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Bird species richness and

composition along three


elevational gradients
in southeastern Brazil

ISSN 1981-8874

9 771981 88700 3

00188

Francisco Mallet-Rodrigues1,
Ricardo Parrini2 & Bruno Renn3
Distribution patterns of biotic communities along an elevational gradient
are determined by several physical and
ecological factors, which can vary with
altitude, climate, habitat structure and
resource availability (Terborgh 1971,
1977, Noon 1981, Lomolino 2001). Variations in these factors along an elevational gradient may cause a vertical
stratification or ecological zonation in
the mountainous regions, resulting in
distinct elevational ranges among organisms.
Decreasing species richness with increasing elevation has been the pattern
accepted by some authors (Terborgh
1977, Stevens 1992), but Rahbek (1995)
showed that many elevational gradients
have mid-elevational peaks in species
Figure 1. State of Rio de Janeiro with the three study areas in black
richness, as initially noted by Terborgh
(1 Serra da Bocaina, 2 Serra de Itatiaia, 3 Serra dos rgos).
(1977), and described as the mid-domain
effect (Colwell & Hurt 1994, Colwell & Lees 2000). Recen1993), the Atlantic Forest has been classified into lowland
tly, several elevational species richness patterns have been
(below 50 m), submontane (50 to 500 m), montane (500 to
found along montane gradients (Rahbek 1995, McCain 2005,
1,500 m) and high montane forest (1,500 to 1,900 m) (Veloso
2007, 2009, Cavarzere & Silveira 2012). Patterns such as
et al. 1991). Above high montane forests, the landscape is
decreasing richness with increasing elevation, low-elevation
dominated by high grasslands with depauperate bird species
plateau in richness followed by a monotonic decrease, lowrichness and a high proportion of endemic species (Vasconce-elevation plateau with a mid-peak in richness, and unimodal
los & Rodrigues 2010, Mallet-Rodrigues et al. 2010).
mid-elevational peaks in richness have been found with nearA significant relationship between elevation and the proly equal frequency on mountains around the world (McCain
portion of birds endemic to the Atlantic Forest has been
2009).
found in the mountains of eastern Brazil. The proportion of
While the elevational distribution of birds is quite pronounendemism rises gradually with increasing altitude. Nearly
ced in tropical forests of the Andes (e.g. Terborgh 1977), the
half of the bird species found above 1,800 m in the mountains
relatively low and isolated mountains of eastern South Ameof southeastern Brazil are endemic species (Scott & Brooke
rica have a reduced vertical ecological zonation, with few ca1985, Mallet-Rodrigues et al. 2010). However, the lowlands
ses of replacement of bird species along elevational gradients
are also very important because many threatened species are
(Willis & Schuchmann 1993). Few studies have focused on
found in them (Goerck 1999, Buzzetti 2000, Mallet-Rodrithe elevational distribution of birds in the mountains of easgues et al. 2010). Intensive human activity causing the fragtern Brazil (Holt 1928, Scott & Brooke 1985, Goerck 1999,
mentation of lowland and submontane forests is probably the
Buzzetti 2000, Rajo & Cerqueira 2006, Rajo 2007, Cavarmain factor responsible for the highest concentration of threzere Junior 2010, Mallet-Rodrigues et al. 2010). Although
atened species at low elevations. Most of the threatened bird
the distribution of montane birds from eastern Brazil does not
species live in lowland and submontane forests (Collar et al.
have an evident ecological zonation (Willis & Schuchmann
1992, Alves et al. 2000).
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39

The main objective of this study is


to compare the patterns in the elevational distribution of bird species of three
major mountain ranges of southeastern
Brazil. Here we describe and compare
the species richness, elevational range
limits, proportion of Atlantic Forest endemics, and invasive and threatened species along the elevational gradient of the
three mountain ranges.
Material and methods
Study regions
Our study was conducted in three
major mountain ranges in southeastern
Brazil (Serra da Bocaina, Serra de Itatiaia and Serra dos rgos) (Figure 1).
Dense rainforests with a rich assembly
of plant species and a profusion of lianas and epiphytes are predominant in the
three regions. Below 800 m the climate
is tropical with rains concentrated in the
summer (Kppen climate classification
categories Aw). Above 800 m the climate is mesothermal humid with moderate summer (Kppen climate classification categories Cfb). The three regions
studied here are considered Important
Bird Areas (IBAs) in Brazil (Bencke et
al. 2006).
Serra da Bocaina is a part of the Serra
do Mar range, situated on the border of
the states of Rio de Janeiro and So Paulo. The elevation ranges from sea level
to 2,088 m, but to just over 1,600 m in
the state of Rio de Janeiro. The Parque
Nacional da Serra da Bocaina occupies
most of the region. The dense forests
(submontane, montane and high montane forests) are distributed throughout
much of the region, which is one of the
best preserved portions of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil. However, increasing human occupation in the region
has threatened the local biodiversity.
During 1,350 hours of fieldwork we visited the following localities (all located
in the state of Rio de Janeiro): 1) Floresto (22 55S, 44 20W; 0 to 20 m);
2) Bracu (22 56S, 44 23W; 100 to
700 m); 3) Funil (23 00S, 44 42W;
800 to 1,200 m); 4) Perequ (23 00S,
44 31W; 10 to 40 m); 5) Mambucaba
(23 01S, 44 32W; 0 to 40 m); 6) So
Roque (23 04S, 44 41W; 0 to 250 m);
7) Arir (23 05S, 44 17W; 0 to 20 m);
8) Parati-Cunha road (between 23 12S,
44 44W and 23 10S, 44 50W; 10 to
1,600 m); 9) Vale dos Veados (22 48S,
44 37W; 1,200 to 1,350 m).
40

Figure 2. Bird species richness along the elevational gradient in the three study areas in southeastern
Brazil.

Figure 3. Species richness of birds endemic to the Atlantic Forest along the elevational gradient in the
three study areas in southeastern Brazil.

Figure 4. Species richness of invasive birds along the elevational gradient in the three study areas in
southeastern Brazil.

Figure 5. Species richness of threatened birds in the state of Rio de Janeiro along the elevational gradient in the three study areas in southeastern Brazil.
Atualidades Ornitolgicas, 188, novembro e dezembro de 2015 - www.ao.com.br

Figure 6. The Fork-tailed Pygmy-Tyrant (Hemitriccus furcatus) has often been found in
Itatiaia and Bocaina, but in the Serra dos rgos it has been recorded only in the Reserva
Ecolgica Guapiau, municipality of Cachoeiras de Macacu (Photo: Bruno Renn).

(22 23S, 44 32W; 550 to 950 m); 3)


Penedo (22 25S, 44 31W; 400 to 750
m); 4) Parque Nacional do Itatiaia (ca.
22 29S, 44 33W; 500 to 2,700 m); 5)
Resende Wetland or Brejo da Kodak
(22 26S, 44 23W; 400 m).
Serra dos rgos is located in the central region of the state of Rio de Janeiro
in the northern section of the Serra do
Mar range. Two large protected areas
are located in the region Parque Nacional da Serra dos rgos and Parque
Estadual dos Trs Picos. The summit of
the Serra dos rgos exceeds 2,200 m.
The rich forests of the region (lowland,
submontane, montane and high montane
forests) are distributed from lowlands to
approximately 2,100 m above sea level.
Forests below 100 m are very fragmented or absent due to human activities.
High grasslands are found above the forest line. Low temperatures and frost are
often recorded in the higher areas during
the winter. Data on the birds of the Serra dos rgos and localities visited in
the region (totaling 6,500 hours of fieldwork) have been published elsewhere
(Mallet-Rodrigues et al. 2010).

Methods
Fieldwork was conducted between
1989 and 2011 in several localities of
the three study regions (see above). We
assumed the highest and lowest elevational records to determine the distribution
of each bird species along the elevational gradient. The interpolation of species
occurrences between known elevation
occurences has been used to study species richness patterns along elevational
gradients (Rahbek 1997, Nogu et al.
2013). Although this range interpolation may overestimate species richness
at mid-elevations (Grytnes & Vetaas
Figure 7. Usually found above 1,000 m, in the state of Rio de Janeiro the Black-capped
Piprites (Piprites pileata) is restricted to the Itatiaia massif (Photo: Bruno Renn).
2002), it may help overcome some of the
Serra de Itatiaia is situated in the southern portion of the
limitations of undersampling (McCain 2009).
Mantiqueira massif, on the border of the states of Rio de
Only qualitative surveys of birds were performed at each
Janeiro, Minas Gerais and So Paulo. The Parque Nacional
locality. Although the sampling efforts undertaken among
de Itatiaia is the oldest national park in Brazil. Itatiaiau,
the three regions are distinct, the remarkable total of 21,550
with 2,791 m is the highest peak in a region named Agulhas
hours of fieldwork (finely distributed along the elevational
Negras. To the south of Itatiaia, the Paraiba do Sul River is
gradient) is significantly larger than the sampling effort of silocated at 400 m elevation in an area dominated by grassmilar studies (Bencke & Kindel 1999, Goerck 1999, Buzzetti
land, scrub and urban environments. The forests in the region
2000, Cavarzere Junior 2010). Therefore, we consider our
(montane and high montane forests) range from 600 to 2,300
sampling effort appropriate for the estimation of the species
m. High grasslands are found above the tree line. Freezing
richness along the three elevational gradients.
temperatures and frost often occur in higher areas during the
Birds were recorded along roads and trails in forests, second
winter. Araucaria angustifolia reaches the northern limit of
growth, swamps and open areas. Our study includes bird reits range near the region. In 13,700 hours of fieldwork, we
cords made in all months of the year. Species were identified
visited the following localities: 1) Visconde de Mau (22
through binoculars (8x40 and 10x50) or by listening to their
20S, 44 33W; 1,000 to 1,200 m); 2) Serrinha do Alambari
vocalizations. Several birds had their vocalizations recorded
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41

