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AUTOMATION

Dr. Ibrahim Al-Naimi

Chapter Two
Manufacturing
Operations

Manufacturing Operation
Manufacturing can be defined as the application of physical
and chemical processes to alter the geometry, properties,
and/or appearance of a given starting material to make
products.
It also include joining parts to make assembled products. It is
a technological as well as an economic process . A "value" is
added to the starting material by means of Machinery, tools,
power and labor.
Example:
Sand is converted to Glass.

Manufacturing Operation

Manufacturing Industries and


Products
Classification of Manufacturing Industries:
Primary
Cultivates and exploits natural resources such as
petroleum, fishing, mining, etc...

Secondary
Converts the outputs of the primary industries into products
such as Aerospace, automotive, computers, etc...

Tertiary
Constitutes the service sector of the economy ,such as
banking, education, health ,etc

Manufacturing Industries
According to the International Standard
Industrial Classification (ISIC):
Process industries
Such as chemicals, Pharmaceuticals , Petroleum, etc

Discrete product industries


Such as automobiles ,aircraft, appliances, computers, etc

Manufacturing Industries
The process and Discrete industries are
divided into:
Continuous production
The production equipment is used exclusively for the given
product and the output of the product is uninterruptable,
such as gas, liquid, powder, etc

Batch production
Input and output are in finite quantities.

Manufactured Product
Final products can be divided into:
Consumer goods
Capital goods

Manufacturing Operations

Activities to convert raw materials to finished


products
Processing and assembly operations.
Material handling and storage.
Inspection and testing.
Coordination and control.

Manufacturing Operations
Processing Operations
Part shaping operation
o
o
o
o

Solidification processes
Particular processing
Deformation processes
Material removal processes

Property enhancing operations


Surface processing operations
o

Cleaning

o
o

Surface treatment
Coating

Production Facilities
Self reading (pages 50-55)

Limitations and Capabilities of a


Manufacturing Plant
Self reading (pages 59-60)

Lean Production
Self reading (pages 60-62)