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Newcastle CIVIL3830

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- FE - 5 Global Stiffness Matrix
- CE 579 Lecture 4 Stability-Energy Method Lrg Deflections
- CE 579 Lecture 4 Stability-Differential Eqns
- CE 579 Lecture 4 Stability-Energy Method Sm Defl
- FE - 3 FE Concept
- FE - 8 Beam Element
- CE 579 Lecture8 Stability- Differential equations
- CE 579 Lecture 7 Stability-Differential equations
- Lecture 2 by Chiew Sing Ping FOR CIVIL AND STRUCTURE
- FE - 11 Plane Strain
- CE 579 Lecture 3 Stability-Energy Method
- CE 579 Lecture 1 Stability-Stability vs Buckling
- FE - 9 2D Interpolation
- FE - 6 FE Programming
- CE 579 Lecture 2 Stability-Design
- CE 579 Lecture 6 Stability-Differential equations
- FE - 4 Numerical Integration
- CE 579 Lecture 6 Stability- Differential equations-Torsion
- Prof. Salah CE591compcol_F13
- Column beam details

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CHAPTER 10
PLANE STRESS
ELEMENTS108
10 PLANE STRESS ELEMENTS.
‘This chapter illustrates the development of two-dimensional elements for analysis of
linear elastic solids under conditions of plane strain. The governing equations are derived
{rom the principle of virtual work and the consistent element force vectors are established
for a vatity of loading conditions.
Inthree dimensions, the stateof stress at pointis defined by the nine stress components
shown in Figure 10.1. Tensile normal stresses are taken as positive, The first subscript on
‘the shear stress denotes the axis which is normal to the shear stress plane whilst the second
subscript denotes the coordinate direction in which the shear stress acts. For faces where
the normal tensile stress is in a positive coordinate direction, the shear stesss positive if
it points in a postive coordinate direction. For the faces where the normal tensile tress
's ia a negative coordinate direction, the shear stress is positive if it points in a negative
coordinate direction. The positive senses fr the three normal stresses andthe six shear
stresses are shown in Figure 10.1
Figure 10.1: Three-dimensional stress state
By taking moments of the various forces acting on each face of Figure 10.1, it may be
shown that
and thus the three-dimensional stress vector comprises three normal stresses and three
shear stresses. For anisotropic linear elastic solid, the strains ae given by Hooke's law
according 1 |
[ox - (ay + 04))
[o, - Ho. + 00)
qoay
(10.2)10s
Defining the Lamé constant
2
T= (103)
‘equations (10.1) may be inverted to give the stresses in terms of the strains
ae G+ 2G) +A + 02) ty = Gy
0) = C+ 2G + Ales +e) be = Ge ana)
05 = G+ 2G) + Hex + 6) ta = Ga
‘These relations define the elastic constitutive law which sof the general form
o=De 05)
where
OT = {0 05 05 Tay Te Tord
aT = (en by fe Yay Ye Yor)
and the stress-strain matrix is
R+2G 4 4 0 0 0
p +m i 0 0 0
p-| 2 2 442G 0 0 0
0 0 o Goo
0 o o o Go
0 0 o 0 0G
10.1 Stress-Strain Relations for Plane Stress
Plane stress loading occurs commonly inthe analysis of beams and thin plate, where it
is assumed the stress in the out-of-plane direction 9, is zero. The three nonzero stress
‘components 0,0) and are shovinin Figure 10.2. Thebodyis assumed tobe of thickness
‘hin the 2-dtection
}
‘Figure 10.2: Plane stress loading105
‘Under conditions of plane stress, we have o;= rye = ta =O and the
{hreedimensional stress and strain vectors reduce to
oT = {0,05 ty) (10.6)
{e & Yy) 07)
Defining
2G
477406
the corresponcing stress-strain matrix becomes
4G A oO
p-| 4 A426 0 08)
0 0 4
[Note that the condition o, = 0 implies thatthe out-of-plane strain can be expressed in
terms of the remaining strains according to
a= e ta)
102 Plane Stress Linear Triangle
‘To derive the stiffness equations forthe plane stress linear triangle we again use the
principle of virtual work. The element has three nodes and two degrees of freedom ateach
node. These degrees of freedom correspond tothe displacements in thex- andy-directions
as shown in Figure 103,
,
ayy +O
nays
>
20a)
Bs Oo a ®
(0.0) 0) €
Te esos dc
Figure 10.3: The plane stress linear triangle
‘The interpolation and mapping for triangular elements has already been discussed in