with tape recorders and directional microphones. Some birds


were attracted by play-back and photographed to facilitate
their identification.
The altitude of the localities we visited was determined
using an analog altimeter and GPS. The taxonomy and systematics of the birds are based on CBRO (2014). We followed
Alves et al. (2000) for the threatened bird species of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Atlantic Forest endemic species follow
those established by Parker et al. (1996).
Results
We found 507 bird species (70 families) in our study. A total of 407 species (65 families) was found in Serra da Bocaina, 419 (68 families) in Serra de Itatiaia and 436 (68 families)
in Serra dos rgos (Table 1). We assume that we detected
most bird species present in the study regions with our extensive field work.
A decrease in the number of bird species along the elevational gradient was found in our study (Figure 2). Although species richness declined monotonically with elevation in Bocaina, we found a low-elevation plateau (or slight increase in
the species richness up to about 1,000 and 1,200 m) in Itatiaia
and rgos, followed by a gradual decline to the summit.
An elevational turnover of congeneric bird species was
recorded in 53 species of 18 genera and 14 families (Table
2). We found the same basic elevational replacement pattern
(same genera and species) in the three regions. However,
some slight differences were found in this pattern of species
replacement among the regions.
Among the 365 bird species shared by Itatiaia and rgos,
302 species (83%) have their lower elevational range limits
higher in Itatiaia and 229 species (63%) have their upper elevational range limits also higher in Itatiaia than in Serra dos
rgos. A comparison between Bocaina and Itatiaia showed
that 90% of the species shared by both regions have elevational ranges similar or higher in Itatiaia than in Bocaina. When
comparing Bocaina and rgos, only 12 species (3.2%) have
their lower elevational range limits higher in Bocaina.
At least 23 montane bird species found in Itatiaia and rgos
were also found in lower elevations or even at sea level in Serra
da Bocaina (Table 3). Some lowlands species (as with the southern limit of their range in Mangaratiba (southern coast of the
state of Rio de Janeiro), or slightly further north, are apparently replaced by congeneric montane species in the coastal forests of Bocaina, such as Sooretama Slaty-Antshrike Thamnophilus ambiguus replaced by Variable Antshrike Thamnophilus
caerulescens, Ochre-bellied Flycatcher Mionectes oleagineus
replaced by by Gray-hooded Flycatcher Mionectes rufiventris
and Yellow-backed Tanager Hemithraupis flavicollis replaced
by Rufous-headed Tanager Hemithraupis ruficapilla).
We recorded 144 bird species endemic to the Atlantic Forest in our study (Table 1). The highest endemic bird richness
was found in Serra dos rgos (130 species), followed by
Bocaina (126 species) and Itatiaia (116 species). Endemism
in the three study areas corresponded to about 30% of the
bird assemblage of each region. The proportion of forest bird
species endemic to the Atlantic Forest increased along the
elevational gradient in the three regions (Figure 3). Nearly
half of the birds found above 800 m in Bocaina are endemic
to the Atlantic Forest.
42

Among the birds considered invasive species in the state of


Rio de Janeiro, 36 species were found in our study. Thirty-two invasive species were found in both Itatiaia and rgos,
representing about 7.5% of the species recorded in each region. Nineteen invasive species were recorded in Bocaina,
representing 4.5% of the species found in that region.
We observed a decrease in the proportion of invasive species along the elevational gradients in Itatiaia and rgos
(Figure 4). Above 1,900 m no invasive species were recorded
in rgos, whereas in Itatiaia the proportion reached 2% of
the species. We also found a higher proportion of invasive
species below 200 m in Bocaina, whereas these birds did not
represent more than 1% of the species above 200 m.
Sixty-four (44%) of the 145 bird species considered threatened, probably threatened, or with unknown status in the
state of Rio de Janeiro (Alves et al. 2000) were found in our
field work. The highest threatened bird species richness (49
species, or 11%) was found in Serra dos rgos. Forty three
threatened species (10.5%) were found in Bocaina, contrasting with 33 species (8%) in Itatiaia. A decrease in the proportion of threatened species along the elevational gradient was
found in our study. The highest proportion of threatened birds
in each elevational zone was found in Bocaina (Figure 5).
Discussion
In our fieldwork, we found high bird species richness in
the three study regions, which are three of the most significant and endemic-rich IBAs in southeastern Brazil (Bencke et al. 2006). Other studies carried out in the mountains
of eastern Brazil have revealed a decline in the number of
bird species along elevational gradients (Holt 1928, Scott &
Brooke 1985, Goerck 1999, Buzzetti 2000, Browne 2005,
Mallet-Rodrigues et al. 2010). Decreasing habitat heterogeneity and complexity towards higher elevations can be major
causes of the decline in bird richness along elevational gradients (Stotz et al. 1996). Lower floristic complexity of high
montane forests when compared with those of lowland and
submontane forests from southeastern Brazil (Veloso et al.
1991) may at least partially explain the decline in number of
species along the elevational gradients in Itatiaia and rgos.
Additionally, the less extensive areas covered by high montane forests and high grasslands above 1,500-1,600 m may
influence the elevational decline in species richness in Itatiaia
and rgos. Lower bird richness has previously been found
in the high montane forests and high grasslands in Serra dos
rgos (Mallet-Rodrigues et al. 2010).
While some studies have revealed a monotonic elevational
decline in bird species richness (Terborgh 1977, Stevens 1992,
Sergio & Pedrini 2007), or a mid-domain effect (Colwell &
Hurt 1994, Colwell & Lees 2000), our study showed both a
plateau of species richness at lower altitudes before declining towards the highest elevations in Itatiaia and rgos,
as reported by other studies (Navarro S. 1992, Stotz et al.
1996, Blake & Loiselle 2000) and a monotonic elevational
decline in species at Bocaina. Our results confirm the predominance of both monotonic elevational declines in richness
and plateaus of species richness at lower altitudes among the
elevational richness patterns found in South America (McCain 2009) and in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Cavarzere &
Silveira 2012).
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Biotic variables such as vegetation change, abiotic factors


such as temperature and rainfall, and the elevational range
overlap in several species at intermediate elevations could
contribute to the slight increase in species richness that we
detected in Itatiaia and rgos up to about 1,000 and 1,200
m However, they may be also a consequence of habitat loss,
hunting and trapping in lower elevations, which may have
led to the disappearance of some species from lowlands. This
patter did not occur in Bocaina because while human presence is relatively intense at sea level and on the lower slopes of
Bocaina, forests in this region are better preserved than those
of the lower elevations of Itatiaia and rgos. The lower bird
species richness in the foothills caused by the disappearance of some species has also been discussed in other studies
(Bencke & Kindel 1999, Mallet-Rodrigues et al. 2010).
Cavarzere Junior (2010) found a U shaped pattern in the
bird species distribution along an elevational gradient (0 to
800 m) in the Serra do Mar, southeastern Brazil, with lower
bird richness being found in intermediate elevations. However, high montane forests and high grasslands are absent from
their study region. When controlling for the area effect at each
elevational zone, species richness was found to be highest in
the mid-elevational gradient, as predicted by the mid-domain
effect (Colwell & Hurt 1994, Rahbek 1995, Colwell & Lees
2000, Colwell et al. 2004, Nogu et al. 2013). However, area
effects have been not supported as primary drivers of elevational bird richness (McCain 2009). The overlap in the distribution of lowland and montane species at the intermediate
elevations may be responsible for the hump-shaped pattern
showing higher species richness in the middle elevational
gradient, as proposed by Brown (2001) in his study on elevational distribution in mammals. However, the mid-domain
effect may not be positively associated with the elevational
Figure 8. The Gray-winged Cotinga (Tijuca condita) is an endemic
bird in the state of Rio de Janeiro where it has generally been
diversity of birds in the Atlantic Forest since five different
found above 1,800 m in the Serra dos rgos and Reserva
elevational patterns have been identified for Atlantic forest
Biolgica do Tingu (Photo: Bruno Renn).
birds (Cavarzere & Silveira 2012).
Geographical extent of the areas occupied by each altitudinal range have
been related to the elevational patterns
of bird communities (Kattan & Franco
2004). Therefore, the decline in species
richness associated with high elevations
may be just as much if not more related
to the progressive reduction of the area
toward the summit of the mountain than
to ecological factors. The geographically
smaller area of the upper Bocaina (between 1,300 and 1,600 m) with a relatively lower number of bird species when
compared to similar areas at the same
elevations in Itatiaia and rgos may
indicate that the area factor has a fundametal role in the distribution of species
along the elevational gradients.
The elevational limits of distinct vegetation types (submontane, montane and
high montane forests and high grasslands) have been reported to be higher in ItaFigure 9. Interestingly, the Buff-throated Warbling-Finch (Poospiza lateralis) is not found in Serra dos
tiaia than in Serra do Mar (Hueck 1972).
rgos, although it is relatively common in Itatiaia, Bocaina and further northward in the Capara
region, near the border of the states of Minas Gerais and Espirito Santo (Photo: Bruno Renn).
High montane forests (or nebular forests)
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43

