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CHAPTER 10 PLANE STRESS ELEMENTS 108 10 PLANE STRESS ELEMENTS. ‘This chapter illustrates the development of two-dimensional elements for analysis of linear elastic solids under conditions of plane strain. The governing equations are derived {rom the principle of virtual work and the consistent element force vectors are established for a vatity of loading conditions. Inthree dimensions, the stateof stress at pointis defined by the nine stress components shown in Figure 10.1. Tensile normal stresses are taken as positive, The first subscript on ‘the shear stress denotes the axis which is normal to the shear stress plane whilst the second subscript denotes the coordinate direction in which the shear stress acts. For faces where the normal tensile stress is in a positive coordinate direction, the shear stesss positive if it points in a postive coordinate direction. For the faces where the normal tensile tress 's ia a negative coordinate direction, the shear stress is positive if it points in a negative coordinate direction. The positive senses fr the three normal stresses andthe six shear stresses are shown in Figure 10.1 Figure 10.1: Three-dimensional stress state By taking moments of the various forces acting on each face of Figure 10.1, it may be shown that and thus the three-dimensional stress vector comprises three normal stresses and three shear stresses. For anisotropic linear elastic solid, the strains ae given by Hooke's law according 1 | [ox - (ay + 04)) [o, - Ho. + 00) qoay (10.2) 10s Defining the Lamé constant 2 T= (103) ‘equations (10.1) may be inverted to give the stresses in terms of the strains ae G+ 2G) +A + 02) ty = Gy 0) = C+ 2G + Ales +e) be = Ge ana) 05 = G+ 2G) + Hex + 6) ta = Ga ‘These relations define the elastic constitutive law which sof the general form o=De 05) where OT = {0 05 05 Tay Te Tord aT = (en by fe Yay Ye Yor) and the stress-strain matrix is R+2G 4 4 0 0 0 p +m i 0 0 0 p-| 2 2 442G 0 0 0 0 0 o Goo 0 o o o Go 0 0 o 0 0G 10.1 Stress-Strain Relations for Plane Stress Plane stress loading occurs commonly inthe analysis of beams and thin plate, where it is assumed the stress in the out-of-plane direction 9, is zero. The three nonzero stress ‘components 0,0) and are shovinin Figure 10.2. Thebodyis assumed tobe of thickness ‘hin the 2-dtection } ‘Figure 10.2: Plane stress loading 105 ‘Under conditions of plane stress, we have o;= rye = ta =O and the {hreedimensional stress and strain vectors reduce to oT = {0,05 ty) (10.6) {e & Yy) 07) Defining 2G 477406 the corresponcing stress-strain matrix becomes 4G A oO p-| 4 A426 0 08) 0 0 4 [Note that the condition o, = 0 implies thatthe out-of-plane strain can be expressed in terms of the remaining strains according to a= e ta) 102 Plane Stress Linear Triangle ‘To derive the stiffness equations forthe plane stress linear triangle we again use the principle of virtual work. The element has three nodes and two degrees of freedom ateach node. These degrees of freedom correspond tothe displacements in thex- andy-directions as shown in Figure 103, , ayy +O nays > 20a) Bs Oo a ® (0.0) 0) € Te esos dc Figure 10.3: The plane stress linear triangle ‘The interpolation and mapping for triangular elements has already been discussed in Chapter 9 where it was noted that, for an isoparametric formulation, the sume shape functions are used to describe both the coordinates and the displacements. ‘The displacements may be computed from 107 Muy + Mate + Ny 209) VE Nyy + Navy + Nyy (20.10) where the shape functions are given by (2.14), (9.15) and (9.16) according to Ni =e (10.11) iw) [Ny 0 Ny 0 Ny 0] fut Where the shape function matrix N and the element nodal displacement vector w are Sefined as MON, 0; 0 0M, ON, ON; (aos) we fk ma oa sm) nas) Inorderto compute the stiffness matrix forthe triangular element itis necessary to derive the strain-displacement matrix B, This matrix relates the strain vector at any point inside the triangle, as defined by equation (10.7), to the nodal displacement vector of equation (10.16). Differentiating equations (10.9) and (10.10), we obtain an ao.a7) a= (20.18) ang) fan, ra Collecting terms into a single matrix equation gives the