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CHAPTER 5:

SERVICEABILITY OF
PVC AND
PVC PRODUCTS
In recent years, the impacts of industrial products
and their raw materials on the environment in all
phases of production, use and waste disposal have
drawn attention from the standpoint of global
environment and depletion of natural resources.
LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) is highlighted as one
of the tools to evaluate quantitative impacts on
the environment, and its effectiveness has been
demonstrated.
Compared with other plastics, PVC products are
less dependent on oil, which is a fossil fuel, and are
chemically stable, therefore PVC is a plastic which
has suitable characteristics for production of durable
products.
In this chapter, the features of PVC and PVC
products will be explained based on LCA and physical
properties of PVC to help gain understanding on the
serviceability of PVC and PVC products.

CHAPTER 5 : SERVICEABILITY OF PVC AND PVC PRODUCTS

1. Effect of PVC and PVC Products


on the Global Environment

Upon considering the global warming issue, the


magnitude of CO2 emission for the material we
use throughout its lifecycle, from production to
consumption and disposal, is an important index. PVC
is proven as a material with minimal environmental
load in terms of CO2 emission, when compared with
metal or glass products of the same application
(Fig.5-1).

Contributes to energy saving


PVC is an energy efficient plastic which saves
significant amounts of energy in the production stage
as compared with other plastics (Fig.5-2).
PVC window profiles have three times the heat
insulation efficiency of aluminum profiles, and are
compatible with the Next Generation Energy Saving
Standard. They cut down energy consumption for
heating and air conditioning (Fig.5-3).

Contributes to saving natural resources

57% of PVC is made up of chlorine, which is derived


from natural salt that is abundant on earth. Therefore
PVC contributes significantly to saving oil, which is a
limited natural resource, in contrast to other plastics
whose composition depends entirely on oil.

Plastics are often perceived as symbols of


throwaway or single use. However, in reality plastics
are durable materials which do not rust or corrode.
PVC is an exceptionally durable plastic, used in water

Fig. 5-1 CO2 emissions upon production


3
CO2104kg

Contributes to prevention of global warming

Contributes by producing long life products

<Water pipes>

2.72

(15 cm diameter,
per 1 km length)

2
1

0.78

10
CO2106kg

The energy consumption upon production of raw


materials and fabrication of plastics is considerably
small; therefore the total energy requirement for
production of end products is significantly smaller as
compared with other materials.
Of all plastics, PVC has excellent environmental
features such as low CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions
in the production phase, which contributes to the
prevention of global warming and saves resources and
energy.

Steel

PVC
<Agricultural green houses>
(per 1 km2)

9.500

8
6
4
2
0.177
0

0.346

PVC

Polyolefin

Glass

Source: Prepared from the survey report by Chem Systems

Fig. 5-2 Energy consumption up to the production stage of plastics


Mcal/kg
20
14.35

15

16.38 16.53 17.26


15.70 16.25

10.85

10
5

Expanded PS

LDPE

PS

PP

HDPE

PET

PVC

Source: Prepared from "A report on LCI data for petrochemical products", PWMI

A house with plastic window frames and plastic siding

60

Fig. 5-3 Rate of heat loss

*1 The heat loss through single glazing aluminum profiles is defined as 100 for comparison.
*2 low-e : low emissivity
High
0

Low

Heat insulation
20

40

60

80

100 ( % )*1

Aluminum profiles (single glazing)

100

Aluminum profiles (double glazing)

71.4

PVC & aluminum hybrid profiles


(double glazing)

53.5

Double profiles
(aluminum profile + PVC inner window
(single glazing) (low-e*2 double glazing)

35.7

PVC & aluminum hybrid profiles


(low-e double glazing)

35.7

PVC profiles
(low-e double glazing)

35.7

Source: Prepared from "A document by the energy saving construction materials promotion center"
within the Federation of Construction Material Industries, Japan

supply and sewage pipes, which can be used for over


50 years. Much of PVC products are used in durable
applications. More than half of all PVC products are
long life products with service lives of over 15 years,
which ultimately contributes to society (Fig.5-4).

Fig. 5-4 Service life of plastics


> 15 years 2 - 15 years < 2 years

Other

PVC

Contributes to recycling
PVC is a material suitable for recycling. It has the
longest history of recycling among plastics, and it is
most advanced in mechanical recycling. For example,
about 68% of end-of-life agricultural films (agrofilms) were recycled and used for flooring, etc. in 2005
(Fig.5-5).

HDPE
LDPE
PS
ABS
PP
0

20

40

60

80

100

Source: Prepared from A plastics demand structure survey reportby the MITI

Fig. 5-5 Recycling of agro-films

recycled
About 68%
The Next Generation Energy-Saving Standard :
The revision of the Japanese Housing Energy Efficiency took
place in 1999, triggered by the 1997 Kyoto Protocol which
required 6% reduction of CO2 emission from the level in 1990.
Reduction standards, etc. for heat loss from openings (e.g.,
windows and entrances) of housing have been defined.

60~70 thousand tons

(annual discharge quantity)

61

CHAPTER 5 : SERVICEABILITY OF PVC AND PVC PRODUCTS

2. LCA for PVC and PVC Products


LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) is a quantitative
and objective method to evaluate environmental
loads (consumption of resource energy, emission of
environmental load substances and wastes), through
all phases of a product including resource extraction,
production, use and waste disposal. It is important to
collect and provide proper LCI (Life Cycle Inventory)
data for correct LCA evaluations.

(1) LCI Data for PVC


According to the LCI data worked out by the Plastics
Waste Management Institute (PWMI) for general
purpose plastics, the process energy from extraction
of oil to plastic production is 4.989~6.850 Mcal/kg,
and there is no remarkable difference between each
plastics. As for resource energy however, the plastics

mainly composed of hydrocarbons from oil require


8.301~10.710 Mcal/kg. PVC, of which more than half
of its weight is composed of chlorine, requires 4.857
Mcal/kg, which amounts to less than half the resource
energy needed for other plastics, meaning that it takes
half the load to the environment. The sum of process
energy and resource energy for PVC is 10.849 Mcal/kg,
which amounts to 65.6% of the sum needed for lowdensity polyethylene (LDPE) (16.532 Mcal/kg), which is
widely used as packaging. PVC is an excellent material
with the least energy load (upper graph of Fig.5-6).
As for the environmental load of PVC, CO2 emission
from PVC is 1.430 kg/kg, which is higher than that of
polyolefin and lower than that of PS. NO X and SOX
emissions from PVC are 2.131 g/kg and 1.941 g/kg
respectively, which are the lowest of all other plastics
(lower graph of Fig.5-6).