are found between 2,200 and 2,400 m in Itatiaia, whereas the


highest peaks of northern Serra do Mar reach no more than
2,250 m. Consequently, the upper elevational range limits of
some bird species may be higher in Itatiaia simply due to the
fact that the mountains are higher there. In our study, most
bird species shared by Itatiaia and rgos have their lower and
upper elevational range limits higher in Itatiaia than in Serra
dos rgos or Bocaina. More detailed study is needed to identify the causes of distinct elevational range limits among bird
populations in mountain ranges of eastern Brazil.
The southern coast of Rio de Janeiro where the Serra da Bocaina is located has been identified as a region where some
montane bird species in the northern Serra do Mar range are
also found at sea level (Sick 1997, Buzzetti 2000). This distribution pattern extends southward along the Atlantic Forest
region to southern Brazil (Bencke & Kindel 1999). In our study, some species found only at higher elevations in Itatiaia and
rgos were also found at lower elevations in Serra da Bocaina. A combination of climatic factors such as high rainfall and
humidity may be related to the lower elevational limits of some
bird species on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro. Additional factors influencing the occurrence of montane birds in the
lowlands of southern Rio de Janeiro may be a possible change
in the structure and composition of the plant community along
the latitudinal gradient (Buzzetti 2000). Some montane birds
in the state of Rio de Janeiro closely associated with bamboo
thickets also occur at sea level in Bocaina.
Our results showed a similar species turnover along the elevational gradients in the three study regions, although some
species are absent from one or two of the mountain ranges.
Slight differences in the floristic composition and vegetation
structure can have an important role in species replacement
along elevation (Navarro S. 1994, Blake & Loiselle 2000).
Further studies on this matter of species replacement in bird
assemblages in southeastern Brazil are needed.
The endemic Atlantic Forest species richness found in our
study was similar to that found in other localities in southeastern Brazil (Scott & Brooke 1995, Goerck 1999, Browne 2005,
Mallet-Rodrigues & Noronha 2009). The lower endemic species richness found in Itatiaia when compared to Bocaina and
rgos can be related to the presence of many species typical
of open habitats (including opportunistic invasive species) in
Itatiaia. Endemic species richness at all elevations in Bocaina
is considerably higher than in the other two study areas.
Although we found an increase in endemic bird richness
along the elevational gradient in the three study regions, a
progressive decline in the proportion of endemism between
1,700 and 2,400 m in Itatiaia may be related to the presence
of large open habitas in the highlands. However, the proportion of endemic birds increased again above 2,500 m. The
decline in the number of species with elevation and the predominance of some birds common in the highlands of eastern
Brazil, such as White-throated Hummingbird Leucochloris
albicollis, Large-tailed Antshrike Mackenziaena leachii, Itatiaia Spinetail Oreophylax moreirae, and Serra do Mar Tyrannulet Phylloscartes difficilis are responsible for the increase
in the proportion of endemic species in the higher elevations
of Itatiaia. Endemic species richness increasing along the elevational gradient as found in our study has been discussed
by some authors (Scott & Brooke 1985, Stotz et al. 1996,
44

Buzzetti 2000, Browne 2005, Mallet-Rodrigues et al. 2010).


The Atlantic forest that once covered more than 90% of the
state of Rio de Janeiro has undergone extensive fragmentation that has allowed the invasion of birds typical of open habitats from central and northeastern Brazil (Sick 1997). The
expansion of species ranges caused by deforestation is still
poorly studied in Brazil (Alvarenga 1990, Willis 1991, Willis
& Oniki 1987, 2002). We found a slight decline in the number
of invasive species along the elevational gradient. A higher
proportion of these birds in lower elevations may be attributed to more intense human activities in these regions with
the formation of open habitats favorable to these species. The
smaller proportion of invasive species in Bocaina seems to
be a consequence of the good condition of its forests. Invasive species benefited by deforestation are more common in
the bird communities of Itatiaia and rgos because these
regions have large man-made and native open areas (such as
high grasslands). The higher number of invasive species in
Itatiaia and rgos may be also due in part to the proximity of
these regions to the southern Minas Gerais and Paraiba do Sul
river valley, where most of the invasive species originated.
The decline in the proportion of threatened birds along the
elevational gradient found in our study reveals that the conservation status of montane forests is of less concern than
the lowland forests (intensively cleared for agricultural use
and human settlements). The high number of threatened birds
found in Bocaina may be related to high local richness of
endemic Atlantic Forest species, because the most of the threatened birds in state of Rio de Janeiro are highly dependent
on the forest (Alves et al. 2000). Few threatened species were
found in each elevational band in Itatiaia and rgos, even at
low elevations where the rate of deforestation has been more
intense. A high number of habitat generalist species may also
be an important factor contributing to the smaller proportion
of threatened birds in each elevational band in Itatiaia and
rgos. A decline in the percentage of threatened bird species
along the elevational gradient has also been found in other
studies conducted in the mountains of eastern Brazil (Goerck
1999, Buzzetti 2000, Mallet-Rodrigues et al. 2010).
Acknowledgements
We are grateful to a Flvio Medeiros de Britto (in memoriam), Jos Fernando Pacheco, Luiz Pedreira Gonzaga, Maria
Lusa Marinho de Noronha, Luciano Lima, Luiz Ribenboim,
Lus Soares, Agnes Renn, Fabiana Renn, Bruna Chiaradia,
Vitor Piacentini, Andr De Luca, Marco Rego, Fernanda Alves, Tatiana Pongiluppi, Carlos Garske, Carlos Gussoni, Joo
Quental, Marcos Barretti, Maycon Resende and Geiser Trivelato for the opportunities to work and/or for their pleasant
company in the field on several occasions.
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45

Table 1. Elevational distribution of the bird species recorded in the Serra da Bocaina, Itatiaia and rgos. Status: E = species endemic to the Atlantic Forest region; A = species threatened with extinction in the state of Rio de Janeiro; I = invasive
species; Int = introduced exotic species; a = only one record; b = few records. The taxonomy and systematics of the birds follow
CBRO (2014), with some modifications.
Species
Tinamidae
Tinamus solitarius (Vieillot, 1819) E, A
Crypturellus soui (Hermann, 1783)
Crypturellus obsoletus (Temminck, 1815)
Crypturellus tataupa (Temminck, 1815)
Nothura maculosa (Temminck, 1815)
Anatidae
Dendrocygna viduata (Linnaeus, 1766)
Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758)
Amazonetta brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1789)
Nomonyx dominica (Linnaeus, 1766)
Cracidae
Penelope superciliaris Temminck, 1815
Penelope obscura Temminck, 1815
Odontophoridae
Odontophorus capueira (Spix, 1825) E, A
Podicipedidae
Tachybaptus dominicus (Linnaeus, 1766)
Podilymbus podiceps (Linnaeus, 1758)
Phalacrocoracidae
Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin, 1789)
Anhingidae
Anhinga anhinga (Linnaeus, 1766) A
Ardeidae
Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783)
Cochlearius cochlearius (Linnaeus, 1766)
Ixobrychus exilis (Gmelin, 1789)
Ixobrychus involucris (Vieillot, 1823)
Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758)
Butorides striata (Linnaeus, 1758)
Bubulcus ibis (Linnaeus, 1758) I
Ardea cocoi Linnaeus, 1766
Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758
Syrigma sibilatrix (Temminck, 1824)
Pilherodius pileatus (Boddaert, 1783) A
Egretta thula (Molina, 1782)
Egretta caerulea (Linnaeus, 1758)
Threskiornithidae
Theristicus caudatus (Boddaert, 1783) I
Platalea ajaja (Linnaeus, 1758)
Cathartidae
Cathartes aura (Linnaeus, 1758)
Cathartes burrovianus Cassin, 1845
Coragyps atratus (Bechstein, 1793)
Sarcoramphus papa (Linnaeus, 1758) A
Accipitridae
Leptodon cayanensis (Latham, 1790)
Chondrohierax uncinatus (Temminck, 1822)
Elanoides forficatus (Linnaeus, 1758)
46

