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High Vacuum Densification Method

Robert Y. Liang, Ph.D., P.E., F. ASCE


E-Mail: rliang@uakron.edu
Shanghai GeoHarbor Group
Shanghai, China
and
Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering
University of Akron
Akron, Ohio USA

Patent Series
(Patent Cooperation Treaty)
High Vacuum Densification Method (HVDM)
(ZL01127046.2)
Surcharge Preloading Combining HVDM
(ZL200410014257.9)
HVDM Combining Composite Foundation
(ZL200510134966.5)

Active drainage under pressure gradient


Positive pressure: excess pore water pressure by compactions
Negative pressure: vacuum efforts
Pressure difference: over 1 SAP, i.e. 100 kPa

Work Flow of HVDM


Auger
exploration,
ground water
monitoring, site
partition,
drainage channel
excavation

2nd cycle compaction,


CPT tests,

1st cycle high


vacuum
drainage

1st cycle
compaction,
CPT tests,
Parameter
adjustment

Full scale
hammering or
vibration

2nd cycle
high
vacuum
drainage

Final check

Main Principles
Active drainage under pressure gradient
"Hard Shell at the upper layer
Minimize Post treatment settlement

Role

of Pressure Gradient: risk reduction of rubber soil

Breakthrough

by Pressure Gradient

Over 1 SAP in soils, expanding the dewatering


influence scope
Vacuum and compaction combination, superior to
dynamic compaction and applicable to saturated soft
soils.
Pressure gradients, expediting dissipation of excess
pore water pressure and saving restoration time (from
3-4 wks to 5-10 days)

Schematic

of stress distribution across hard shell

Hard
shell
Underlying

soft
soil

hx
P

fak
fak

Minimization

of Post-Treatment Settlement

Hard shell: highly compacted, low void ratio, impermeable


Effectively diffuse surcharge loads
Stress: effectively mitigated by hard shell
Underlying layer: no pathway to drain, reduced total
settlement, differential settlement, and settlement rate

Schematic

of Post-Treatment Settlement
P

Hard
shell

Underlying
soft soil

Estimation of posttreatment settlement:


sp=x st

Water
movement

St: estimation without modification,


x: modification parameter,
Sp: estimation after modification

Field Shots of
HVDM Treatments

PVD installation

Array of vacuum pipes

Vacuum power system

Compaction machinery

HVDM QA/QC

Collection of parameter information, adjustment of


treatment operations

Water content
CPT values
Compaction frequency
Compaction energy
Vacuum power
Dissipation of excess
Pore water pressure

Soil
densification
without soil
failure

Merits of HVDM
Environmental safe, no pollution
A green method, no addition of any additives

Low cost
Saving of 30% versus comparable treatment methods

Merits of HVDM

Saving of time
An enhanced pressure gradient leads to the expedited
dissipation of water pressure, taking 5-10 days (was 3-4
weeks), i.e., 50% faster.

Assured QA/QC
Control of bearing capacity, realized by controlling stiff
and thickness of hard shell.
Control of post-treatment settlement and differential
settlement, realized by treating sections independently

Case Histories of HVDM

Shanghai Pudong International Airport,


The 2nd Runway
Ningbo Beilun Port Phase III

Runway of Pudong Airport (111 hectare)


Dredged sand: ~2 m, relatively compacted, high mud
Yellowish silty clay: 0.252.70 mplasticsoft plasticiron and manganese cores, corrosive
spots, medium compression
Dust clayey slit: 0.605.90 msaturated, slight compaction, heterogeneous, medium
compression
Dust sandy silt: 1.009.10 msaturated, slight compaction, heterogeneous, some clay, medium
compression
Dust mucky silty clay: ~5.0 m, saturated, liquid-plastic, heterogeneous, some sandy silt, high
compression
Dust mucky clay : ~11.0 m, saturated, liquid-plastic, thin silty fine sand, homogeneous, high
viscosity, high void ratio, high water content, high compression

Requirements: post-treatment settlement10 cm


Differential settlement/1000

Competition of 7 Schemes
Patches/
Methods

SPT within
6 m (Coun
t)

CPT withi
n 6 m, Ps
(MPa)

CBR
(MPa)

Reactive mo
duli
K(MPa/m3)

Resilient mo
duli
E0(MPa/m3)

Total conso
lidation
(cm)

Pre-treatm
ent

2.33

0.89

20.80

43.03

Method 1

12 In

30.2

Method 2

11

35.7

Method 3

5.58

7.35

45.50

62.66

45.1

Method 4

13

4.99

8.68

56.93

66.25

17.8

Method 5

12

3.81

8.38

45.90

65.26

25.6

Method 6

10

3.90

8.55

47.80

65.75

23.6

Method 7

13

3.85

8.83

61.32

71.73

55.7

3.60
6.71
38.827 (HVDM)
59.80
summary,
method
offers
best performance.
4.24 the 8.19
46.50
64.77

The 2nd runway of Pudong Int'l Airport

Data of 1st and 2nd Runways


1st runway using dynami
c compaction with road 2nd runway using HVDM
ballast
Consolidation:35 cm

Consolidation: 55.7 cm

Post-treatment settlement:
30 cm
High cost

Post-treatment settlement:
10 cm
Saving of 120 millions
yuan
Schedule: 4 m

Schedule: 12 m

Would use HVDM to treat 3rd runway.

Phase III, Ningbo Beilun Port


Treatment site of 460,000 for container port.
Newly dredged fly ash: 0-2 m, slurry, zero bearing capacity,
cannot step on
Mucky clay: 2-10 m, CPT Ps value 0.10 MPa
Design requirements
Bearing capacity fak = 120 kPa
Treatment consolidation 600 mm

Before Treatment

After treatment

Ps values before and after treatments

Thanks