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IB Chemistry SL

Topic 6 Questions
1.

2.

3.

Which of the following is (are) important in determining whether a reaction


occurs?C
I.

Energy of the molecules

II.

Orientation of the molecules

A.

I only

B.

II only

C.

Both I and II

D.

Neither I nor II

Consider the reaction between solid CaCO 3 and aqueous HCl. The reaction
will be speeded up by an increase in which of the following conditions?B
I.

Concentration of the HCl

II.

Size of the CaCO3 particles

III.

Temperature

A.

I only

B.

I and III only

C.

II and III only

D.

I, II and III

Excess magnesium was added to a beaker of aqueous hydrochloric acid on a


balance. A graph of the mass of the beaker and contents was plotted
against time (line 1).

What change in the experiment could give line 2?


I.

The same mass of magnesium but in smaller pieces

II.

The same volume of a more concentrated solution of hydrochloric


acid

III.

A lower temperature

A.

I only

B.

II only

C.

III only

D.

None of the above

4.

5.

6.

7.

The rate of a reaction between two gases increases when the temperature is
increased and a catalyst is added. Which statements are both correct for the
effect of these changes on the reaction?
Increasing the
temperature

Adding a catalyst

A.

Collision frequency
increases

Activation energy
increases

B.

Activation energy
increases

Activation energy does


not change

C.

Activation energy does


not change

Activation energy
decreases

D.

Activation energy
increases

Collision frequency
increases

Which of the following is (are) altered when a liquid at its boiling point is
converted to a gas at the same temperature?
I.

The size of the molecules

II.

The distance between the molecules

III.

The average kinetic energy of the molecules

A.

I only

B.

II only

C.

III only

D.

I and II only

Based on the definition for rate of reaction, which units are used for a rate?
3

A.

mol dm

B.

mol time

C.

dm time

D.

mol dm

time

Which of the quantities in the enthalpy level diagram below is (are) affected
by the use of a catalyst?
A.

I only

B.

III only

C.

I and II only

D.

II and III only

8.

In the Haber process for the synthesis of ammonia, what effects does the
catalyst have?
Rate of formation of
NH3(g)
Increases
Increases
Increases
No change

A.
B.
C.
D.
9.

Amount of NH3(g)
formed
Increases
Decreases
No change
Increases

Which statement is correct for a collision between reactant particles leading


to a reaction?
A.

Colliding particles must have different energy.

B.

All reactant particles must have the same energy.

C.

Colliding particles must have a kinetic energy higher than the


activation energy.

D.

Colliding particles must have the same velocity.

10. Which change of condition will decrease the rate of the reaction between
excess zinc granules and dilute hydrochloric acid?
A.

increasing the amount of zinc

B.

increasing the concentration of the acid

C.

pulverize the zinc granules into powder

D.

decreasing the temperature

11. The table shows the concentrations of reactants and products during this
reaction.
2A + B C + 2D
[A] / mol dm
3

[B] / mol dm

[C] / mol dm
3

[D] / mol dm
3

at the start

after 1 min

The rate of reaction can be measured by reference to any reactant or


product. Which rates are correct for this reaction?
I.
II.

rate = 2 mol dm min for A


3
1
rate = 1 mol dm min for B

III.

rate = 1 mol dm

A.

I and II only

B.

I and III only

C.

II and III only

D.

I, II and III

min

for C

12. In general, the rate of a reaction can be increased by all of the following
except
A.

increasing the temperature.

B.

increasing the activation energy.

C.

increasing the concentration of reactants.

D.

increasing the surface area of the reactants.


3

13. At 25C, 100 cm of 1.0 mol dm hydrochloric acid is added to 3.5 g of


magnesium carbonate. If the sample of magnesium carbonate is kept
constant, which conditions will not increase the initial rate of reaction?
Volume of HCl /
3
cm

Concentration of
3
HCl / mol dm

Temperature / C

A.

200

1.0

25

B.

100

2.0

25

C.

100

1.0

35

D.

200

2.0

25

14. At 25C, 100 cm of 1.0 mol dm hydrochloric acid is added to 3.5 g of


magnesium carbonate. If the sample of magnesium carbonate is kept
constant, which conditions will not increase the initial rate of reaction?
Volume of HCl /
3
cm

Concentration of
3
HCl / mol dm

Temperature / C

A.

200

1.0

25

B.

100

2.0

25

C.

100

1.0

35

D.

200

2.0

25

15. Which statement is correct with regard to the catalysed and uncatalysed

pathways for a given reaction?


A.

The enthalpy change of the catalysed reaction is less than the enthalpy
change for the uncatalysed reaction.

B.

The enthalpy change of the catalysed reaction is greater than the


enthalpy change for the uncatalysed reaction.