Fig. 5-6 LCI data for production of general purpose plastics


<Energy consumption for plastics production>
(Mcal/kg)
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

16.532

10.689

15.699

16.250

10.710

10.623

Resource energy
Process energy

17.257

16.381

14.352
10.849

10.407

10.233

8.301

4.857

5.843

4.989

5.627

6.147

6.850

5.992

LDPE

HDPE

PP

PS

Expanded PS

PVC

6.052
PET for bottles

CO2=kg/kgNOX/SOX=g/kg

<Environmental load of plastics production>


3.5

CO2
NOX
SOX

3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
2.706
2.632

1.0
0.5
0

1.421
LDPE

2,534
2.356
1.231

2.663
2.546
1.379

HDPE

1.756
PP

2.871
3.015

2.717
2.882

1.430

1.862
PS

1.941
2.131

Expanded PS

PVC

3.205
2.540
1.416
PET for bottles

Source: Survey report for LCI data of petrochemical products by PWMI, July 1997
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) :
Method to evaluate the magnitude of resources
consumption and impacts on the environment
for a material or product throughout its whole

62

life cycle (production, use, waste disposal


and recycling) by overall analysis. Rather than
focusing on the environmental load alone, it

evaluates from a comprehensive viewpoint. It


has been highlighted as a guideline provider for
material selection and green procurement.

(2) LCI data for PVC products

the processing energy is 2.006 Mcal/kg for flat plates,


0.580 Mcal/kg for pipes, and 2.252 Mcal/kg for agrofilms. Therefore the environmental load from pipes is
the smallest (upper graph of Fig.5-7).

Flat plates, pipes and agro-films are typical PVC


products. According to the results of LCI data research
by Japan PVC Environmental Affairs Council (JPEC),

Fig.5-7 LCI data for representative PVC products


<Energy consumption for PVC products>
Processing energy
Material energy

(Mcal/kg)
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

11.597
2.006

10.855

9.591

10.275

Rigid PVC flat plates


(extruded)

13.211
2.252

0.580

Rigid PVC pipes


(extruded)

10.959

Agro-films
(calendered)

(CO2 = kg/kg NOX/SO X = g/kg

<Environmental load from PVC products>


6
CO2
5
NOX
4
SO
X

5.784

2
1
0

1.662

2.248

2.077

Rigid PVC flat plates


(extruded)

1.485

2.154

1.957

Rigid PVC pipes


(extruded)

5.711

2.304

Agro-films
(calendered)

Source: "Report on Investigation of LCI Data Concerning PVC Products" October 1999, JPEC

Energy consumption from plastic processing


originates from electric power requirements. In the
case of PVC products, the environmental load differs
for processes that require steam (i.e. use of heavy oil)
such as calendering, in comparison to extrusion (lower
graph of Fig.5-7).
Results of comparison between PVC products and
non-PVC products of the same applications revealed
that the total energy consumption (sum of material
energy and processing energy) of PVC products is
lower. Energy consumptions of PVC products amount
to the following percentages of products made by
other materials - water pipes (small diameter pipes
for water supply): 57.7% of polyethylene pipes, water

Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) :


Accumulated set of quantitative data of
resources and energy consumption and emission
in terms of various environmental load items

pipes (medium diameter pipes for water supply):


33.9% of ductile iron pipes, sewage pipes: 30.4% of
ductile iron pipes, agro-films: 73.7% of polyolefin
films (Upper graphs per product in Fig.5-8).
Similarly, the environmental loads of PVC products
are reported to be lower than those made from other
materials - water pipes (small diameter pipes for water
supply): 81.9% of polyethylene pipes, water pipes
(medium diameter pipes for municipal water supply):
28.8% of ductile iron pipes, sewage pipes: 25.7% of
ductile iron pipes, agro-films: 51.2% of polyethylene
films (Lower graphs per product in Fig.5-8 ).

for each phase of the life cycle (production, use,


waste disposal) for a product. Provides basic
data for life cycle assessments (LCA).

Resource energy :
Evaluation in terms of calorific values of each
hydrocarbon sources used as raw materials.

63

CHAPTER 5 : SERVICEABILITY OF PVC AND PVC PRODUCTS

Fig. 5-8 Comparison of LCI data between PVC products and non-PVC products

<Small diameter pipes for water supply>


(50 mm, per 1 km)
100

Energy

80
60

Total energy consumption

97

(thousand MJ)

1,200

(comparison with
PE pipes 57.7%)

40

1,200

PVC pipes
CO2 emission
1,163

kg
30,000

1,420

(comparison with
PE pipe 81.9%)

600
300
0

20,000

Ductile iron pipes

CO2 emission
27,173

20,000
15,000
10,000

7,824

(comparison with
ductile iron pipes 28.8%)

5,000

1,797

PVC pipes

(thousand MJ)

10,000
8,000

Energy

546

(comparison with
ductile iron pipes 30.4%)

Ductile iron pipes

<Agro-film> (per 1 km2)


Total energy consumption
6,603

8,962

PVC

Polyolefin

CO2 emission

346,000

(comparison with
PE films 73.7%)

6,000
4,000
2,000

PVC pipes

Ductile iron pipes

kg
350,000

CO2 emission
44,300
Environmental load

Energy
Environmental load

Total energy consumption

40,000
30,000

PVC pipe

25,000

Polyethylene pipes

<Sewage pipes> (250 mm, per 1 km)

kg
50,000

374

(comparison with
ductile iron pipes 33.9%)

0
PVC pipes

1,800
1,600
1,400
1,200
1,000
800
600
400
200
0

600

Polyethylene pipes

900

(thousand MJ)

1,102

200

Environmental load

Environmental load

kg
1,500

800
400

20
0

Total energy consumption

1,000

56

Energy

(thousand MJ)

<Medium diameter pipes for water supply>


(150 mm, per 1 km)

11,400

(comparison with
ductile iron pipe 25.7%)

10,000
0

300,000
250,000
200,000
150,000
100,000
50,000
0

PVC pipes

Ductile iron pipes

177,000

(comparison with
PE films 51.2%)

PVC

Polyolefin

Source: Summarized and prepared based on the survey report by Chem Systems

64

SUMMARY : Comparison of LCI data (PVC products versus non-PVC products)


1) Comparison of environmental loads up to production with other various general purpose plastics