Bocaina

Itatiaia

0-800

rgos
300-900
100-300
100-2,100
100-1,200

50-1,600
0-500

500-2,300
400-1,000
400

0-50
0-50b
0-50

400

100-300

400
400

100-1,000

0-1,600

500-2,250

100-400
800-2,000

0-1,600

500-1,400

300-1,500

0-50
0-50

400
400

100-1,000

0-50

400-1,700

100-900

400
0-50
0-50b

0-50
0-50
0-50
0-50
0-50
0-50
0-50
0-50
0-50

0-50

0-500
0-1,600
20a
0-200
100a
0-400

400-600
400
400
400
400
400-1,300
400
400
400-1,300
400-1,300
400

100-300

100-1,000
100-1,000
100-300
100-300
100-1,000
100-1,000
100-1,000

400
400

100-1,000

400-2,500
400-1,300
400-2,400
900-1,800b

100-2,100
100-1,100
100-2,100

400-1,200
2,000a

100-1,100
1,000a

Atualidades Ornitolgicas, 188, novembro e dezembro de 2015 - www.ao.com.br

Elanus leucurus (Vieillot, 1818) I


Harpagus diodon (Temminck, 1823)
Accipiter striatus Vieillot, 1808
Accipiter bicolor (Vieillot, 1817) A
Ictinia plumbea (Gmelin, 1788)
Rostrhamus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817)
Geranospiza caerulescens (Vieillot, 1817)
Heterospizias meridionalis (Latham, 1790)
Amadonastur lacernulatus (Temminck, 1827) E, A
Urubitinga coronata (Vieillot, 1817) A
Rupornis magnirostris (Gmelin, 1788)
Parabuteo leucorrhous (Quoy e Gaimard, 1824)
Geranoaetus albicaudatus Vieillot, 1816 I
Pseudastur polionotus (Kaup, 1847) E, A
Buteo brachyurus Vieillot, 1816
Buteo albonotatus Kaup, 1847 I
Spizaetus tyrannus (Wied, 1820) A
Spizaetus melanoleucus Vieillot, 1816 A
Rallidae
Aramides mangle (Spix, 1825) A
Aramides cajanea (Statius Muller, 1776)
Aramides saracura (Spix, 1825) E
Amaurolimnas concolor (Gosse, 1847)
Laterallus melanophaius (Vieillot, 1819)
Laterallus exilis (Temminck, 1831)
Porzana albicollis (Vieillot, 1819)
Pardirallus nigricans (Vieillot, 1819)
Pardirallus sanguinolentus (Swainson, 1837)
Gallinula galeata (Lichtenstein, 1818)
Porphyrio martinicus (Linnaeus, 1766)
Charadriidae
Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782)
Pluvialis dominica (Statius Muller, 1776)
Recurvirostridae
Himantopus melanurus Vieillot, 1817 A
Scolopacidae
Gallinago paraguaiae (Vieillot, 1816)
Tringa flavipes (Gmelin, 1789)
Calidris fuscicollis (Vieillot, 1819)
Jacanidae
Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766)
Columbidae
Columbina minuta (Linnaeus, 1766)
Columbina talpacoti (Temminck, 1811)
Columbina squammata (Lesson, 1831) I
Claravis pretiosa (Ferrari-Perez, 1886)
Columba livia Gmelin, 1789 Int
Patagioenas picazuro (Temminck, 1813) I
Patagioenas cayennensis (Bonnaterre, 1792)
Patagioenas plumbea (Vieillot, 1818)
Zenaida auriculata (Des Murs, 1847)
Leptotila verreauxi Bonaparte, 1855
Leptotila rufaxilla (Richard e Bernard, 1792)
Geotrygon montana (Linnaeus, 1758)
Atualidades Ornitolgicas, 188, novembro e dezembro de 2015 - www.ao.com.br

400-2,160
830-1,200

1,000a
100-1,100
1,000-1,900
100-600
100-300
100-700
100-1,300
100-1,300
100-1,000
300-1,800
100-2,000
300-1,800
100-2,100
100-1,500
100-2,100
900b
100-1,800
100-1,000

400-2,300

100-1,500

400

100-1,000
100-1,000
100-1,200

0-50
0-50

400
400-2,160
400
400
400

0-500
0-50

400-2,160
400

100-1,800

0-400
0-100
0-100

100a
0-50
0-700
0-100a
0-1,600
100-700
0-800b
100a
0-1,600

0-50
0-50
0-1,600
0-50
0-50
0-50b
0-50
0-50

400-1,300
600-1,750
1,100-2,100
1,100-1,300
400-600
400
600-1,200
400-1,200
600a
2,000 e 2,400b
400-2,160
1,100-2,350
400-2,400
600-1,500
400-2,160

100-900

400
0-50
0-50
0-50

400
400

0-50

400

100-300

0-50

400-500
400-1,300
400-1,500

100-300
100-1,500

50a
0-100
0-100
0-500
0-1,600
0-500
0-500
0-1,600

400-1,300
400-2,160
400-600
600-2,270
400
400-1,200
400-1,200
400-1,200

1,000a
1,000a

100-1,200
100-1,200
100-1,200
100-1,800
300-1,800
100-1,000
100-1,500
100-1,800
47

Cuculidae
Piaya cayana (Linnaeus, 1766)
Coccyzus melacoryphus Vieillot, 1817
Coccyzus americanus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Coccyzus euleri Cabanis, 1783
Crotophaga ani Linnaeus, 1758
Guira guira (Gmelin, 1788)
Tapera naevia (Linnaeus, 1766)
Tytonidae
Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769)
Strigidae
Megascops choliba (Vieillot, 1817)
Megascops atricapilla (Temminck, 1822) E
Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana (Bertoni e Bertoni, 1901) E
Strix hylophila Temminck, 1825 E
Strix virgata (Cassin, 1849)
Strix huhula Daudin, 1,800 A
Glaucidium minutissimum (Wied, 1830) E
Glaucidium brasilianum (Gmelin, 1788)
Athene cunicularia (Molina, 1782) I
Asio clamator (Vieillot, 1808)
Asio stygius (Wagler, 1832)
Nyctibiidae
Nyctibius aethereus (Wied, 1820) A
Nyctibius griseus (Gmelin, 1789)
Caprimulgidae
Nyctiphrynus ocellatus (Tschudi, 1844)
Antrostomus rufus (Boddaert, 1783)
Lurocalis semitorquatus (Gmelin, 1789)
Hydropsalis albicollis (Gmelin, 1789)
Hydropsalis parvula Gould, 1837
Hydropsalis longirostris (Bonaparte, 1825)
Hydropsalis maculicauda (Lawrence, 1862)
Hydropsalis torquata (Gmelin, 1789)
Hydropsalis forcipata (Nitzsch, 1840) E
Chordeiles nacunda (Vieillot, 1817)
Chordeiles minor (Forster, 1771)
Chordeiles acutipennis (Hermann, 1783)
Apodidae
Cypseloides fumigatus (Streubel, 1848)
Streptoprocne zonaris (Shaw, 1796)
Streptoprocne biscutata (Sclater, 1866)
Chaetura cinereiventris Sclater, 1862
Chaetura meridionalis Hellmayr, 1907
Panyptila cayennensis (Gmelin, 1789)
Trochilidae
Ramphodon naevius (Dumont, 1818) E, A
Glaucis hirsutus (Gmelin, 1788)
Phaethornis squalidus (Temminck, 1822) E
Phaethornis idaliae (Bourcier e Mulsant, 1856) E, A
Phaethornis ruber (Linnaeus, 1758)
Phaethornis pretrei (Lesson e Delattre, 1839) I
Phaethornis eurynome (Lesson, 1832) E
48

0-1,600
50a
50a
0-50
0-1,200
0-1,300
0-500

400-1,700
550a
1,200a
400-1,200
400-2,150
400

100-300
100-900
100-1,300
100-1,300
100-1,200

0-50

400

100-300

0-1,600
80a
0-1,500

400-1,300
950-1,200
600-1,550
1,200-1,800
600-1,000

100-2,000
100-350
100-1,500
600-1,800
100-300
300-600
300-900
100-1,800
100-1,500
100-900

20-30b
100-300
0-500
0-1,200
0-50
0-50

0-900

0-700
0-500

0-50
1,500a

400-1,250
400-570
400
400-1,670

500
600
400-900
600-1,250
400-1,200
400
2,400
400
1,200-1,800
400
500

100-2,000

250-900
100-900
600-1,200
100-1,000
100-1,100
2,000-2,100

800-1,800

0-50
100-1,600
0-1,600
0-1,200
0-1,200
0-500
0-1,100
0-50
0-800
0-500
0-1,400

800
400-2,150
1,200-2,500
900-1,400
400-2,000
800

550-2,200
500
400-1,200
500-1,800

100-1,800
100-2,100
100-1,100
100-1,800
100-600
100-900
100-600
300-800
100-300
100-700
800-1,800
400-2,100

Atualidades Ornitolgicas, 188, novembro e dezembro de 2015 - www.ao.com.br

Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788)


Aphantochroa cirrochloris (Vieillot, 1818) E
Florisuga fusca (Vieillot, 1817) E
Colibri serrirostris (Vieillot, 1816)
Anthracothorax nigricollis (Vieillot, 1817)
Stephanoxis lalandi (Vieillot, 1818) E
Lophornis magnificus (Vieillot, 1817)
Lophornis chalybeus (Vieillot, 1822)
Chlorostilbon lucidus (dOrbigny e Lafresnaye, 1838)
Thalurania glaucopis (Gmelin, 1788) E
Hylocharis cyanus (Vieillot, 1818)
Leucochloris albicollis (Vieillot, 1818) E
Amazilia versicolor (Vieillot, 1818)
Amazilia fimbriata (Gmelin, 1788)
Amazilia lactea (Lesson, 1832)
Clytolaema rubricauda (Boddaert, 1783) E
Heliothryx auritus (Gmelin, 1788) A
Heliomaster squamosus (Temminck, 1823)
Calliphlox amethystina (Boddaert, 1783)
Trogonidae
Trogon viridis Linnaeus, 1766
Trogon surrucura Vieillot, 1817 E
Trogon rufus Gmelin, 1788
Alcedinidae
Megaceryle torquatus (Linnaeus, 1766)
Chloroceryle amazona (Latham, 1790)
Chloroceryle americana (Gmelin, 1788)
Chloroceryle inda (Linnaeus 1766)
Momotidae
Baryphthengus ruficapillus (Vieillot, 1818) E
Galbulidae
Galbula ruficauda Cuvier, 1816
Bucconidae
Notharchus swainsoni (Gray, 1846) E, A
Nystalus chacuru (Vieillot, 1816) I
Malacoptila striata (Spix, 1824) E
Ramphastidae
Ramphastos toco Statius Muller, 1776 I
Ramphastos vitellinus Lichtenstein, 1823
Ramphastos dicolorus Linnaeus, 1766 E
Selenidera maculirostris (Lichtenstein, 1823) E
Pteroglossus bailloni (Vieillot, 1819) E
Picidae
Picumnus cirratus Temminck, 1825
Melanerpes candidus (Otto, 1796)
Melanerpes flavifrons (Vieillot, 1818) E
Veniliornis maculifrons (Spix, 1824) E
Veniliorns spilogaster (Wagler, 1827) E
Piculus flavigula (Boddaert, 1783)
Piculus aurulentus (Temminck, 1821) E
Colaptes melanochloros (Gmelin, 1788)
Colaptes campestris (Vieillot, 1818)
Celeus flavescens (Gmelin, 1788)
Atualidades Ornitolgicas, 188, novembro e dezembro de 2015 - www.ao.com.br