strain-displacement relations 10 ee) [ig N ay +, Vf yar 8 at OO lly, ay, aw, anglf slelo 2h go Meo BM 3 y lye aN aN aN, Ny aN ANG] ey be) [ot at oe a Bly These are of the standard form e=Bu 029 ‘whore the strain vector eis defined in (10.7), the element displacement vector w is defined {in (10.16) and the strain-displacement matrix Bis [2M (10.21) a For an isoparametric formulation, the shape fonctions that define the displacements are also used to define the coordinates. Thus thex-andy-coordinates at any point within the clement can be written inthe form x Nyx + Nat + Nyt (10.22) y= Ny + Naya + Novo (20.23) As discussed in Chapter 9, the determinant of the Jacobian for two-dimensions is ao oe ag oy Differentiating (10.22) and (10.23) with respect to the model coordinates £ and » gives dees aoa) eM May ag ag aE Sie sie als and hence act 2025) ‘The strain-displacement matrix (10: 2 contains partial derivatives ofthe shape functions with respect tothe real coordinates andy. As the shape functions have been expressed in terms of the model coordinates § and 7, these derivatives cannot be found directly and must be computed using the chain rue of differentiation. This rae gives (any) ae fae | foe |} ae anit “Jae 2) 2M tar) [ala (20.28) aN where J is the two-dimensional Jacobian matrix defined in equation (927). Inverting (10.26), we can obtain the derivatives of the ith shape function with respect to x and ) according to oan where J? is the inverse of the Jacobian matrix defined by (9.29). These derivatives complete the formation ofthe B matrix. 103 Formolaon of Plane Stres Linear Tangle Using Virtual Work Fora plane stress element of thickness the viral work equation may be writen as af (Ge.04 + 8665 + bya = af (Gge + dug ]at + af (uk + oFea + Pdi Pybry + sae + Pygbts + Pyar 0 where A denotes te element area, (5, de, 67) ae the virtual strains, (0, dy ty) are the stresses, (bu dy) are the virtual displacements, (g, q,)are the surface pressuresin thex and ‘yiections applied over the edge of length L, (X ) are the body forces in the x and ‘yediections, (6u,,;) are the virtual displacements at node i, and (P,P) are the point loads in the x and y-directions applied at node ‘This equation may be written in matex form as if setoas = af oarsan +f saTbaa + PTu (1028) where {Be 86) br} bat = fou 6 T= 9] ey du? = (5, 87, By bry buy drx} ‘Now, from (10.18) and (1020) it follows that dal = ou NT eT = ua? ‘These equations, together wth the planestressform ofthe constitutive relations (10.5) can be substituted in (10.28) to give ota wPonaer sad = oof Nieat cant Nica © do" (029) Since the variation dun the nodal displacements is arbitrary, and (10.29) must hold forall such variations, i follows that Af winacr rae w anf nea on Nthae sr ly Nh ‘Thus the element stifness relations may be written inthe standard form ust ‘where the element stiffness matrix and force vector are m kaaf smase oo + fuss wou se ans ‘and the nodal displacement vector is defined by (10.16) 104 Numerical Integration of Stiffness Matrix for Plane Stress Linear Triangle ‘To drive the stiffness equations for amumerically integrated element, we substitute (10.8), (20.21) and (10.25) into equation (10.30) and apply numerical integration. This gives x BIDS, det; (1032) ‘where n is the number of integration points, w;is the value ofthe weight for integration point i, B, = B(E,.n,) is the strain-isplacement matrix evaluated at integration point i, det J, = det 1G,.7, is the determinant ofthe Jacobian evaluated at integration point, and G7) are the values of the mode! coordinates for integration point i 10.5 Formulation of Force Vector for Plane Stress Linear Triangle In plane stress the loads may be applied as point forces atthe nodes, pressures on the clement edges, or distributed body forces over the element volume. The latter case is ‘common when gravity loading is imposed. These types of loading are shown, respectively, in Figure 10.4, Figure 1055 and Figure 10.8. Note that the positive direction of these actions is as shown. Since the three-noded triangle uses linear shape functions to model the displacements, itis possible to compute consistent nodal forces fora linearly varying ‘edge pressure or body force oad, Problems involving more complicated distributed loads ‘would require an clement of higher order. 