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Inter Networking

WAN and Internet Access

3/9/2006
manishkulhari@gmail.comCP2073 - Networking

Introduction
What is Wide Area Networking?
How Internet access works
Types of telecommunications services
How to determine Internet access needs
Steps in implementing a WAN connection
3/9/2006

manishkulhari@gmail.com

What is Wide Area Networking?


 A WAN is a network that is created using the services of the
telephone company to connect LANs separated by large
geographical distances
 WANs require the use of special WAN protocols and devices
 These protocols are usually part of a companys Internet
access
 WANs introduce a new level of complexity to
internetworking such as coordinating with outside
organisations eg your telecommunications provider
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WANs (2)
 Characteristics are:
 Connections are low bandwidth, with speeds from 56kbps to 2Mbps
 A single Wan connection is shared by all devises on the LAN
(bottleneck) sometimes a second link is installed for the sake of
redundancy
 WANs cover a large geographical area
 WAN technologies include Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP),
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), ISDN, DSL, dial-up access
and Frame Relay
 WAN devices include routers, modems and WAN switches
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How Internet access works


Having set up the Internet at home you have
in effect established a WAN

Computer

Modem

Telephone Exchange
Internet
Switch

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Internet Access at Home


Initiate Dialup Software
Commands sent to modem
ISP is dialled
Modem uses local loop pair of copper wires
Signal goes to Local Exchange
A Switch forwards the call to the often distant ISP
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Internet Access at Home (2)


ISP

Modem

Modem

Telephone Exchange

Multichannel Trunk

Multiplexer
Modem

Dial-up
Server

Modem

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Internet Access at Home (3)


 Between the Exchange and the IPS is a multichannel trunk
 Calls are multiplexed on that link
 Calls are demultiplexed and separated to modems in a bank
 The users modem and the modem in the bank handshake a
speed is established and data transferred
 High speed Internet connections for a company is not too
dissimilar to this

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Planning Internet Access


How will the connection be used ?
How important is the connection to the company ?
What infrastructure already exists ?
Balance need for bandwidth, reliability of
connection, quality of service provider, quality of
telco, cost
Future Applications ?
 Video Conferencing/Streaming
 E-Commerce
 Virtual Private Network

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Telecommunications Services
 Circuit Switching
 Creates channels as required
 Essentially for voice data
 Passive

 Packet Switching
 Transfer of data between two points over a shared medium
 Sends packets across the network using the best path
 Burst-like in nature an efficient solution
 Cost is based upon usage
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WAN Technologies
 Point-to-Point Protocol
 Advantages
Well tested and implemented
Offers excellent throughput
Supports most network protocols
Simple to implement

 Disadvantages
Less flexible for rapidly expanding multiple sites
Expensive
Requires dedicated leased lines
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ISDN
 Touted as the solution to residential and SMEs in the 80s as
a means of providing integrated data/voice
 Due to costs has not been widely adopted
 Advantages
 Runs on existing phone lines
 Supports voice, data and fax on one line
 Good for video conferencing

 Disadvantages





3/9/2006

Comparatively expensive
Only provides 128K can go up in multiples
Less flexible for growth and cost than other WAN technologies
Not available everywhere
Can be difficult to implement
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Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)







New technology
Best option for Residential/SME customers
Asymmetrical DSL (ADSL) and Symmetrical DSL
Advantages





Now becoming affordable


Good download speeds
Runs over normal copper line
Data and voice can be simultaneous

 Disadvantages
 New means has yet to establish a reliability track record
 Not available everywhere BT have introduced satellite broadband (at a a
price !)
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Data over Cable








Standard Data Over Cable System Interface Specification (ITU-T J.112)


Known as cable-modem technology
Good Bandwidth/price ratio (cheap)
Provided by cable TV companies
Advantages
 Speeds up to 10Mbps
 Uses existing TV cable
 Cheap

 Disadvantages
 Not available in all areas
 Shared medium speeds can drop
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Frame Relay
 Introduced in 1992
 Communicates faster than X.25 (because it does not have error
correction)
 Advantages
 Widely adopted, International
 High Capacity switched core offers scalability
 Flexible, allows expansion and growth

 Disadvantages
 Minimal error correction
 Connection-oriented service, can cause latency on slow links
 Expensive
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What To look Out For


 Do Research Plan !
 Read the small print what do you get for your money
 ISP Setup Fee
 Hardware Costs
 Telecoms Installation Fee
 Monthly/Annual Line Rental
 No. of Fixed IP Addresses
 Domain Name Service
 Web Space
 Email Addresses
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Moving To A New Service


 No current service employees have no expectations
 New Service (Transition)
 99% Uptime expected
 No downtime apparent to clients
 All services to be moved to new ISP
 Resolve problems of Domain Name, email, Web etc

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Plan










Establish contacts (names, phone, email) for all key players


Plan with your account manager at the new ISP
How long will InterNIC take to fulfill Domain Name Registrations
Order equipment well in advance, confirm delivery dates
Arrange check of new lines
Plan deployment of IP addresses
Install equipment Check !
Submit new registration to InterNIC
Move to the new ISP outside office hours

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