0-400
0-700
0-1,100
0-100
0-1,100
0-1,600
0-100
20a
80a
0-1,000
0-400
50-1,600
0-700
0-50
100-1,600

0-50
0-600
0-1,350
0-1,000

400-1,200
400-1,200
400-2,400
400-1,450
1,100-2,450
800-1,200
400-2,400
400-1,300
950-2,500
400-1,200
400-1,100
550-2,400
500-1,200
800-1,050
800- 1,200

100-1,300
100-1,100
100-1,500
100-2,100
600-2,100
100-800
300-1,200
100-1,300
100-800
300-2,100
100-1,200
100-1,200
100-2,100

100-1,600

400-1,850
400-1,700

100-600
100-1,800
100-1,800

0-1,250
0-100
0-100
0-50b

400-1,700
400
400

100-1,000
100-1,000
100-1,000

0-1,600

400-1,250

100-1,500

0-600

100-600

0-500
0-400

400-1,200
400-2,100
400-800

0-500
0-1,600
0-1,600
0-1,600
0-1,600
0-100
0-700
0-500
0-1,600
0-700
250-1,200
0-400
0-1,600
0-700

500-2,100
800-1,350
600-1,850
400-1,670
400-1,200
400-2,100
400-1,000
800-2,150
900-1,940
400-1,200
400-2,400
700a

300-600
100-1,800
100-1,200
300-800
100-1,000
300-900
100-1,800
300-1,800
100-1,500
100-1,200
100-1,100
100-1,800
100-1,000
800-1,800
100-1,200
100-1,800
100-1,500
49

Dryocopus lineatus (Linnaeus, 1766)


Campephilus robustus (Lichtenstein, 1818) E, A
Cariamidae
Cariama cristata (Linnaeus, 1766) I
Falconidae
Caracara plancus (Miller, 1777)
Milvago chimachima (Vieillot, 1816)
Herpetotheres cachinnans (Linnaeus, 1758) I
Micrastur ruficollis (Vieillot, 1817)
Micrastur semitorquatus (Vieillot, 1817)
Falco sparverius Linnaeus, 1758
Falco rufigularis Daudin, 1,800
Falco femoralis Temminck, 1822
Falco peregrinus Tunstall, 1771
Psittacidae
Primolius maracana (Vieillot, 1816)
Psittacara leucophthalmus (Statius Muller, 1776)
Pyrrhura frontalis (Vieillot, 1817) E
Forpus xanthopterygius (Spix, 1824)
Brotogeris tirica (Gmelin, 1788) E
Brotogeris chiriri (Vieillot, 1818)
Touit melanonotus (Wied, 1820) E, A
Touit surdus (Kuhl, 1820) E, A
Pionopsitta pileata (Scopoli, 1769) E, A
Pionus maximiliani (Kuhl, 1820)
Amazona farinosa (Boddaert, 1783) A
Amazona rhodocorytha (Salvadori, 1890) E, A
Amazona aestiva (Linnaeus, 1758) I
Triclaria malachitacea (Spix, 1824) E, A
Thamnophilidae
Terenura maculata (Wied, 1831) E
Myrmotherula axillaris (Vieillot, 1817)
Myrmotherula minor Salvadori, 1864 E, A
Myrmotherula unicolor (Mntris, 1835) E
Formicivora erythronotos Hartlaub, 1852 E, A
Thamnomanes caesius (Temminck, 1820)
Rhopias gularis (Spix, 1825) E
Dysithamnus stictothorax (Temminck, 1823) E
Dysithamnus mentalis (Temminck, 1823)
Dysithamnus xanthopterus Burmeister, 1856 E
Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus (Temminck, 1822)
Thamnophilus ruficapillus Vieillot, 1816
Thamnophilus palliatus (Lichtenstein, 1823)
Thamnophilus ambiguus Swainson, 1825 E
Thamnophilus caerulescens Vieillot, 1816
Hypoedaleus guttatus (Vieillot, 1816) E
Batara cinerea Vieillot, 1819
Mackenziaena leachii (Such, 1825) E
Mackenziaena severa (Lichtenstein, 1823) E
Biatas nigropectus (Lafresnaye, 1850) E, A
Myrmoderus loricatus (Lichtenstein, 1823) E
Myrmoderus squamosus Pelzeln, 1868 E
Pyriglena leucoptera (Vieillot, 1818) E
50

0-500
0-1,600

0-500
0-1,300
0-50
0-1,600
0-100

0-50

0-100
20b
0-1,600
0-1,600
0-1,600
0-100b
0-1,600
0-1,600
200-1,000
0-1,600

400-1,300
400-2,200

600-1,200
1,000a

400-2,200

600-1,500

400-2,300
400-2,160
400-1,300
900-2,200
500-1,300
400-2,400
900-1,670
400-1,200
400

100-2,100
100-1,800
100-1,000
300-1,800
100-600
100-1,800
100-900
100-1,800

400-1,300
400-2,400
400-2,200
400-1,300
400-1,250
400-1,100
800-1,400

100-1,200
100-1,800
100-2,000
100-1,000
100-1,200

800-1,750
400-1,900

300-1,200
100-1,000
300-1,500
100-1,800

400
100-1,200
0-700

300-1,200
400-1,450

0-500
0-500
0-100

700-2,300
1,200-2,500
400-1,500
700-1,320
400-1,750

100-400b
100-1,500
100-1,300
100-1,500
800-1,800
100-600
850-2,100
100-1,000
100-400
800-2,000
100-900
100-2,000
100-2,000
100-1,500
600-1,500
100-1,200

400-1,600

100-1,800

0-1,600
0-1,000
0-700
800-1,600
0-500
0-1,600
0-100

500-1,500
500-1,450
400-1,600
1,200-2,000
600-1,150
400-2,400

0-1,600
0-900
0-1,600
800-1,600
0-700

400-2,400

0-1,200
0-1,600

100-1,000
100-600
300-800
100-600

Atualidades Ornitolgicas, 188, novembro e dezembro de 2015 - www.ao.com.br

Drymophila ferruginea (Temminck, 1822) E


Drymophila rubricollis (Bertoni, 1901) E
Drymophila genei (Filippi, 1847) E
Drymophila ochropyga (Hellmayr, 1906) E
Drymophila malura (Temminck, 1825) E
Drymophila squamata (Lichtenstein, 1823) E
Conopophagidae
Conopophaga lineata (Wied, 1831) E
Conopophaga melanops (Vieillot, 1818) E
Grallariidae
Grallaria varia (Boddaert, 1783)
Hylopezus nattereri (Pinto, 1937) E
Rhinocryptidae
Merulaxis ater Lesson, 1830 E
Eleoscytalopus indigoticus (Wied, 1831) E
Scytalopus speluncae (Mntris, 1835) E
Psilorhamphus guttatus (Mntris, 1835) E
Formicariidae
Formicarius colma Boddaert, 1783
Chamaeza campanisona (Lichtenstein, 1823)
Chamaeza meruloides Vigors, 1825 E
Chamaeza ruficauda (Cabanis e Heine, 1859) E
Scleruridae
Sclerurus macconnelli Chubb, 1919 A
Sclerurus scansor (Mntris, 1835) E
Dendrocolaptidae
Dendrocincla turdina (Lichtenstein, 1820) E
Sittasomus griseicapillus (Vieillot, 1818)
Xiphorhynchus fuscus (Vieillot, 1818) E
Campylorhamphus falcularius (Vieillot, 1822) E
Lepidocolaptes angustirostris (Vieillot, 1818) I
Lepidocolaptes squamatus (Lichtenstein, 1822) E
Dendrocolaptes platyrostris Spix, 1825
Xiphocolaptes albicollis (Vieillot, 1818)
Xenopidae
Xenops minutus (Sparrman, 1788)
Xenops rutilans Temminck, 1821
Furnariidae
Furnarius figulus (Lichtenstein, 1823) I
Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, 1788)
Lochmias nematura (Lichtenstein, 1823
Automolus leucophthalmus (Wied, 1821) E
Anabazenops fuscus (Vieillot, 1816) E
Anabacerthia amaurotis (Temminck, 1823) E
Anabacerthia lichtensteini Cabanis e Heine, 1859 E
Philydor atricapillus (Wied, 1821) E
Philydor rufum (Vieillot, 1818)
Heliobletus contaminatus Berlepsch, 1885 E
Syndactyla rufosuperciliata (Lafresnaye, 1832)
Cichlocolaptes leucophrus (Jardine e Selby, 1830) E
Leptasthenura setaria (Temminck, 1824) E
Phacellodomus rufifrons (Wied, 1821) I
Phacellodomus erythrophthalmus (Wied, 1821) E
Atualidades Ornitolgicas, 188, novembro e dezembro de 2015 - www.ao.com.br

