FRR can be changed, is shown clearly. When quick
comparison of two systems is required, the ERR is commonly used. Obtained from the ROC plot
by taking the point where FAR and FRR have the same value. The lower the EER, the more
accurate the system is considered
Failure to enroll rate (FTE or FER): The percentage of data input is considered invalid and fails
to input into the system. Failure to enroll happens when the data obtained by the sensor are
considered invalid or of poor quality.
Failure to capture rate (FTC): Within automatic systems, the probability that the system fails to
detect a biometric characteristic when presented correctly.
Template capacity: The maximum number of sets of data which can be input in to the system.

BIOMETRIC SECURITY
A concern is how a person's biometric, once collected, can be protected. Australia has therefore
introduced a Biometrics Institute Privacy Code Biometrics Institute in order to protect consumer
personal data beyond the current protections offered by the Australian Privacy Act.
Sociological concerns

As technology advances, and time goes on, more private companies and public utilities may use
biometrics for safe, accurate identification. These advances are likely to raise concerns such as:

Physical - Some believe this technology can cause physical harm to an individual using the
methods, or that instruments used are unsanitary. For example, there are concerns that retina
scanners might not always be clean.
Personal Information - There are concerns whether our personal information taken through
biometric methods can be misused, tampered with, or sold, e.g. by criminals stealing, rearranging
or copying the biometric data. Also, the data obtained using biometrics can be used in
unauthorized ways without the individual's consent.
Danger to owners of secured items

If the item is secured with a biometric device, the damage to the owner could be irreversible, and
potentially cost more than the secured property. In 2005, Malaysian car thieves cut off the finger
of a Mercedes-Benz S-Class owner when attempting to steal the car.
CANCELABLE BIOMETRICS
Physical features, such as face, fingerprint, iris, retina, hand, or behavioral features, such as
signature, voice, gait, must fulfill a certain criteria to qualify for use in recognition. They must be
unique, universal, acceptable, collectable and convenient to the person, in addition, to reliability
at recognition, performance and circumvention. However, most importantly, permanence is a key
feature for biometrics. They must retain all the above features in particular the uniqueness
unchanged, or acceptably changed, over the lifetime of the individual. On the other hand, this
fundamental feature has brought biometrics to challenge a new risk. If biometric data is obtained,
for example compromised from a database, by unauthorized users, the genuine owner will lose
control over them forever and lose his/her identity.

BIOMETRICS DEVICES

OPTICAL FINGERPRINT SCANNER


Our biometric hamster is the next generation model of popular and versatile biometric fingerprint
readers. Packaged in a comfortable, ergonomic design, this biometric scanner features the
industries most rugged and advanced optical sensor using patented SEIR fingerprint biometric
technology.

OPTIMOUSE
OptiMouse is an innovative optical tracking mouse that can operate on almost any surface with
exceptional response, it features the industries most rugged and advanced optical sensor using
patented SEIR fingerprint biometric technology.

IGUARD - INTEGRATED ACCESS CONTROL AND TIME ATTENDANCE SYSTEM


iGuard is a complete solution combining a access control system and time attendance system. It
utilizes patented embedded web server technology combined with biometrics and smart card
authentication. This is the world's only available system that has achieved advanced operability
using world-renowned TCP/IP networking protocol without having to compromise on security.

PERSONAL FINGERPRINT SAFES


Biometric personal safes are revolutionary locking storage cases that open with just the touch of
your finger. These products are designed as "access denial" secure storage for medications,
jewelry, weapons, documents, and other valuable or potentially harmful items.

BIOMETRIC FINGERPRINT DOOR LOCKS


Your fingerprint is the key with our revolutionary fingerprint door lock. This amazing new
product replaces keyed locking mechanisms with a fingerprint sensor that actually recognizes
who is and who is not authorized to enter.
BIOMETRICS VERSUS FORENSIC
While both biometrics ad forensic involves human recognition biometrics is typically applied
using automated techniques to prevent situation application such as gaining access to sensitive
information or to a secured facility . Forensic applications typically occur after a crime has
occurred, and may not use fully automated methods. Forensic methods are often used to assist in
the legal process. Forensic usually requires days of processing and are held to much higher
accuracy requirements.

LIST OF REFERENCES

"Biometrics: Overview". Biometrics.cse.msu.edu. 6 September 2007.

www.google.com
https://en.wikipedia.org