2) LCI data for water pipes, sewage pipe and agro-film


Example: pipes for water supply (small diameter, per 1 km)

Example: pipes for water supply (medium diameter, per 1 km)

Small diameter (50mm)


PVC pipe
PE pipe
(1.00 kg/m)
(1.22 kg/m)
Energy consumption
(MJ)

5.6104

9.7104

CO2 (kg)

1,163

1,420

NOX (kg)

SOX (kg)

11

Medium diameter (150 mm)


PVC pipes
ductile iron pipes
(6.70 kg/m)
(23.80 kg/m)
Energy consumption
(MJ)

37.4104

110.2104

CO2 (kg)

7,824

27,173

NOX (kg)

51

77

SOX (kg)

76

89

Example: sewage pipes (per 1 km)

Example: agro-films (per 1 km2 )

Medium diameter (250 mm)


PVC pipes
ductile iron pipes
(9.80 kg/m)
(38.80 kg/m)
Energy consumption
(MJ)

Energy consumption
(MJ)

PVC
(123 t/km2 )

polyolefin
(96 t/km2 )

660.3104

896.2104

54.6104

179.7104

CO2 (kg)

11,400

44,300

CO2 (kg)

177,000

346,000

NOX (kg)

75

126

NOX (kg)

690

520

SOX (kg)

111

144

SOX (kg)

860

330

65

CHAPTER 5 : SERVICEABILITY OF PVC AND PVC PRODUCTS

Mechanical recycling :
Method of recycling where plastic wastes
undergo treatment such as crushing and sorting,
and then recycled back into materials for plastic
products. PVC shows less degradation of physical

66

(Energy = Mcal/kg, CO2 = kg/kg, NOX/ SOX = g/kg)

(1) pipes
12

Virgin
10.86

Recycled

10
8
6
4

2.50

2.154

1.485

Energy

CO2

1.957

0.499

0.483

NOX

0.440
SOX

(2) flooring intermediate layer


(Energy = Mcal/kg, CO2 = kg/kg, NOX/ SOX = g/kg)

Both rigid and flexible PVC waste has been widely


recycled from the early days. Compared with other
materials, PVC is the most versatile upon mechanical
recycling. Specialist recyclers collect PVC waste and
distribute them crushed for rigid PVC waste and in
the form of sheets or pellets for flexible PVC wastes.
These are reused as raw materials. For example,
the production energy of recycled pipes made from
rigid PVC waste is 2.50 Mcal/kg, which amounts to
20% of the energy required for production of pipes
made from virgin (new) PVC. Similarly, comparing
environmental loads, CO2 emission from recycled pipes
made from rigid PVC waste amounts to fewer than
40% of that required for pipes made from virgin PVC.
Likewise, NOX and SOX emissions amount to about
20% respectively. As you can see, recycled PVC can be
manufactured with less environmental load, yielding
comparable qualities (Fig.5-9(1)).
The intermediate layer used in PVC flooring is
manufactured from flexible PVC sheet waste. The
production energy required for production of such
recycled intermediate layer amounts to about 30%
of the energy required for manufacture using virgin
PVC, and the environmental load amounts to 20~50%
(Fig.5-9(2)).
Furthermore, end-of-life PVC agro-films, which
among flexible PVC waste has an advanced track
record upon collection and recycling, are reused as
material to be molded into new applications, with
little environmental load. Its production energy is less
than 20% and CO2 , NOX and SOX emissions are about
20% as compared to using virgin PVC (depending on
the composition of each resin) (Fig.5-9(3)).
Generally, environmental loads resulting
from production, processing, and recycling of
plastic products are far greater than those from
transportation or landfill. Environmental load
resulting from production of virgin resin represents
the largest proportion.
Mechanical recycling eliminates the environmental
load for final treatment such as incineration or landfill,
and therefore makes up for the substantial load
resulting from virgin material production. Mechanical
recycling is the most advanced recycling method for
PVC products.

Fig. 5-9 Environmental load of virgin PVC/recycled material

Virgin
Recycled

7.06

6
4
2.853

2.39

1.703
1.071 0.517

Energy

CO2

0.655

0.516
NOX

SOX

(3) agro-films
(Energy = Mcal/kg, CO2 = kg/kg, NOX/ SOX = g/kg)

(3) LCI data for mechanical


recycling

12

Virgin
10.85

Recycled

10
8
6
4
2
0

properties or loss of functionality due to mixture


of foreign matters. Therefore PVC is a material
that can be mechanically recycled with ease.

1.60

2.131

1.430
0.322

Energy

CO2

1.941
0.304

NOX

0.287
SOX

Source: Survey data by VEC

Virgin material :
Colloquial term for materials manufactured
entirely from unused raw materials, in other
words made without using any recycled
materials.

3. Characteristics and Property


Modification of PVC
(1) PVC and PVC products
PVC is an amorphous thermoplastic with significant
polarity within the polymer molecular structure, since
hydrogen and chlorine atoms are connected to the
main chain made up of carbon atoms. PVC itself comes
in the form of white fine powder with the average
particle size of 100~150 m. The apparent density is
0.4~0.7 g/cm2 , due to countless micro voids within the
particles.
Generally, ancillary materials (called additives) such
as thermal stabilizers, lubricants, pigments, and fillers
are added before the molding processes. Plasticizers
in particular can change the moldability and property
of products considerably. It is possible to manufacture
products with various physical properties from rigid
to flexible, by adding plasticizers at the ratio of 0~120
parts by weight to 100 parts of PVC resin.
At temperatures over its softening point, the

stress-strain behavior of PVC has little temperature


dependence. Therefore various molding processes can
be employed for PVC:
Calendering process
(compression molding)
Extrusion molding
Injection molding
Inflation molding
Blow molding

rigid/flexible sheets, films


pipes, drain spouts, window
profiles, food wraps
fittings, valves, machine parts
films
bottles

(2) Characteristics of PVC products


Fig.5-10 shows the general properties of rigid/
flexible PVC products, respectively. The type and
composition of additives used at the time of molding
can yield different properties such as moldability, and
other characteristics of the molded product.