6 ‘Figure 10.4: Plane stress linear triangle with point foree loading m ™ normal tration shear traction Figure 10.5: Plane stress linear triangle with pressure loading Figure 10.6: Plane stress linear triangle with body force loading the elementis loaded only by point forces atthe nodes, as shown in Figure 104 then the lobal force vector can be assembled directly (inthe same way a8 forthe truss clement ‘scussedin Chapter), For example, consider the mesh of two linear plane stress elements shown in Figure 107. Figure 10.7: Mesh of plane stress linear triangles with point forces applied at nodes ‘Ignoring boundary conditions, the global force vector for this case is simply 413 FT a [Pa 0 Pep yg 0 Py 0 Py) For the case of pressure loading onan element ede, the traetions are usually specified in {ermsof their normal and shear components as shown in Figure 10.5. Consider the loaded ‘edge shown in Figure 108, where the model coordinate F ranges from E = 1 atnode one toF = + Latnode to. Figure 108: Tractions on edge of plane stress linear triangle ‘Along the edge, the normal ang shear tractions may be expressed as n= Nid + Nada = Nyda + Meda where M=-}E-0) (00.33) R= 3€+) 0.34) sche unalone ier sap eons (0) athe psc a Smet oe mtngennsbuton tom he oplaiadg tonsotctnad Cae eae tom cnc tgcnadeatosheoniee i m0 0% ea Neat = | ofan thn, 0 iid (2038) of In this equation, the shape Functions are given by (10.11), (10.12) and (10.13) and are evaluated along an edge. As the three edges ofthe triangle are described by the equations £ = 0,9 = Gor + — 1 = O,thenoneofthese conditions will be true along the loaded 16 ‘edge. This implies that one of the three shape functions will also be zero. For the case shown Figure 10.8, we have £ +1 ~ 1 = Oand hence Ny = 0, Since the pressures and slsplacements vary linearly in terms of the model edge coordinate & , equation (10.35) can be replaced by the equivalent expression (20.36) This is more convenient to evaluate numerically as the limits range from ~1 to +1 when the integral isexpressed in terms of. With reference to Figure 10.8, we see that resolving inthe horizontal and vertical directions gives “ de= joa + guna = aft + on$h oan 4 ay = aysina ~ gycosa = 9/5 ~ an SE (20.38) Now along the element edge we also have Mix, + Nox y= M+ May and hence a N e (2040) (aot) us where WW, oN, 00g N=/o N, 0 N,00 2 4 9,2) (act + gn] at een (40.42) Equation (10.41) may be integrated numerically using the Gauss rule to give the surface [pressure contribution tothe element force vector as AYN yw (2043) ‘here ms the numberof integration points, wis the value ofthe weight for integration pointi, 8, = NCE; )is the edge shape function matrix evaluated at integration point, ia evaluated at integration point, and £} is the value of the model edge coordinate & for integration point, Once each element force vector is formed, i then inserted into the slobal force vector using the element steering e=tor ‘The final type of loading to be considered, shown in Figure 10.6, i caused by body forces. ‘Neglecting contributions from other types of loading, the consistent nodal forces are given by the second term on the right-hand side of (10:31) according to ‘This equation may be integrated numerically aoording to Ta AS NTH, ders, aos) ‘where isthe number of integration points, isthe value ofthe weight for integration point i, N, = N(E,,1,) is the shape function matrix evaluated at integration point i, et J, = det JG,,7, )isthe determinantof the Jacobian evaluated at integration pointi, and (i,m) ate the vals of the mode coordinates for integration point 1046 Worked Example of Numerically Integrated Plane Stress L ar Triangle ‘Th illustrate the steps involved in forming the stiffness relations by numerical integration, a worked example is presented for the plane stress linear triangle. In performing the numerical integration by hand, we first note from (9.40) that the determinant of the Jacobian is constant and given by 116 dety = 24 (1045) Substituting equations (9:36)(2.39) in (929), we also see that » » | % no oH wala #|"afy-n 4-9 a” & Using (10.27), the partial derivatives ofthe shape functions can then be found using aN, aN, aN |e =e x me &!