0-1,000
1,000-1,600
1,600
0-1,200
1,200-1,300b
0-600

400-1,470
1150-1,700
1,400-2,400
600-1,480
1,200-1,800

100-1,000
1,200-1,700
1,500-2,100
900-1,300
900-1,700
100-600

0-1,600
0-800

400-2,100
500-1,100

300-2,000
100-800

0-1,300
0-700

400-1,850
1,200-2,450

100-1,800

0-1,600
1,200-1,300b
800-1,600
0-100

600-1,680
600-1,300
1,100-2,400

100-1,200
800-1,200
900-2,100
100-1,500

0-200
0-700
500-1,100
800-1,600

600-900
600-1,400
1,150-2,280

100-900
300-1,000
800-1,200
1,000-2,000

20b
0-1,600

400-1,850

100-200
100-1,500

0-900
0-1,600
0-1,600
0-100b
0-100b
50-1,600
0-1,000
0-700

500-1,250
400-2,300
400-1,700
400-2,000
400-600
400-2,100
400-1,780
500-1,650

100-900
100-1,800
100-1,500
100-1,800
100-800
100-1,800
300-1,200
100-1,800

0-500
0-1,600

900
400-1,800

100-1,000
100-1,500

0-100
0-1,200
0-1,600
0-1,200
0-1,600
800-1,200
0-1,200
0-700
0-1,200
800-1,200
500-1,600
0-1,600
1,200-1,600

400-1,000
400-1,200
400-2,400
500-1,200
400-1,460
900-1,500
1,400
500-1,150
400-1,900
800-2,400
950-2,150
900-1,700
850-2,200
400-600
400-600

100-1,000
100-1,800
100-2,100
100-900
300-1,800
300-1,500
100-900
100-1,300
100-1,500
800-1,800
300-2,000
100-1,500

0-700

100-1,300
100-1,800
51

Phacellodomus ferrugineigula (Pelzeln, 1858) E


Anumbius annumbi (Vieillot, 1817) I
Certhiaxis cinnamomeus (Gmelin, 1788)
Synallaxis ruficapilla Vieillot, 1819 E
Synallaxis cinerascens Temminck, 1823
Synallaxis albescens Temminck, 1823 I
Synallaxis spixi Sclater, 1856
Asthenes moreirae (Miranda Ribeiro, 1906) E
Cranioleuca pallida (Wied, 1831) E
Pipridae
Neopelma aurifrons (Wied, 1831) E, A
Neopelma chrysolophum Pinto, 1944 E
Manacus manacus (Linnaeus, 1766)
Machaeropterus regulus (Hahn, 1819)
Ilicura militaris (Shaw e Nodder, 1809) E
Chiroxiphia caudata (Shaw e Nodder, 1793) E
Oxyruncidae
Oxyruncus cristatus Swainson, 1821
Onychorhynchidae
Onychorhynchus swainsoni (Pelzeln, 1858) E, A
Myiobius barbatus (Gmelin, 1789)
Myiobius atricaudus Lawrence, 1863
Tityridae
Schiffornis virescens (Lafresnaye, 1838) E
Schiffornis turdina (Wied, 1831)
Laniisoma elegans (Thunberg, 1823) E, A
Iodopleura pipra (Lesson, 1831) E, A
Tityra inquisitor (Lichtenstein, 1823) A
Tityra cayana (Linnaeus, 1766)
Pachyramphus viridis (Vieillot, 1816)
Pachyramphus castaneus (Jardine e Selby, 1827)
Pachyramphus polychopterus (Vieillot, 1818)
Pachyramphus marginatus (Lichtenstein, 1823)
Pachyramphus validus (Lichtenstein, 1823)
Cotingidae
Lipaugus lanioides (Lesson, 1844) E, A
Tijuca atra Ferrusac, 1829 E
Tijuca condita Snow, 1980 E, A
Procnias nudicollis (Vieillot, 1817) E, A
Pyroderus scutatus (Shaw, 1792) A
Carpornis cucullata (Swainson, 1821) E
Carpornis melanocephala (Wied, 1820) E, A
Phibalura flavirostris Vieillot, 1816 A
Pipritidae
Piprites chloris (Temminck, 1822)
Piprites pileata (Temminck, 1822) E, A
Platyrinchidae
Calyptura cristata (Vieillot, 1818) E, A
Platyrinchus mystaceus Vieillot, 1818
Platyrinchus leucoryphus Wied, 1831 A
Rynchocyclidae
Mionectes oleagineus (Lichtenstein, 1823)
Mionectes rufiventris Cabanis, 1846 E
52

0-100
0-1,600
0-50b
0-1,600
800-1,600

600
400
400-600
400-1,800
900-1,900
400
400-2,300
1,700-2,500
500-2,300

1,000b
100-1,000
100-1,800
900-1,200
1,000b
100-2,100
1,950-2,100
400-2,000

800-1,600
0-500

900-1,800
400-800

0-1,200
0-1,600

400-1,200
400-1,800

100-200b
800-2,100
100-1,100
100-600
100-1,500
100-1,800

0-1,200

1,200-1,450

100-1,800

0-100
0-500
650-1,100

600-1,200

0-1,200

500-2,080

0-1,200
0-500
0-500
0-1,200
0-1,200
0-1,600
0-1,200
0-500
0-1,200

600-1,000
400-1,150
700-1,200
400-1,820
400-1,200

0-500
1,600

1,100-1,200b
1140-2,200

0-1,200
0-1,200
0-1,400

600-1,100
500-1,800

20a

800-1,900

600-1,250

400-1,200

100-900
900-1,100
800-1,500
100-400
100-1,100
300-1,000
100-600
100-600
100-1,000
300-1,800
100-1,800
100-600
100-1,000

300-1,800
1,800-2,100
100-1,800
100-600
800-1,800
100-200b
500-1,800
500a

1,100-1,900

0-1,200
200a

0-1,600

400-1,800

400-1,950

550b
100-1,500
100-400
100-600
100-1,800

Atualidades Ornitolgicas, 188, novembro e dezembro de 2015 - www.ao.com.br

Leptopogon amaurocephalus Tschudi, 1846


Corythopis delalandi (Lesson, 1830)
Phylloscartes ventralis (Temminck, 1824)
Phylloscartes paulista Ihering e Ihering, 1907 E, A
Phylloscartes oustaleti (Sclater, 1887) E, A
Phylloscartes difficilis (Ihering e Ihering, 1907) E
Rhynchocyclus olivaceus (Temminck, 1820) A
Tolmomyias sulphurescens (Spix, 1825)
Tolmomyias flaviventris (Wied, 1831) I
Todirostrum poliocephalum (Wied, 1831) E
Todirostrum cinereum (Linnaeus, 1766) I
Poecilotriccus plumbeiceps (Lafresnaye, 1846)
Myiornis auricularis (Vieillot, 1818)
Hemitriccus diops (Temminck, 1822) E
Hemitriccus obsoletus (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1906) E
Hemitriccus orbitatus (Wied, 1831) E
Hemitriccus nidipendulus (Wied, 1831) E
Hemitriccus furcatus (Lafresnaye, 1846) E, A
Tyrannidae
Hirundinea ferruginea (Gmelin, 1788)
Tyranniscus burmeisteri Cabanis e Heine, 1859
Ornithion inerme Hartlaub, 1853 A
Camptostoma obsoletum (Temminck, 1824)
Elaenia flavogaster (Thunberg, 1822)
Elaenia spectabilis Pelzeln, 1868
Elaenia chilensis Hellmayr, 1927
Elaenia parvirostris Pelzeln, 1868
Elaenia mesoleuca (Deppe, 1830)
Elaenia obscura (dOrbigny e Lafresnaye, 1837)
Myiopagis caniceps (Swainson, 1835)
Capsiempis flaveola (Lichtenstein, 1823)
Phyllomyias virescens (Temminck, 1824) E
Phyllomyias fasciatus (Thunberg, 1822)
Phyllomyias griseocapilla Sclater, 1862 E
Polystictus superciliaris (Wied, 1831)
Pseudocolopteryx sclateri (Oustalet, 1892)
Serpophaga nigricans (Vieillot, 1817)
Serpophaga subcristata (Vieillot, 1817)
Attila phoenicurus Pelzeln, 1868
Attila rufus (Vieillot, 1819) E
Legatus leucophaius (Vieillot, 1818)
Ramphotrigon megacephalum (Swainson, 1835)
Myiarchus tuberculifer (dOrbigny e Lafresnaye, 1837)
Myiarchus swainsoni Cabanis e Heine, 1859
Myiarchus ferox (Gmelin, 1789)
Sirystes sibilator (Vieillot, 1818)
Rhytipterna simplex (Lichtenstein, 1823)
Pitangus sulphuratus (Linnaeus, 1766)
Machetornis rixosa (Vieillot, 1819) I
Myiodynastes maculatus (Statius Muller, 1776)
Megarynchus pitangua (Linnaeus, 1766)
Myiozetetes cayanensis (Linnaeus, 1766)
Myiozetetes similis (Spix, 1825)
Atualidades Ornitolgicas, 188, novembro e dezembro de 2015 - www.ao.com.br

0-1,000
800-1,400
0-200
0-1,200
1,600
0-200
0-1,300
0-1,200
0-100
0-1,600
0-1,600
800-1,600
0-500
0-100
0-700