Fig. 5-10 Properties of PVC products

Moldability

Test items

Rigid

Flexible
(without filler)

Flexible
(with filler)

72105

75105

75105

Compression molding temperature

140205

140176

140176

Compression molding pressure kg/cm2

53140

35140

35140

Injection molding temperature

149213

160196

160196

Injection molding pressure kg/cm2

7032,812

5621,758

70140

Compression ratio

2.02.3

2.02.3

0.22.3

Molding shrinkage (linear shrinkage) cm/cm

0.0020.006

0.0100.050

0.0080.035

Specific gravity

D792

1.301.58

1.161.35

1.31.7

0.770.63

0.860.74

0.770.59

Tensile break strength kg/cm2


Mechanical properties

PVC polymer and (vinyl acetate) copolymer

Melting point Tg (amorphous)

Specific volume cm3/g

D638

415527

105246

70246

Tensile elongation at break %

4080

200450

200400

Tensile yield strength kg/cm2

415457

Tensile modulus kg/cm2

24,60042,200

Compressive strength kg/cm2

D695

562914

63120

70127

Bending strength kg/cm2

D790

7031,125

21,10035,200

D256A

2.212

Young's modulus in flexure kg/cm2 (23 )


Izod impact strength cmkg/cm with notch
(3 mm thickness test piece)
Shore hardness

Thermal properties

ASTM test
method

D2240/D2583

Variable according to type


and amount of plasticizer

6585

50100

50100

Shore D

Shore A

Shore A

Thermal conductivity 10-4 calcm/sec/cm2/

C177

3.55.0

Specific heat cal/ /g

0.250.35

0.30.5

0.30.5

Coefficient of linear expansion 10-6cm/cm/

D696

50100

70250

Heat distortion temperature (bending load 18.6 kg/cm2)

D648

6076

5782

D257

1016

10111015

10111014

(bending load 4.6 kg/cm2)


Volume resistance -cm
(humidity50%temperature23 )
Voltage resistance (short time test)

34(continued to 34
next page)

67

Mechanic

Bending strength kg/cm2


Young's modulus in flexure kg/cm2 (23 )

D790

7031,125

21,10035,200

withPVC
notch AND PVC PRODUCTS
impact strength cmkg/cm
D256A
2.212
CHAPTER 5 Izod
: SERVICEABILITY
OF
(3 mm thickness test piece)

Thermal properties

Shore hardness

D2240/D2583

Variable according to type


and amount of plasticizer

6585

50100

50100

Shore D

Shore A

Shore A

Thermal conductivity 10-4 calcm/sec/cm2/

C177

3.55.0

34

34

Specific heat cal/ /g

0.250.35

0.30.5

0.30.5

Coefficient of linear expansion 10-6cm/cm/

D696

50100

70250

Heat distortion temperature (bending load 18.6 kg/cm2)

D648

6076

5782

D257

(bending load 4.6 kg/cm2)


Volume resistance -cm

10

15

10 10

10 1014

D149

350500

300400

250300

60 Hz

D150

3.24.0

5.09.0

5.06.0

1 KHz

3.03.8

4.08.0

4.05.0

1 MHz

2.83.1

3.34.5

3.54.5

60 Hz

0.0070.020

0.080.15

0.101.05

1 KHz

0.0090.017

0.070.16

0.090.16

16

11

11

Electrical properties

(humidity50%temperature23 )
Voltage resistance (short time test)
(thickness 3 mm, V/mil)
Dielectric constant

Power factor

1 MHz

0.0060.019

0.040.14

0.090.10

D492

6080

Refractive index nD20

D542

1.521.55

Light transmissibility %

7682

Chemical properties

Optical
properties

Arc resistance

sec

Haze %

818

Water absorption (24 hour, 3 mm thickness) %

D570

0.040.4

0.150.75

0.501.0

Sunlight influence

Weak acid influence

D543

None

None

None

Strong acid influence

None-slight

None-slight

None-slight

Weak alkali influence

None

None

None

Strong alkali influence

Organic solvent influence

Generally changes Changes according to stabilizer None-slight

None
None
None
not soluble in alcohol, aliphatic hydrocarbon or
oil/fat, either soluble or swells in ketone and
ester, swells in aromatic hydrocarbons

Source: Various annual editions of the Modern Plastics Encyclopedia

(3) Advantages and disadvantages


of PVC products
PVC is a general purpose plastic whose products
strike an excellent cost-performance balance. The

<Advantages>
Superior mechanical properties
Superior creep resistance
Flexibility can be changed at ease using plasticizers
Superior chemical resistance
Transparence
Superior adhesion properties and printability
Fire resistant properties
Good electrical properties
For flexible PVC products, elastomer texture of
rubber or leather-like texture can be obtained

68

advantages and disadvantages of PVC in terms of


physical properties can be summarized as follows.
Disadvantages can be improved by polymer alloy
which will be mentioned at (5) Property modification
of PVC products.

<Disadvantages>
Lack impact strength at low temperatures
Slightly low heat distortion temperature
(maximum temperature upon use)
Leaching of plasticizers in the case of flexible PVC products
High viscoelasticity, not suitable for injection molding of
large-sized products

(4) Physical properties of


PVC products

among the molecular chains. Plastics can be


categorized according to the tensile stress-strain
curve (S-S curve) as one of the indexes for mechanical
strength. As shown in Fig.5-11, rigid PVC products are
hard and robust, while flexible PVC products are soft
and tough.

mechanical properties
PVC is a polar polymer and its mechanical
properties are excellent due to strong interaction
Fig. 5-11 Classification of plastics by type of S-S curve
Type

Features
Tensile Tensile
modulus strength

Elongation

Examples

Others

A Soft and weak

low

low

medium

B Hard and brittle

high

medium~high

low

C Hard and robust

high

high

medium

low

medium

high

Yielding point is low,

Flexible PVC , LDPE

high

and the curve is flat

high

Yielding point is high

HDPE, PP, ABS


Polyamide, PC

D Soft and resistant


E Hard and resistant

medium medium~high
high

high

High-polymer soft gel


General purpose PS, phenol resin

Break below yielding point

Break around yielding point Rigid PVC , AS resin

Source: "Plastics" , 46 (5), 90 (1995)

Specific mechanical properties


The mechanical properties of PVC product in
specific are as follows:

Tensile strength
Fig.5-12 shows the comparison
of tensile strength of PVC
products with other plastics. The
tensile strength is expressed in
terms of the maximum stress
per unit area of the cross section
when the test piece breaks by
applied loads to both ends of
the test piece.
(an index to show the magnitude of
force at break, when both ends of
the test piece are pulled apart)

Fig. 5-12 Tensile strength of various plastics


3462

PVC (rigid)
PVC (flexible)

6.925
3482

PS (general purpose)
3459

ABS
PE (high density)

2238

PP

2938
0

20

40
60
Tensile strength (MPa)