C.

The enthalpy change of the catalysed reaction is equal to the enthalpy


change for the uncatalysed reaction.

D.

The activation energy of the catalysed reaction is greater than the


activation energy for the uncatalysed reaction.

16. Which changes increase the rate of a chemical reaction?


I.

Increase in the concentration of an aqueous solution

II.

Increase in particle size of the same mass of a solid reactant

III.

Increase in the temperature of the reaction mixture

A.

I and II only

B.

I and III only

C.

II and III only

D.

I, II and III

17. Excess magnesium, was added to a beaker of aqueous hydrochloric acid. A


graph of the mass of the beaker and contents was plotted against time (line
1).

What change in the experiment could give line 2?


A.

The same mass of magnesium in smaller pieces

B.

The same volume of a more concentrated solution of hydrochloric acid

C.

A lower temperature

D.

A more accurate instrument to measure the time

18. Which quantities in the enthalpy level diagram are altered by the use of a
catalyst?

A.

I and II only

B.

I and III only

C.

II and III only

D.

I, II and III

19. The graph below shows the volume of carbon dioxide gas produced against
3
3
time when excess calcium carbonate is added to x cm of 2.0 mol dm
hydrochloric acid.

(i)

Write a balanced equation for the reaction.


..
(1)

(ii)

State and explain the change in the rate of reaction with time. Outline
how you would determine the rate of the reaction at a particular time.
..
..
..
(4)

(iii) Sketch the above graph on an answer sheet. On the same graph, draw
the curves you would expect if:
3

I.

the same volume (x cm ) of 1.0 mol dm

II.

double the volume (2x cm ) of 1.0 mol dm

HCl is used.
3

HCl is used.

Label the curves and explain your answer in each case.


..
..
..
..
..
..
(5)
(Total 10 marks)

20. When excess lumps of magnesium carbonate are added to dilute


hydrochloric acid the following reaction takes place.
MgCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
(a)

Outline two ways in which the rate of this reaction could be studied. In
each case sketch a graph to show how the value of the chosen variable
would change with time.

(4)

(b)

State and explain three ways in which the rate of this reaction could
be increased.

(6)

(c)

State and explain whether the total volume of carbon dioxide gas
produced would increase, decrease or stay the same if
(i)

more lumps of magnesium carbonate were used.

(2)

(ii)

the experiments were carried out at a higher temperature.

(2)
(Total 14 marks)

21. Carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere reacts slightly with rainwater as
shown below.
+

CO2(g) + H2O(l) H (aq) + HCO3 (aq)


(i)

State the meaning of the sign.

(1)

(ii)

Predict the effect, if any, of the presence of a catalyst on the acidity of


rainwater. Give a reason for your answer.

(2)

(iii) Use Le Chateliers principle to predict the effect of the addition of a


small quantity of an alkali on the acidity of rainwater. Explain what
effect, if any, this would have on the equilibrium constant, Kc.

(3)
(Total 6 marks)
3

22. Excess 0.100 mol dm nitric acid is added to a certain mass of powdered
calcium carbonate at 20C. The rate of reaction is monitored by measuring
the change in mass over time due to the loss of carbon dioxide.

(a)

Define the term rate of reaction.


.................................................................................................................
...................
.................................................................................................................
...................
(1)

(b)

Explain why the mass loss remains constant after a certain time.
.................................................................................................................
...................
.................................................................................................................
...................
(1)

(c)

Draw a line on the graph above, to show what the graph would look like
if the same mass of calcium carbonate in larger pieces were reacted
3
with excess 0.100 mol dm nitric acid.

(1)

(d)

Explain in terms of the collision theory what would happen to the rate if
the reaction was conducted at 50C.
.................................................................................................................
...................
.................................................................................................................
...................
.................................................................................................................
...................
.................................................................................................................
...................
.................................................................................................................
...................
(3)

(e)

Determine the rate of formation of carbon dioxide when the nitric acid
3
3 1
reacts at a rate of 2.0010 mol cm s .
.................................................................................................................
...................
.................................................................................................................
...................
(1)
(Total 7 marks)

23. (i)

(ii)

Draw a graph that shows the distribution of molecular energies in a


sample of a gas at two different temperatures, T 1 and T2, such that T2
is greater than T1.

(2)

Define the term activation energy.


(1)

(iii) State and explain the effect of a catalyst on the rate of an endothermic
reaction.
(2)
(Total 5 marks)

24. (i)

Magnesium is added to a solution of hydrochloric acid. Sketch a graph


of acid concentration on the y-axis against time on the x-axis to
illustrate the progress of the reaction.
(1)

(ii)

Describe how the slope of the line changes with time.