_ [%- ys Ym My] avy aN, aN3)2a]x,— x) 4-H 2 —¥Y (20.46) Tasertng these derivatives in (10.21 we obtain the strsin-isplacement matrix Ds 0 yn 0 ye 0 Bed}O mm 0 xy 0 mm os) be Yn ta Jn Xn Ja where mato I aos set AT ae Math Meee In the plane stress constitutive relations defined by equation (10.8), let us define the D matrix Pu Pn o p=|P2 Pa 0 a048) 0 0 Dy with Ds nn = A + 2G, Diy = Aand Dy = 6. Substituting (20.45), (10.47 and (10.48) into (10.32) yields the element stiffness according to [Yas 0 a0] 0 xn Yale, e 0 x2 ene aps 2 A] wend aa] Ona yal ¢ Yi. 0 xy Ox Jy To evaluat this stifiness, 7 Dy 0 2Dn 0 0 Dsl fs 9 yn O yy 0 0 xm 0 x3 0 ra)e2dxw, Fan Yon Fas Yar Xt Yi is necessary to determine the highest order polynomial that ‘occurs inside the summation sign. Inthe case of the linear triangle the B matrix is made up of constant terms and thus corresponds toa polynomial of degree zero. Similarly, the Jacobian matrixis also constant. Thus we see thatthe highest degree entry inthe clement Stifinessmatrixisequal othe product ofconstant terms, Thus thehighestorderterminside the summation for kis therefore also a constant and, from Table 9.1, itis necessary to use only a one-point Gauss rule For m1, the stiffness matrix summation becomes ¥23 0 25] 0 aa Yn ke Ps © Aallyt De 9 [a] 2A) Ox yall g 24 Yig 0 ty 0 xa Yn Dyyavn ? Patna Puvatn Duratn Dy Yat Dsvatas Pyain Pvtatn Pun + * + Dsstais DesYors Dstt x- 4 U4) Pwo Pntmts Params + + DasYn%2 Daa DasYnts Pura Pinte Pwarn # 4 ? Pskatn Dy Yotn Py tata Duyatn Dutota Davarry + + # Pyknta Psion Padirs PP Diz 0] fr 0 yn 0 2 0 O xq 0 xy 0 xyheaa xd 0 Ds) 32 Yas *13 Yo1 Ya a2, 2 Panry + Dayiaya, Padsta + DasYtn Pret + Pada gmmevic: Puri # Dasa, Daviakn Das Ya%n Duran Diva us Toillustrate the formation of the element force vector, consider the edge loading shown ln Figure 10-5 for the special case where the normal edge traction is uniform and the shear traction is zero. Substituting q, = 0, equation (10.42) simplifies to i 2 where, from equations (10.39) and (10.40), the derivatives are given by X, ®, -le- Fn Bae} am, VX, A =1 BrP Pr oy) ‘To integrate equation (10.41) numerically using a Gauss rule, we need to determine the highest degree of the terms inside the suramation, From (10.33) and (10.34), the shape function matric i linear inthe edge coordinate . Since the terms in tare all constants, this implies thatthe highest order term in the summation is linear and, hence, a one-point rule is sufficient to integrate the force vector exactly. For the one-point rue in Table 4.1, equation (10.41) becomes, mE) 0 0 M@|r ong, realMGy 0 ff 20°91 0 WE] Fe - x) o 0 0 Substituing F, = Oand w, = 2we obtain 1/2 O-¥)] 0 1216 ay Hea — x) can p2 ff 22-1 ak) or-yp 0 1/2/]-$6@, ~ 2) He ~20) oo 0| oo Q Sitice x» ~ xj = Leos@ and yz ~ y, = Lsina, where L isthe length of the edge and ais its inclination to the x-axis, this force vector may also be written as ait. | sina 2 |ncosa ° 0 49 ‘As an immediate check on these values we note that S nodal xforces = gy X hk x sina = total road applied to edge S nodal y-frces = gq X AL x cosa = total load applied to edge i 10: Plane Stress Quadratic Tangle ' ‘As shown in Figure 10.9, the plane stress quadratic triangle has six nodes and two “degrees of freedom at each node. Using sn isoparametric formulation, quadratic functions fare used to model both the displacements and the geometry and the element may have ‘curved sides @ Qeasny ® @ OO: © ar) Go) ‘model coordinates Figure 109: The quadratic tiangle ‘The interpolation and mapping for the quadratic triangle elements has already been { discussed in Chapter 9. The displacements are computed using = Nit, + Nyy + Nyy + Nyt + Nous + Notts (049) 8 Nyy + Nyy, + Ngby + Navy + Navy + Neve 4030) ‘where the shape functions aze given by equations (8.21)(9.26) according to I N= 2OE- 17> M= 4 Ns= 2) ~ 1/2) y= AONE +=, Ny= 2E+n~1/2VE +91) Ne=-4GVE +9 It is convenient for later work to express equations (10.49) and (10.50) in the single equation 120 yf =] 0M, ON, ON, OM ONS ON, {] [eeteeeaeaenral where the shape function matrix N and the element nodal displacement vector w are defined as Ny ON, ON, 0 Ny ON ON, 0 N=1 0 N, 0 .N, 0s 0.Ny 0 Ng O