400-1,600
500-800
1,200-2,450

1,200-2,500
400-1,500
400-1450
400-1,800
600-1,750
400-1,600
600-1,450
1,200-2,250
400-1,200
400-1,400

0-1,100
0-1,300

400-1,400
500-1,800

0-700
0-700

400-1,950
400-1,200
400
600
1,150-1,850b
1,000-2,250
750-2,500
500-1,320
500-1,750
900-2,200
400-2,300
600-2,240
2,400a
400
400-2,400
400-2,430
1,200-1,800
400-1,300
500-940
600-1,450

800-1,600
1,600
0-450b
0-100
600a
0-1,600
0-1,600
1,400a
1,200-1,250
0-1,300
0-1,200
0-1,200
0-500
0-80b
700-1,600
0-100
200-1,000
0-500
0-1,300
0-1,600
0-1,200
0-700
0-100
0-1,600

800-1,700
400-1,200
500-1,350
600a
400-2,200
400-1,800
400-1,200
400-1,200
400-1,800

100-1,500
100-600
800-2,100
400a
300-800
800-2,100
100-200
100-1,700
100-200
100-1,300
100-1,000
500-1,800
100-1,500
1,000-1,500
100-1,000
100-1,000

100-1,200
100-1,500
400a
100-1,800
100-1,800
800-1,000b
900a
800-1,800
800-2,100
400a
300-900
800-1,300
100-1,800
500-1,800

400-1,200
300-1,300
800-1,100
100-1,500
100-600
100-1,100
100-700b
700-1,300
100-1,800
300-1,000
100-1,000
100-1,800
100-1,100
100-1,500
100-1,800
200-1,800
100-1,800
53

Tyrannus melancholicus Vieillot, 1819


Tyrannus savana Vieillot, 1808
Empidonomus varius (Vieillot, 1818)
Colonia colonus (Vieillot, 1818)
Myiophobus fasciatus (Statius Muller, 1776)
Pyrocephalus rubinus (Boddaert, 1783)
Fluvicola nengeta (Linnaeus, 1766) I
Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764)
Gubernetes yetapa (Vieillot, 1818)
Cnemotriccus fuscatus (Wied, 1831)
Lathrotriccus euleri (Cabanis, 1868)
Contopus cooperi (Nuttall, 1831)
Contopus cinereus (Spix, 1825)
Knipolegus cyanirostris (Vieillot, 1818)
Knipolegus lophotes Boie, 1828
Knipolegus nigerrimus (Vieillot, 1818) E
Satrapa icterophrys (Vieillot, 1818)
Xolmis cinereus (Vieillot, 1816)
Xolmis velatus (Lichtenstein, 1823) I
Muscipipra vetula (Lichtenstein, 1823) E
Vireonidae
Cyclarhis gujanensis (Gmelin, 1789)
Vireo olivaceus (Linnaeus, 1766)
Hylophilus poicilotis Temminck, 1822 E
Hylophilus amaurocephalus (Nordmann, 1835)
Hylophilus thoracicus Temminck, 1822
Corvidae
Cyanocorax cristatellus (Temminck, 1823) I
Hirundinidae
Pygochelidon cyanoleuca (Vieillot, 1817)
Alopochelidon fucata (Temminck, 1822) I
Atticora tibialis (Cassin, 1853)
Stelgidopteryx ruficollis (Vieillot, 1817)
Progne tapera (Vieillot, 1817) I
Progne chalybea (Gmelin, 1789)
Tachycineta albiventer (Boddaert, 1783)
Tachycineta leucorrhoa (Vieillot, 1817) I
Hirundo rustica Linnaeus, 1758 VS
Troglodytidae
Troglodytes musculus Naumann, 1823
Pheugopedius genibarbis Swainson, 1838 I
Cantorchilus longirostris (Vieillot, 1819)
Donacobiidae
Donacobius atricapilla (Linnaeus, 1766)
Polioptilidae
Ramphocaenus melanurus Vieillot, 1819 A
Turdidae
Turdus flavipes Vieillot, 1818
Turdus rufiventris Vieillot, 1818
Turdus leucomelas Vieillot, 1818
Turdus amaurochalinus Cabanis, 1850
Turdus subalaris (Seebohm, 1887) E
Turdus albicollis Vieillot, 1818
54

0-1,600
0-700
0-500
0-700
0-1,200
30a
0-500
0-50
0-100a
0-400
0-1,200
0-100a
0-400
300-1,600

400-2,200
400-1,300
400-1,200
400-1,800
400-2,450
400
400-1,700
400
400

100-1,800
100-1,000
100-1,300
300-1,200
100-1,200
100-1,800
100-1,200
100-200
900-1,000b
100-200
100-1,800
400a
100-1,000
500-2,100
100-1,000
400-2,100
100-1,000
800-1,000
100-1,800
800-1,800

500-1,100
0-1,200
0-100
0-100
20a

400-1,850
1,070-1,250b
400-1,500
600-2,150
400-2,200
400-2,500
400-1,200
400-1,200
400-1,200
1,200-2,200

0-1,600
0-1,200
800-1,600

400-2,200
400-1,350
600-2,200

0-100

400

100-2,000
100-1,300
700-1,600
850-1,000
100-400

400-1,780

800-1,000

400-2,500
400
780-1,250
400-1,200
400
100-1,500
400
400

100-2,000
1,000a
100-500
100-1,300
100-1,300
100-1,000

0-1,600
0-700
0-1,200
0-100
0-400
0-200
0-50

100-1,000
100-1,000

0-1,300

400-2,450

0-500

400-900

100-1,800
100-600
100-600

0-100

400

100-900

0-700
0-1,400
0-1,600
0-400
0-700
0-1,200

400a
400-2,200
400-2,500
400-1,400
400-1,200
500-1,850
400-2,200

100-2,000
100-2,000
100-1,100
100-2,000
100-1,000
100-2,000

Atualidades Ornitolgicas, 188, novembro e dezembro de 2015 - www.ao.com.br

Mimidae
Mimus saturninus (Lichtenstein, 1823) I
Motacillidae
Anthus lutescens Pucheran, 1855
Anthus hellmayri Hartert, 1909
Passerellidae
Zonotrichia capensis (Statius Muller, 1776)
Ammodramus humeralis (Bosc, 1792)
Arremon semitorquatus Swainson, 1838 E
Parulidae
Setophaga pitiayumi (Vieillot, 1817)
Geothlypis aequinoctialis (Gmelin, 1789)
Basileuterus culicivorus (Deppe, 1830)
Myiothlypis leucoblephara (Vieillot, 1817) E
Myiothlypis rivularis (Wied, 1821) A
Icteridae
Psarocolius decumanus (Pallas, 1769)
Cacicus chrysopterus (Vigors, 1825)
Cacicus haemorrhous (Linnaeus, 1766)
Gnorimopsar chopi (Vieillot, 1819)
Agelasticus cyanopus (Vieillot, 1819)
Chrysomus ruficapillus (Vieillot, 1819) I
Pseudoleistes guirahuro (Vieillot, 1819)
Molothrus oryzivorus (Gmelin, 1788) A
Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin, 1789)
Sturnella superciliaris (Bonaparte, 1850) I
Mitrospingidae
Orthogonys chloricterus (Vieillot, 1819) E
Thraupidae
Coereba flaveola (Linnaeus, 1758)
Saltator maximus (Statius Muller, 1776)
Saltator similis dOrbigny e Lafresnaye, 1837
Saltator maxillosus Cabanis, 1851 E
Saltator fuliginosus (Daudin, 1,800) E
Orchesticus abeillei (Lesson, 1839) E
Nemosia pileata (Boddaert, 1783) I
Thlypopsis sordida (dOrbigny e Lafresnaye, 1837)
Pyrrhocoma ruficeps (Strickland, 1844) E
Tachyphonus coronatus (Vieillot, 1822) E
Ramphocelus bresilius (Linnaeus, 1766) E
Lanio cristatus (Linnaeus, 1766)
Lanio pileatus (Wied, 1821)
Lanio melanops (Vieillot, 1818)
Tangara brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1766) E, A
Tangara seledon (Statius Muller, 1776) E
Tangara cyanocephala (Statius Muller, 1776) E
Tangara cyanoventris (Vieillot, 1819) E
Tangara desmaresti (Vieillot, 1819) E
Tangara sayaca (Linnaeus, 1766)
Tangara cyanoptera (Vieillot, 1817) E
Tangara palmarum (Wied, 1823)
Tangara ornata (Sparrman, 1789) E
Tangara cayana (Linnaeus, 1766) I
Atualidades Ornitolgicas, 188, novembro e dezembro de 2015 - www.ao.com.br

0-100

400-1,200

100-1,100

0-700

400
800-2,400

100-1,000

0-1,600

400-2,500
400-500
500-800

100-2,100
100-1,000
300-1,100

0-1,100
0-700
0-1350
100-1,600
0-1,200

400-1,150
400-1,200
400-1,900
800-2,300

100-1,000
100-1,300
100-1,800
800-2,000
400a

0-1,200
0-1,400
0-700

400-1,200
1,200-2,250
400-1,400
400-1,200
400
400
400

100-1,000

0-700

0-100b

100-900
100-1,000
100-900

0-100
0-1,200
0-100

400-1,670
400

900-1,500
100-1,000
100-1,000

0-1,100

400-1,300

100-1,000

0-700
0-100
0-1,600
800-1,600
0-1,200
0-1,300
0-100
0-200

400-1,150

100-1,000
100-500
300-2,000
900-2,100
100-1,000
500-1,500
100-800
100-1,000
800-1,800
100-1,000
100-1,300
100-600
100-800
100-1,800
100-600
100-600
100-600
300-1,000
100-2,000
100-1,800
100-1,800
100-1,300
100-1,800
100-2,000