(1)

(iii) Use the collision theory to state and explain the effect of decreasing
concentration on the rate of the reaction.
(2)
(Total 4 marks)

25. The reaction between ammonium chloride and sodium nitrite in aqueous
solution can be represented by the following equation.
NH4Cl(aq) + NaNO2(aq) N2(g) + 2H2O(l) + NaCl(aq)
The graph below shows the volume of nitrogen gas produced at 30 second
intervals from a mixture of ammonium chloride and sodium nitrite in
aqueous solution at 20C.

(a)

(i)

State how the rate of formation of nitrogen changes with time.


Explain your answer in terms of collision theory.
.........................................................................................................
...................
.........................................................................................................
...................
.........................................................................................................
...................
.........................................................................................................
...................
.........................................................................................................
...................
(2)

(ii)

Explain why the volume eventually remains constant.


.........................................................................................................
...................
.........................................................................................................
...................
(1)

(b)

(i)

State how the rate of formation of nitrogen would change if the


temperature were increased from 20C to 40C.
.........................................................................................................
...................
.........................................................................................................
...................
(1)

(ii)

State two reasons for the change described in (b)(i) and explain
which of the two is more important in causing the change.
.........................................................................................................
...................
.........................................................................................................
...................

.........................................................................................................
...................
.........................................................................................................
...................
.........................................................................................................
...................
(3)

(iii) The reaction between solid ammonium chloride and aqueous


sodium nitrite can be represented by the following equation.
NH4Cl(s) + NaNO2(aq) N2(g) + 2H2O(l) + NaCl(aq)
State and explain how the rate of formation of nitrogen would
change if the same amount of ammonium chloride was used as
large lumps instead of as a fine powder.
.........................................................................................................
...................
.........................................................................................................
...................
.........................................................................................................
...................
(2)
(Total 9 marks)

26. (a)

Define the term average bond enthalpy, illustrating your answer with
an equation for methane, CH4.
.................................................................................................................
....................
.................................................................................................................
....................
.................................................................................................................
....................
(3)

(b)

The equation for the reaction between methane and chlorine is


CH4(g) + Cl2(g) CH3Cl(g) + HCl(g)
Use the values from Table 10 of the Data Booklet to calculate the
enthalpy change for this reaction.
.................................................................................................................
....................
.................................................................................................................
....................
.................................................................................................................
....................

.................................................................................................................
....................
.................................................................................................................
....................
.................................................................................................................
....................
(3)

(c)

Explain why no reaction takes place between methane and chlorine at


room temperature unless the reactants are sparked, exposed to UV
light or heated.
.................................................................................................................
....................
.................................................................................................................
....................
.................................................................................................................
....................
.................................................................................................................
....................
(2)

(d) Draw an enthalpy level diagram for this reaction.

(2)
(Total 10 marks)

27. (a)

Identify two features of colliding molecules that react together in the


gas phase.
.................................................................................................................
....................
.................................................................................................................
....................
.................................................................................................................
....................
(2)

(b)

For many reactions, the rate approximately doubles for a 10C rise in
temperature. State two reasons for this increase and identify which of
the two is the more important.
.................................................................................................................
....................
.................................................................................................................
....................
.................................................................................................................
....................
(3)
(Total 5 marks)

28. (a)

Define the term rate of reaction.


.................................................................................................................
..................
.................................................................................................................
..................
(1)

(b)

The reaction between gases C and D is slow at room temperature.


(i)

Suggest two reasons why the reaction is slow at room


temperature.
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
(2)

(ii)

A relatively small increase in temperature causes a relatively


large increase in the rate of this reaction. State two reasons for
this.
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
(2)

(iii) Suggest two ways of increasing the rate of reaction between C


and D other than increasing temperature.
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................

.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
(2)
(Total 7 marks)

29. The reaction between two substances A and B


A + B C + D
has the following rate expression:
rate = k [B]
Draw the graphical representation of:

(Total 3 marks)

IB Chemistry SL
Topic 6 Answers
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10. D
11. A
12. B
13. A
14. A
15. C
16. B
17. B
18. A
19. (i)
(ii)

2+

CaCO3(s) + 2H (aq) Ca (aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)


States not required, accept molecular equation.

rate decreases with time;as concentration decreases so fewer


(successful) collisions;draw tangent to the curve at time t;rate = slope
or gradient;
4

(iii)

20. (a)

I.

(less CO2 because) amount of HCl is limiting and half the


orginal/OWTTE;

II.

(same amount of CO2 because) amount of HCl is the same;curve


less steep because less frequent (accept fewer) collisions
5

measure volume of carbon dioxide/CO2/gas produced/measure pH; 4


starts at origin and levels of
measure mass of chemicals/apparatus;
starts high and decreases
Graph should show increase as reaction
progresses (as HCl is consumed).