Ng Gost) we fla Hs ta vey Hs a Hs Hy Hy ve) (aos) ‘The strain-displacement matrix B is obtained by differentiating equations (1049) and (20.50) according to al INy aN, aNg i} ee an, fay ew OTN, 5 ° aNg [b a Bll. These are ofthe standard form where the strain vector eis defined in (10.7), the element displacement vector wis defined in (1052), and the strain-displacement matrix B is, 2 (ios) For an isoparametric formulation, thex-andy.coordinates at any point within the element can be writen inthe form 2 Nyx + Naty + Nyy + Nate + Noxs + Nex (1054) y= Naya + Nova + Nays + Nave + Neds + Neds (20355) Differentiating (10.54) and (10.55) with respect to the model coordinates & and gives (1056) ‘The strain-displacement matrix B (10.53) contains partial derivatives of the shape functions with respect tothe real coordinates andy. These are computed inthe same way as for the linear clement by using equation (10.27). 10.8 Numerical Integration of Stiffuess Matrix for Plane Stress Quadratic Triangle ‘The virtual work equation for the plane stress quadratic triangle is identical to that for the Iinear plane stress triangle, except that the point force and virtual displacement vectors become Pra (Py By Pa By Pa Pa Pa Pa Ba Pa Pu Pos Ps Ps By} Ba = my by tp Bry bis dry buy dg dug Svs du, br Apart from this minor change the derivation ofthe stiffness equations forthe two types of elements are the same. To form the stiffness equations for the quadratic element, we substitute (108), (1053) and (1056) into. equation (10.30) and apply numerical m integration. The numberof integration points required depends on whether the triangle hhas straight orcurved sides. Inthe former case, che srain-Sisplacement matrix Bisa linear function ofthe model coordinates and and the determinant ofthe Jacobian is constant. ‘Thus the highest degree term inside the summation sgn is quadratic and, from Table 9.1, a three-point integration rule is necessary to evaluate the element stiffness exactly, When the element has curved sides, de is no longer constant and the terms in the B matrix ‘become very complicated. Indeed, from (10.56), we see that the determinant of the Jacobian may have terms which are of quadratic degree. Using (10.27), we also see that the derivatives in the B matrix re given by aN, = wy aN y © dety | ae am ~ on a which are ratios of wo quadratic polynomials. In equation (10.30), one ofthe 1/detJ terms cancels with the det in the summation but there is still one left over. Once the matrix ‘product is multiplied out, we conclude that the highest order term in the stiffness matrix is the ratio ofa fourth order polynomial and a quadratic polynomial. For an element which has highly curved sides, asuitable strategy would be to use a rule which integrates a fourth ‘order polynomial exactly. More commonly, where only one edge ofthe element is curved, ‘a three-point rule is usually of sufficient accuracy. 10.9 Formulation of Force Vector for Plane Stress Quadratic Triangle ‘Under point force loading, the global frce vector canbe assembled directly as described for the plane stress linear triangle. For edge pressure and body force loading itis generally necessary to use numerical integration to compute the consistent nodal forces. Since this clement uses a quadratic expansion to model the displacements, it can accommodate 2 ‘quadratically varying edge pressure or body fore load, ae Figure 10.10: Tractions on edge of plane stress quadratic triangle Consider the loaded edge shown in Figure 10.10. Along this edge the model coordinate has values of F = -1 at node one, F = 0 at node two, and & = + 1 atnode three, The ‘normal and shear tractions may be expressed as Fez} 0 = Mian + Nodua + NsQus a= Nida + Noga + Mage, where x f 28E-) DE+1) me Le+y are quadratic one-dimensional shape functions and (q,;,q,) are the prescribed nodal values of (gq, 42). Neglecting contributions from other ypes ofloading, the consistent nodal forces forthe element are again given by equation (10.41) in which w_[ 0% 0M 0 000000 N=lo m0 N, 0 N000000 and Finally, we note that the consistent nodal forces caused by body force loading are again defined by equation (10.44), except that det J is now given by (10.56) and N is given by (033).