80

100

Source: Plastic materials guidebook, new edition by Kogyo Chosakai Publishing Co. Ltd (1993)

Tensile modulus
Fig.5-13 shows the comparison
of tensile modulus of PVC
products with other plastics. The
tensile modulus is also known as
the Young's Modulus, which is
expressed in terms of the ratio
between the tensile stress per
unit area of the cross section
and the elongation in the
direction of the tensile stress.
Plastics possessing large tensile
modulus have small stress-strain.
(an index to show the magnitude
of elongation, when a test piece
is pulled apart. It is like the
equivalent of the spring constant)

Fig. 5-13 Young's modulus of various plastics


PVC (rigid)

2.54.1

PS (general purpose)

2.74.1
1.43.2

PS (impact resistant)
ABS

2.32.7

HDPE

0.41.1

LDPE

0.10.3

PP

1.11.6

Polyamide (nylon 6)

1.13.1

PC

2.5
0

2
3
Modulus (103 MPa)

Source: Prepared from the "Dictionary of practical plastic terms"


edited by Osaka City Industry Research Institute

69

CHAPTER 5 : SERVICEABILITY OF PVC AND PVC PRODUCTS


Bending strength
Fig.5-14 shows the bending
strength of PVC products in
comparison with other plastics.
It is expressed in terms of the
maximum stress upon break of
the test piece, where the test
piece is supported at two points
apart and a vertical stress load is
applied at the center.
(an index to show the magnitude of
force at break, when the test piece
is bent)

Fig. 5-14 Bending strength of various plastics


Rigid PVC

69114

PS

3472

ABS

2593

9.3

PE

7689

PC
0

50

100
150
Bending strength (MPa)

200

Source: "Plastic materials guidebook, new edition" by Kogyo Chosakai Publishing Co. Ltd.

Fig. 5-15 Compressive strength of various plastics

Compressive strength
Fig.5-15 shows the
compressive strength of PVC
products in comparison with
other plastics. It is expressed in
terms of the maximum stress
at break per unit area of the
cross section, when a vertical
stress is applied to the test piece
sandwiched by two pieces of the
test panel.
(an index to show the magnitude of
force at break of a cubic test piece,
i.e., resistance to crushing force)

Rigid PVC

5589

PS (general purpose)

8289

ABS (general purpose )

4552

HDPE (high density)

1925

PP

3855

PC

6978
0

50
100
Compressive strength (MPa)

Source: "Plastics guidebook" by the Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute and others

Fig. 5-16 Fatigue strength of various plastics


Plastics

Fatigue strength at 107 times


application of external stress
kg/mm2 MPa

PVC

1.7 17

PS

1.02 10.0

PE

1.12 11.0

PP
ABS

1.12 11.0

Fatigue strength
Fig.5-16 shows the fatigue strength of PVC
products in comparison with other plastics.
It is expressed in terms of the maximum stress
at which the test piece would not break after
applying repeated stress for 107 (10 million) times.
(the maximum stress, which the test piece can endure
after repeated application of an external force).

Creep properties
Plastic products show creep phenomenon,
where product is deformed in room temperature
as time elapses when an external force is applied
continuously. The phenomenon is also known as
cold flow. When plastics are used for construction
or industrial applications, cold flow is an especially
important point to be considered. Under normal

1.2 11.8

Source: "Plastics almanac" by Kogyo Chosakai Publishing Co. Ltd.

Fig. 5-17 Creep properties of various thermoplastics


7
6
Creep strain (%)

PVC is used for municipal water supply/sewage


pipes, spouts, frames, etc., since its mechanical
properties such as tensile strength and tensile modulus
are better than those of other general purpose olefin
plastics, and are robust and durable.
When plasticizers are added, PVC shows rubberlike elasticity with high tensile strength and fatigue
strength, and used for industrial hoses, gaskets,
automobile parts, and electric cable covering in the
place of natural synthetic rubber.

70

150

10

20

30

40

PE

PP

3
2
1

PVC
1

2
3
Stress (kg/mm2)

Source: "Plastics" 21(6), 24 (1970)

environmental conditions, rigid PVC products show


very little creep and are superior in comparison with
other plastic products such as PE or PP, as shown in
Fig.5-17. Therefore, PVC is used in various interior and
exterior construction materials (e.g., ducts, panels,
window frames and decks) and electric or machine
parts.
Fig. 5-18 Effect of plasticizers (tensile strength, elongation)

600

2
3

400
200
0 0

10

400

20

30

200
2
0

40

10
20
30
Plasticizer concentration (%)

40

Source: Encyclopedia of PVC, 2nd edition Vol.1, p.494 Leonard I.


Nass, Charles A. Heibergen (Marcel Dekker Inc.)

Fig. 5-19 Chemical resistance of various plastics


and relative indexes

Plastics

Alkalis

Acids

Oxidizing agents

Relative resistance

Salts

Since the main chain of the polymer is comprised


of single bonds of carbon atoms, PVC has excellent
chemical resistance, as with other general-purpose
olefin plastics such as PE, PP, or PS. Fig.5-19 shows the
chemical resistance of PVC in comparison with other
plastics. Some of the engineering plastics and specialty
resins are susceptible to acid or alkali, and some
plastics have excellent chemical resistance properties,
such as polyfluorocarbons. PVC has excellent chemical
resistance together with mechanical properties,
therefore used for chemical storage tanks, plastic
valves/flanges, drainage/sewage pipes, and plant
piping.

1: Polyester adipate
2: DEHP
3: DEHA

Organic
solvents

Chemical resistance

Tensile strength

PVC is a polar polymer with strong intermolecular


forces, therefore in room temperature it comes in a
molded form. On the other hand, when plasticizer
is added upon fabrication, flexible PVC products are
obtainable. This is a major advantage of PVC.
PVC products without any plasticizers are called
rigid PVC products, while PVC products that include
plasticizers are called flexible PVC products. The
softness of the flexible PVC products is obtained as
a result of plasticizers coming between molecules to
separate them, reducing intermolecular forces.
Fig.5-18 shows the correlation between plasticizer
concentration and tensile strength and tensile
elongation of the molded product. It can be seen
that as the concentration of plasticizer increases, the
softness of the flexible PVC products is enhanced,
resulting in a soft state that is easier to stretch. Since
rubber-like elasticity or pliable texture of leather is
obtainable, flexible PVC is used for packaging, hoses,
automobile parts, synthetic leather and surfaces.

kg/cm2
800

Elongation

Plasticizing effects

Nylon 66
PC
Polyester (chemical resistant)
PE
Polyfluorocarbon
Polymethyl methacrylate
PP
PS
PU
PVC (flexible)
PVC (rigid)
ABS
Epoxy resin

7
6
6
5
10
4
5
2
8
4
6
4
6

10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

7
1
4
10
10
7
10
10
6
9
10
8
7

3
7
7
10
10
9
10
10
6
10
10
9
9

2
6
6
8
10
4
8
4
4
6
9
4
2

NOTE : The 1~10 scale has been set by empirical means.