(b)

Method 1use powdered MgCO3/OWTTE; particles collide more


frequently/increased surface area/OWTTE;
Method 2increase (reaction) temperature/heat/warm;more of the
collisions are successful/more particles with E > Ea/OWTTE;
Method 3increase acid concentration;more frequent (reactant)

collisions;

(c)

Method 4add catalyst;lowers activation energy/Ea/OWTTE;


Award [2] each for any three methods

6 max

(i)

stays the same;MgCO3 was already in excess;

(ii)

stays the same;same quantities of reactants used;

2
[14]

21. (i)
(ii)

reversible reaction/reaction may proceed in either direction(depending


on reaction conditions) equilibrium/dynamic equilibrium;
1
no effect;catalyst will speed up both forward and reverse reactions
(equally)/increase the rate at which equilibrium is achieved;

(iii) acidity: no effect;equilibrium shifts to the right;Kc: no change;

3
[6]

22. (a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

change of concentration/mass/amount/volume/of a reactant/product


with time;
1
Do not accept substance.

all the CaCO3(s) has been consumed/no further CO 2(g) is


produced/reactionis complete;
Do not accept reaction has stopped or all
reactants used up.

line on graph should be initially less steep/a smaller gradient and


shouldplateau at the same mass loss;

there are more particles with KE greater than or equal to Ea;


collisions more frequent/more collisions per unit time/more
successful/forceful collisions per unit time;
the rate increases;

1.0010

(mol cm s )
Ignore units even if wrong.

Apply 1(sf).
[7]

23. (i)

T2 peak lower/T1 higher;

T2 peak at higher energies/T1 curve at lower energies;


Maximum [1] if axes not labeled correctly
(ii)

minimum energy required to react/energy difference betweenreactants


and transition state;
1

(iii) makes the reaction go faster;because it lowers the activation


energy/Ea;
24. (i)

2
[5]

a curve showing concentration decreases with time;

No penalty if curve reaches x axis


Do not accept a straight line
(ii)

slope decreases;

(iii) rate decreases;fewer collisions per unit time;

2
[4]

25. (a)

(b)

(i)

it is decreasing; less frequent collisions/fewer collisions per second or


(unit) time;
2

(ii)

reactant(s) used up/reaction is complete;


Do not accept reaction reaches equilibrium.

(i)

it would increase;
Accept a quantitative answer such as doubles.

(ii)

more frequent collisions; collisions or molecules have more energy


(OWTTE); more molecules with energy Ea;
3

(iii) rate would be lower;smaller surface area;

1
1

2
[9]

26. (a)

energy for the conversion of a gaseous molecule into (gaseous) atoms;


(average values) obtained from a number of similar
bonds/compounds/OWTTE;CH4(g) C(g) + 4H(g);
3
State symbols needed.

(b)

(bond breaking) = 1890/654; (bond formation) = 2005/769; enthalpy =


1
115(kJ mol )
3
Allow ECF from bond breaking and forming.
Award [3] for correct final answer.
Penalize [1] for correct answer with wrong sign.

(c)

molecules have insufficient energy to react (at room temperature)/


wrong collision geometry/unsuccessful collisions; extra energy needed
to overcome the activation energy/Ea for the reaction;
2

(d)

exothermic shown;
activation energy/Ea shown;
Allow ECF from (b).

2
[10]

27. (a)
(b)

molecules must have sufficient/minimum energy/energy activation


energy;appropriate collision geometry/correct orientation;
2
increased frequency of collisions/collisions more likely;
Not just more collisions, there must be a
reference to time.
increased proportion of molecules with sufficient energy to react/E
Ea;
Not activation energy is reduced.
Proportion of molecules with E Ea is more important; (dependent on
correct second marking point);
3

28. (a)

(b)

increase in product concentration per unit time/decrease in reactant


concentrationper unit time;
1
Accept change instead of increase or decrease.
(i)

high activation energy/not enough molecules have Ea/OWTTE;


incorrect collision geometry/OWTTE;
infrequent collisions;
2
Award [1] for any two reasons.

(ii)

more energetic collisions/more molecules have (energy ) Ea;


more frequent collisions/collide more often;
2

(iii) add a catalyst;


increase the (total) pressure/decrease the volume of the
container;
increase the concentration of C (or D);
Do not accept surface area.
Award [1] for any two.

[7]

29. ([A] against time) - straight line with negative gradient;


Accept any decreasing curve
([B] against time) - decreasing curve;
Award [1] unless half - lives clearly not constant
(rate against [A]) - any horizontal straight line;
(rate against [B]) - straight line through origin;
Award [3] for all four correct, award [2] for any
three correct and [1] for any two correct.