0-1,100
0-500
0-700

400-2,250
1550-2,150
400-1,500
1,100-1,680
400-600
400-650
1,200-1,450
400-1,300
400-700

0-1,200

400-800
400-1,780

0-600
0-400
400-1,200
0-1,600
0-1,200
0-1,600
0-700
0-1,300
0-1,600

500-1,330
900-1,150
400-1,300
400-2,000
400-2,420
400-1,200
400-1,200
400-1,750
400-2,000

55

Stephanophorus diadematus (Temminck, 1823)


Cissops leverianus (Gmelin, 1788)
Schistochlamys ruficapillus (Vieillot, 1817)
Pipraeidea melanonota (Vieillot, 1819)
Tersina viridis (Illiger, 1811)
Dacnis nigripes Pelzeln, 1856 E, A
Dacnis cayana (Linnaeus, 1766)
Chlorophanes spiza (Linnaeus, 1758) A
Hemithraupis guira (Linnaeus, 1766)
Hemithraupis ruficapilla (Vieillot, 1818) E
Hemithraupis flavicollis (Vieillot, 1818)
Conirostrum speciosum (Temminck, 1824)
Haplospiza unicolor Cabanis, 1851 E
Donacospiza albifrons (Vieillot, 1817)
Poospiza thoracica (Nordmann, 1835) E
Poospiza lateralis (Nordmann, 1835)
Sicalis citrina Pelzeln, 1870 I
Sicalis flaveola (Linnaeus, 1766)
Sicalis luteola (Sparrman, 1789) I
Emberizoides herbicola (Vieillot, 1817)
Embernagra platensis (Gmelin, 1789)
Volatinia jacarina (Linnaeus, 1766)
Sporophila frontalis (Verreaux, 1869) E, A
Sporophila falcirostris (Temminck, 1820) E, A
Sporophila collaris (Boddaert, 1783) A
Sporophila lineola (Linnaeus, 1758) I
Sporophila nigricollis (Vieillot, 1823)
Sporophila ardesiaca (Dubois, 1894)
Sporophila caerulescens (Vieillot, 1823)
Sporophila leucoptera (Vieillot, 1817)
Sporophila bouvreuil (Statius Muller, 1776)
Sporophila angolensis (Linnaeus, 1766) A
Tiaris fuliginosus (Wied, 1830)
Cardinalidae
Piranga flava (Vieillot, 1822)
Habia rubica (Vieillot, 1817)
Caryothraustes canadensis (Linnaeus, 1766)
Amaurospiza moesta (Hartlaub, 1853) E, A
Cyanoloxia brissonii (Lichtenstein, 1823) A
Fringillidae
Sporagra magellanica (Vieillot, 1805)
Euphonia chlorotica (Linnaeus, 1766)
Euphonia violacea (Linnaeus, 1758)
Euphonia chalybea (Mikan, 1825) A
Euphonia cyanocephala (Vieillot, 1818) A
Euphonia xanthogaster Sundevall, 1834
Euphonia pectoralis (Latham, 1801) E
Chlorophonia cyanea (Thunberg, 1822)
Estrildidae
Estrilda astrild (Linnaeus, 1758) Int
Passeridae
Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758) Int
Number of species
56

300-1,600
0-700
0-1,350
0-500
20-80b
0-1,300
0-100
50a
0-700
0-100
0-1,200
1,600
1,300-1,600
0-1,600

0-700
0-1,400
0-1,600
0-100
0-300
0-1,200
0-100

650-2,450
600-1,750
400-1,700
400-2,380
400-1,200
400-1,700
400-1,600

1,200-2,100
800b
800-2,100
100-1,800
300-1,000
100-1,000
100-1,800
100-500

400-1,450

100-1,200
100-500
100-1,000
100-2,000
900-2,100
900-2,100

400-800
400-2,150
400-2,400
1,200-2,300
1150-2,400
2,400a
400-1,900
400
400-500
400-2,500
400-1,200
950-1,200
600-1,100
400
400-1,200

100a
0-700

400-800
400-2,000
400-1000
400
600
700-1,200

0-1,200

400-1,900
500-1,200

0-200

1,100-1,300
400-1,000

1,200-1,300
0-500
0-700

400-2,400
400-1,200

100-1,800
100-1,000
100-1,000
400-2,000
100-1,500
100-200
100-1,000b
100-500
100-1,200
600-950b
700a
100-1,100
800-1,200
100-1,300
100-600
800-1,000

600-1,100
0-300
0-1,200
25ma

400-1,500
900-1,800

800-1,200
100-800
100-1,000
400-1,800
400-1,800
100-1,000
100-1,500
100-1,800

0-100

400

100-1,100

0-100
407

400
419

100-1,100
436

1,800b
1,100a

Atualidades Ornitolgicas, 188, novembro e dezembro de 2015 - www.ao.com.br

Table 2. Congeneric bird species with elevational replacement on the Serra da Bocaina, Itatiaia and rgos (Low = Low
elevation; Mid = Mid-elevation; High = High elevation).
Species

Bocaina

Itatiaia

rgos

Low

Low; Mid; High

Low; Mid; High

Mid; High

Low; Mid

Low; Mid; High

Low

Phaethorni idaliae

Low

Phaethornis ruber

Low

Low

Low

Phaethornis pretrei

Low; Mid; High

Mid; High

Phaethronis eurynome

Low; Mid; High

Mid; High

Mid; High

Veniliornis maculifrons

Low

Low; Mid

Low; Mid; High

Veniliornis spilogaster

Low; Mid; High

Mid; High

Low; Mid

Low

Low; Mid; High

Mid; High

Mid; High

Thamnophilus ruficapillus

Low

Low; Mid; High

Mid; High

Thamnophilus palliatus

Low

Low

Thamnophilus ambiguus

Low

Low; Mid; High

Mid; High

Mid; High

Drymophila ferruginea

Low; Mid

Low; Mid

Low; Mid

Drymophila rubricollis

High

Mid

Mid; High

Drymophila genei

High

Mid; High

High

Low; Mid; High

Mid

Mid

Mid; High

Mid; High

Drymophila squamata

Low

Low

Conopophaga lineata

Low; Mid; High

Mid; High

Mid; High

Conopophaga melanops

Low; Mid

Low; Mid

Low

Chamaeza campanisona

Low; Mid

Low; Mid

Mid

Low; Mid

Mid

Mid; High

Mid; High

Mid; High

Low

Low

Myiobius atricaudus

Mid; High

Low; Mid; High

Mid; High

Schiffornis virescens

Low; Mid; High

Low; Mid; High

Mid; High

Schiffornis turdina

Low

Carpornis cucullata

Low; Mid; High

Mid; High

Penelope superciliaris
Penelope obscura
Phaethornis squalidus

Piculus flavigula
Piculus aurulentus

Thamnophilus caerulescens

Drymophila ochropyga
Drymophila malura

Chamaeza meruloides
Chamaeza ruficauda
Myiobius barbatus

Atualidades Ornitolgicas, 188, novembro e dezembro de 2015 - www.ao.com.br

57

Carpornis melanocephala

Low

Phylloscartes ventralis

Mid; High

Mid; High

Mid; High

Phylloscartes paulista

Low

Low

Phylloscartes oustaleti

Low; Mid; High

Low

Phylloscartes difficilis

High

Mid; High

Mid; High

Low; Mid

Mid; High

Hemitriccus obsoletus

Mid; High

Mid; High

Hemitriccus orbitatus

Low

Low

Attila phoenicurus

Low; Mid

Low; Mid

Mid

Attila rufus

Low; Mid

Low

Low; Mid

Hylophilus poicilotis

Mid; High

Low; Mid; High

Mid; High

Mid

Hylophilus thoracicus

Low

Low

Low

Cacicus chrysopterus

Low; Mid; High

Mid; High

Cacicus haemorrhous

Low; Mid

Low; Mid

Low; Mid

Low

Low

Low; Mid; High

Low; Mid; High

Low; Mid; High

Mid; High

High

High

Tangara seledon

Low

Low; Mid

Low

Tangara cyanocephala

Low

Mid

Low

Tangara cyanoventris

Mid; High

Low; Mid

Mid

Tangara desmaresti

Mid; High

Low; Mid; High

Low; Mid; High

Hemitriccus diops

Hylophilus amaurocephalus

Saltator maximus
Saltator similis
Saltator maxillosus

Table 3. Montane bird species in Itatiaia and rgos that are found in lower elevations or even at sea level in the Serra da
Bocaina.
Species

58

Phaethornis eurynome

Piculus aurulentus

Merulaxis ater

Stephanoxis lalandi

Pionopsitta pileata

Carpornis cucullata

Leucochloris albicollis

Thamnophilus ruficapillus

Phyllomyias griseocapilla

Clytolaema rubricauda

Thamnophilus caerulescens

Myiothlypis leucoblephara

Trogon surrucura

Batara cinerea

Orchesticus abeillei

Ramphastos dicolorus

Mackenziaena leachii

Stephanophorus diadematus

Pteroglossus bailloni

Drymophila ochropyga

Cissopis leverianus

Veniliornis spilogaster

Conopophaga lineata
Atualidades Ornitolgicas, 188, novembro e dezembro de 2015 - www.ao.com.br