Higher value shows higher effectiveness.
Source: "Plastic almanac" by Kogyo Chosakai Publishing Co. Ltd.

71

CHAPTER 5 : SERVICEABILITY OF PVC AND PVC PRODUCTS

Adhesion properties and printability


Adhesion properties and the printability of plastic
are also due to the molecular structure of polymers.
Generally, polar and amorphous structures offer
better properties. In contrast, the non-polar and
crystalline structure inherently causes difficulty in
adhesion and printing, unless the product surface is
treated and effectiveness of such surface treatment is
comparatively low. Fig.5-21 shows the adhesion and
printing properties of major plastics.
PVC has excellent adhesion properties and
printability, and is used for the decoration or designoriented products such as wall covering, flooring,
synthetic leather, displays, and stone or wood grain
printed films. PVC is also used as adhesive/paint by
mixing with water or solvent.

Fig. 5-20 Haze value and gloss value of various films


Haze value Gloss value
(%)
(%)

Films
High-pressure process PE
(inflation molding)

515

65

High-pressure process PE
(T-die extrusion)

210

Medium-low pressure process PE


(inflation molding)

1575

22

Medium-low pressure process PE


(T-die extrusion)

210

65

Non-drawn PP
(T-die extrusion)

23

7075

Biaxial drawn PP

1.52

80

Rigid PVC

12

79.5

Source: "Plastic films: processing and applications"


by Gihodoh Shuppan Co., Ltd.

Fig. 5-21 Adhesion property and printability of various plastics


Adhesion
propertiesPrintability

Structure Properties

Polar/Amorphous

PVC is an amorphous polymer; therefore its


products are basically transparent. Non-transparent
PVC products are thus since they are manufactured
using compounding agents that are non-compatible.
The haze value is used to measure the transparency
of plastic products. This value is a percentage value
calculated by dividing the diffused light transmittance
of the test piece with the total light transmittance.
It is also possible to manufacture PVC products with
superior gloss. Gloss is expressed in terms of gloss
value, which usually shows the amount of reflected
light from the test piece compared to amount of
reflected light from glass (amount from glass defined
as 100%). Fig.5-20 shows the haze value and gloss
value of PVC films compared with other films made of
generous purpose plastics. The smaller the haze value
the higher the transparency, and higher gloss values
indicate higher gloss.
Rigid PVC products which have high transparency
are used in construction materials such as daylighting,
transparent partitions for clean rooms, or industrial
flat plates, corrugated panels, wrap films, and films
for photo albums. Examples of flexible PVC products
requiring transparency are wrap films, agro-films, and
transparent bags.

Non-polar/Amorphous

Transparency

Thermoplastics

Thermosets

Thermoplastics
Thermosets

PVC

Good

PS

Good

Polycarbonate

Good

Polymethyl methacrylate

Good

Polyester (PET)

Good

Polyamide (Nylon)

Good

PU
Epoxy resin

Good
Good

HDPE

Poor

LDPE

Poor

PP

Poor

Polyimid
Silicon resin

Poor
Poor

Source: Prepared by VEC

72

Fire retarding property


One of the major drawbacks of plastics which are
entirely derived from petroleum is their flammability.
In contrast, PVC is a fire resistant plastic, the only
exception among the general-purpose plastics, since
more than 50% of its component is derived from salt.
When PVC products are burned, hydrogen chloride gas
resulting from thermal cracking stops the continuous
combustion reaction and prevents burning progress by
warding off the PVC product surface from oxygen in
the air.
There may be many ways of evaluating the fire
retarding properties, but the oxygen index can
be used for the evaluation with a comparatively
high precision and reproducibility of the results.
It represents the minimum oxygen concentration
required for the test piece to continue burning in
mixed gas of oxygen and nitrogen. When the value
is higher, the fire retarding property is higher. Since
the oxygen concentration in the air is 21%, a plastic
with an oxygen index greater than 22 has selfextinguishing property, while a plastic with oxygen
index smaller than 21 is flammable. Since PVC is highly

Electrical characteristics
The electrical characteristics of PVC such as electrical
insulating properties or dielectric constant are
excellent. To express electrical insulating properties,
volume resistivity or dielectric strength is widely
used as an index. The volume resistivity is expressed
in terms of electrical resistance calculated per unit
volume of the test piece. The dielectric strength
is expressed in terms of the magnitude of voltage
withstood without destruction of the test piece
when a specified amount of voltage is charged for a
specified period of time. In both cases, greater value
means better electrical characteristics. As shown in
Fig.5-23,24, the volume resistivity of PVC products is
slightly lower than those of olefin resin products, but

Fig. 5-23 Volume resistivity of various materials

10 10

20

10161020
10171019
10141016
10141015
10131015

(rigid)

10151019

(flexible)

PE
PP
PS
Tetrafluoroethylene
PVC
Methacrylate
PU
Nylon
Polyester
Neoprene
Epoxy resin

16

Oxygen index

Polytetrafluoroetylene

95.0

PVC

4549

PC

2628

Nylon 66

2429

PET

20.0

PS

17.618.3

PP
PE

17.4
17.4

Source: M.M. Hirschier "Macromol. Chem."


Macromol. Symp. Vol.29, p.133~153, 1989

fire resistant, it is widely used in exterior construction


materials such as window profiles, siding boards, or
interior housing materials, such as wallcovering and
flooring. It is also used in industrial facilities such
as tanks, ducts, parting strips, or for sign boards,
corrugated boards, and cable coverings.

since higher fire resistant properties are required for


electrical components, PVC is used widely in a variety
of applications such as electric cables for residential
buildings, vehicles, household electrical appliances,
cable coverings, insulating tapes, switch boxes,
wire coverings, and protecting tubes for power and
telecommunications cables.
Fire resistant properties can also be given to olefin
plastics such as PE and PP by crosslinking treatment
or by adding large quantities of fire retardants, but
it would be difficult for these plastics to compete
with the versatility of flexible PVC whose softness can
be controlled with ease and can be easily materialrecycled.
Apart from its excellent electrical insulating

Fig. 5-24 Dielectric strength of various materials


Materials

Value
(-cm)

Materials

Materials

Self-extinguishing plastics

Fig. 5-22 Oxygen index of various plastics

10131014
10121014
10111013
1081014

Source: "Plastics almanac" by Kogyo Chosakai


Publishing Co. Ltd., p.422, 1976

Rubber
Ceramics
Thermoplastics
Thermosets
Various plastics
PVC
PP
PS
PE
0

10
20
30
40
Dielectric strength (kV/mm)

50

60

Source: "Plastic utilization: 3rd edition", "Introduction to plastics:


fully revised edition" by Kogyo Chosakai Publishing Co., Ltd

73

CHAPTER 5 : SERVICEABILITY OF PVC AND PVC PRODUCTS


properties, PVC also features large dielectric
losses. Due to this feature, high frequency welding
(gluing) is possible, making secondary processing
easier. Fig.5-23 shows the dielectric constant (which
correlates to dielectric losses) of PVC in comparison to
those of other plastics.
Production of wide films/sheets as well as bags,
covers, files, and pouches of various size and shape
would be easier by such welding process. For
example, welded PVC products are used for bags for
medical applications, air inflated toys and flexible
containers.

Specific gravity (density)


The true specific gravity of PVC is about 1.4,
which is comparatively heavy among plastics, as
with PET. This could be a disadvantage depending
on the application. By taking advantage of the fact
that PVC does not float in water, it is used in water
sealing sheets for agricultural water reservoir or
swimming pools, or revetment materials for rivers
and gulfs.
As for flexible PVC products, the specific gravity
falls within the 1.1~1.3 range depending on the
amount of plasticizer used, which is slightly lower
than that of rigid PVC.

Fig. 5-25 Dielectric constant of various plastics

Plastics

PE
PVC
PS
PE

-12
25
25
25

Frequency (Hz)
1103

1106

1108

2.37
2.35
2.33
4.55
3.3

2.542.56 2.542.56 2.55


3.224.3 3.124.0 2.942.98

Source: "Polymeric Materials Encyclopedia"


by J.S. Salamone. p.8949, CRC Press (1996)

Fig. 5-26 Specific gravity of various plastics


Plastics

Specific gravity

LDPE
HDPE
PP
PS
PVC
ABS
Polyester
PC
Nylon 66
Teflon

0.910.93
0.940.97
0.900.91
1.041.07
1.351.45
0.991.10
1.381.39
1.2
1.131.15
2.12.2

Source: "Polymer dictionary" by Taiseisha Co., Ltd (1970)

Heat distortion temperature (softening


temperature)
The molecular structure of PVC is comprised of
continuous carbon - carbon single bonds in the
main chain. As this main chain is highly flexible,
PVC products have the disadvantage of having
low heat distortion temperature (softening
temperature) compared with other plastics of the
similar molecular structure. Fig.5-27 and Fig.5-28
show the thermal deformation temperature and the
softening temperature (called theVicat softening
temperature) of major plastics. The heat distortion
temperature is the temperature when the test
piece placed in the heat medium with bending load
applied reaches specified deflection as temperature
rises. Vicat softening temperature is defined as the
temperature where the needle shaped penetrator
sinks into the test piece to a specified depth as
temperature of the heating medium rises and
specified vertical load is set to the test piece.

Fig. 5-27 Heat distortion temperature of various plastics


(Load 18.6 kg/cm2)

Plastics
PVC
PS (general purpose)
PS (impact resistant)
ABS
HDPE
LDPE
PP
PC

Heat distortion temp.


()
5480
104
99
104106
4349
3241
5764
130138

Source: "Practical dictionary of plastic terminology" edited


by the Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute

Fig. 5-28 Vicat softening temperature of various plastics


(1 kg load)

Plastics

Measured value
()

PS
ABS
PVC
PC
PE
PP

102.5
102.3
92.0
156.2
127.3
152.2

Source: report by Japan Society for Testing Plastics, 1972

74

Impact strength
The glass transition temperature (second order
transition point) of PVC is over 70 , which is higher
than room temperature, representing low impact
strength. Having poor impact resistance especially at
low temperature range is one of the disadvantages
of PVC. There are many ways to measure impact
strength. Fig.5-29 shows the results of energies

absorbed by test pieces when they are fixed and


hammered to break (impact failure). Higher values
show higher impact strength.
Fig.5-30 shows the relation between the
temperature and the impact strength of major
plastics.
Fig. 5-30 Impact strength and temperature for various plastics
140

High pressure PE

not broken

PP
Rigid PVC
PS
ABS
PC
0
5
10
15
20
25
Notched impact strength k (kgcm/cm2 kJ/m2)

120

30

HDPE
LDPE

100

(kgcm/cm2kJ/m2)

Low pressure PE

Charpy impact (kgcm/cm2 kJ/m2)

Fig.5-29 Impact strength of various plastics

80
60
40

Rigid PVC

20
0

PS
-50

-30

-10 0 10 20
40
60
Temperature ()

Source: "Plastics" 22(5), 28 (1971)

Source: K. Oberbach: Z.f. Werkstofftechnik, 2.281 (1971)

Plasticizers may sometimes bleed or be volatilized


from the surface of the PVC product after years of use.
Plasticizers may also migrate to other materials which
come in contact with PVC products. Such cases can be
seen when plasticizers of low-molecular weights or
low compatibility (low miscibility) are used, or when
large amounts of plasticizers are used, and these are
disadvantages of flexible PVC products. Fig.5-31 shows
the result of accelerated tests on the volatilization of
plasticizers. Test sheets using plasticizers are heated in
an oven. Heat loss (weight loss) due to volatilization of
plasticizers is shown on the graph.

Fig. 5-31 Volatilization of phthalate plasticizers


Weight loss of test sheet upon heating (wt.%)

Bleeding and volatilization of plasticizers

80

20

DOP
(DEHP)

DHP

15

DnOP

10
5
0

DIDP

15
60
135 240
Heating time (hrs) Oven temp. 165
Source: "Revised practical manual for plastics and
rubber additives" by Kagaku Kogyosha

75

CHAPTER 5 : SERVICEABILITY OF PVC AND PVC PRODUCTS

(5) Property modification of PVC


products

of rigid PVC products can be modified. Fig.5-32 shows


the outline of property modification through polymer
alloy.
Other than the polymer alloy technique,
modifications on heat resistance etc. can be made
possible by selecting plasticizers with high molecular
weight.

Since PVC has high polarity and high compatibility


with a variety of other high-performance plastics, it
is possible to mix these to form polymer alloys with
ease. By polymer alloy techniques, the disadvantages
Fig. 5-32 Property modification of PVC by polymer alloy

EVA

Thermoplastic
polyurethane

Processability, Cost

TPEE
Thermoplastic
polyester elastomer

ib
lex
y, F
t
i
,
c
sti
ce
ela istan tance
h
Hig e res resis
ez on
Fre rasi
Ab

Chlorinated
polyethylene

e,

c
tan
sis ity
e
r
ct bil
pa sa
Im oces
Pr
High fluidity, Heat resistance,
Impact resistance

PVC

ility

CPE

Fire retardance
pa
Pro ct res
ista
ce
ssa
nc
e
bili
ty
Im

Processability
Heat resistance
Impact resistance

TPU

W
Co eathe
Acrylonitrile
st, ra
butadiene rubber
Pro bili
Fre
ce ty,
ssa
Oil eze
bili
res res
ty
i
ista sta
nc nce
e
, El
ast
High elasticity,
icit
y,
Abrasion resistance, Flexibility

Impact resistance
Freeze resistance

NBR

Processability
Anti migration

Ethylene-vinyl
acetate copolymer

ABS

Acrylonitrile-butadienestyrene

MBS
Methacrylate
butadiene styrene

Acrylic resin

Source: Polymer alloy utilization, edited by Takashi Inoue, Kogyo Chosakai (1992)

Impact resistance

76

Fig. 5-33 Effect of blending impact modifiers


150

Izod impact strength (kgcmcm-1)

Generally, in order to improve the impact resistance


of PVC products, impact modifiers (toughening
agents) which have rubber-like properties such as
ABS, MBS, acrylic rubber, chlorinated polyethylene or
EVA, are mixed with PVC. Sufficient impact resistance
for practical use can be obtained by blending 5~20
weight parts of these impact modifiers to 100 weight
parts of PVC. The impact modifier in the form of micro
particles is dispersed within the molecular structure
of PVC. When the PVC products receive impact, these
micro particles in the molecular structure absorb
the impact energy and prevent damages to the PVC
product.
PVC whose impact resistance is modified is used
in a wide range of applications including exterior
construction materials (window frames, siding),
industrial boards, impact resistant water pipes, rigid
PVC packaging (blister packs, caps, casings), surface
protecting films, or electrical parts (connectors).

ABS

20

MBS
EVA

CPE

100

EVA (Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer)


ABS (Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene)
MBS (Methacrylate butadiene styrene)
CPE (Chlorinated polyethylene)

50

10

15

20

Amount of impact modifier (phr)

25

Source: PVC and polymers by Mitsui Polychemical, 19(12), 26 (1979)

Heat distortion temperature


(softening temperature)
In order to enhance the heat resistance, heat
distortion temperature or softening temperature of
PVC products, heat resistant resins such as ABS resins,
-methylstyrene copolymers, or after-chlorinated
PVC is usually blended. Fig.5-34 and Fig.5-35 show
the improvement of the softening temperature by
blending ABS as an example, and the improvement of
thermal deformation temperature by blending after-

110
100
90
80

PVC 100
"Ther-alloy" 0

80
60
40
20
40
60
PVC/ "Ther-alloy" (phr)

20
80

Source: Extracted from a technical document by Kaneka Corporation

Prevention of plasticizer bleed


and volatilization
In order to prevent bleeding, volatilization or
migration of plasticizers to other materials from soft
PVC products, plasticizers with high molecular weight
or high compatibility with PVC is adopted. Fig.5-36
shows an example where a polyester plasticizer with
the molecular weight of 1,500 is used to replace
DOP, which is a general-purpose plasticizer with the
molecular weight of 390. Test pieces are placed in an
oven of 160 and rates of weight loss are measured to
represent volatilization of plasticizers as time elapses.
On the other hand, plasticizer free flexible PVC
products are manufactured as in the case of graft
polymerized EVA (ethylene vinyl-acetate copolymer)
and PVC, or a terpolymer composed of ethylene-vinyl
acetate-carbon monoxide.
PVC including non-migrating or non-bleeding
plasticizers at high temperatures is used for electric/
electronic parts and heat resistant cables. Some of the
non-migrating type plasticizers are used for medical
bags/tubes or industrial hoses. Artificial leather and
gaskets manufactured with volatilization preventive

100
Sekisui PVC-HA 31K
90
80
70
60
HA 100
PVC 0

50
50
Blending ratio (%)

0
100

Source: Extracted from a catalogue by Sekisui Chemical Co., Ltd.

Fig. 5-36 Effect of polyester plasticizer for


prevention of volatile loss

10

DO

s+ s
art art
5 p r 25 p
2
P e
DO lyest
Po
arts +
2.5 p 7.5 parts
1
P
DO ester 3
Poly
rts
Polyester 50 pa

6
4
2
0

art

p
50

D
Po OP
lye 37.
ste 5 p
r 1 arts
2.5 +
pa
rts

Vicat

"Ther-alloy" A-15

Volatile loss

Condition for vicat softening temperature: 1 kg load

Heat distortion temp. ( at 18.5 kg/cm2)

Fig. 5-35 Effects of blending after-chlorinated PVC

Fig. 5-34 Effect of blending heat resistant ABS

120

chlorinated PVC, respectively.


PVC with enhanced heat resistance is used for
heat resistant rigid PVC pipes, such as hot water
supply pipes or electric cable protecting tubes, and
instrument panels of vehicles.
On the other hand, soft PVC products with modified
heat resistance are used for heat resistant cable
covering and others, by blending the high-polymer
plasticizer.

20

40
60
Heating time (min)

80

* PVC 100 parts, plasticizer 50 parts, 160 geer oven


Source: "Revised practical manual for plastic
and rubber additives" by Kagaku Kogyosha
After-chlorinated PVC :
It is a thermoplastic manufactured by further reacting PVC with
chlorine, also known as chlorinated PVC or CPVC. The chlorine
content of regular PVC is 56.8%, but that of CPVC is 60~70%. As
a result, the heat distortion resistance, fire resistance, electrical
insulating properties and chemical resistance are further improved.

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CHAPTER 5 : SERVICEABILITY OF PVC AND PVC PRODUCTS

78