Chapter 9 where it was noted that, for an isoparametric formulation, the sume shape
functions are used to describe both the coordinates and the displacements. ‘The
displacements may be computed from107
Muy + Mate + Ny 209)
VE Nyy + Navy + Nyy (20.10)
where the shape functions are given by (2.14), (9.15) and (9.16) according to
Ni =e (10.11)
iw) [Ny 0 Ny 0 Ny 0] fut
Where the shape function matrix N and the element nodal displacement vector w are
Sefined as
MON, 0; 0
0M, ON, ON; (aos)
we fk ma oa sm) nas)
Inorderto compute the stiffness matrix forthe triangular element itis necessary to derive
the strain-displacement matrix B, This matrix relates the strain vector at any point inside
the triangle, as defined by equation (10.7), to the nodal displacement vector of equation
(10.16). Differentiating equations (10.9) and (10.10), we obtain
an ao.a7)
a= (20.18)
ang) fan, ra
Collecting terms into a single matrix equation gives the strain-displacement relations10
ee) [ig N ay +, Vf
yar 8 at OO lly,
ay, aw, anglf
slelo 2h go Meo BM
3 y lye
aN aN aN, Ny aN ANG] ey
be) [ot at oe a Bly
These are of the standard form
e=Bu 029
‘whore the strain vector eis defined in (10.7), the element displacement vector w is defined
{in (10.16) and the strain-displacement matrix Bis
[2M
(10.21)
a
For an isoparametric formulation, the shape fonctions that define the displacements are
also used to define the coordinates. Thus thex-andy-coordinates at any point within the
clement can be written inthe form
x Nyx + Nat + Nyt (10.22)
y= Ny + Naya + Novo (20.23)
As discussed in Chapter 9, the determinant of the Jacobian for two-dimensions is
ao oe
ag oy
Differentiating (10.22) and (10.23) with respect to the model coordinates £ and » gives
dees aoa)
eM May
ag ag aE
Sie
sie als
and henceact 2025)
‘The strain-displacement matrix (10: 2 contains partial derivatives ofthe shape functions
with respect tothe real coordinates andy. As the shape functions have been expressed
in terms of the model coordinates § and 7, these derivatives cannot be found directly and
must be computed using the chain rue of differentiation. This rae gives
(any) ae
fae | foe |} ae
anit “Jae 2) 2M
tar) [ala
(20.28)
aN
where J is the two-dimensional Jacobian matrix defined in equation (927). Inverting
(10.26), we can obtain the derivatives of the ith shape function with respect to x and )
according to
oan
where J? is the inverse of the Jacobian matrix defined by (9.29). These derivatives
complete the formation ofthe B matrix.
103 Formolaon of Plane Stres Linear Tangle Using Virtual Work
Fora plane stress element of thickness the viral work equation may be writen as
af (Ge.04 + 8665 + bya = af (Gge + dug ]at + af (uk + oFea
+ Pdi
Pybry + sae + Pygbts + Pyar0
where A denotes te element area, (5, de, 67) ae the virtual strains, (0, dy ty) are the
stresses, (bu dy) are the virtual displacements, (g, q,)are the surface pressuresin thex and
‘yiections applied over the edge of length L, (X ) are the body forces in the x and
‘yediections, (6u,,;) are the virtual displacements at node i, and (P,P) are the point
loads in the x and y-directions applied at node
‘This equation may be written in matex form as
if setoas = af oarsan +f saTbaa + PTu (1028)
where
{Be 86) br}
bat = fou 6
T= 9]
ey
du? = (5, 87, By bry buy drx}
‘Now, from (10.18) and (1020) it follows that
dal = ou NT
eT = ua?
‘These equations, together wth the planestressform ofthe constitutive relations (10.5) can
be substituted in (10.28) to give
ota wPonaer sad = oof Nieat cant Nica © do" (029)
Since the variation dun the nodal displacements is arbitrary, and (10.29) must hold forall
such variations, i follows that
Af winacr rae w anf nea on Nthae sr
ly Nh
‘Thus the element stifness relations may be written inthe standard form
ust
‘where the element stiffness matrix and force vector arem
kaaf smase oo
+ fuss wou se ans
‘and the nodal displacement vector is defined by (10.16)
104 Numerical Integration of Stiffness Matrix for Plane Stress Linear Triangle
‘To drive the stiffness equations for amumerically integrated element, we substitute (10.8),
(20.21) and (10.25) into equation (10.30) and apply numerical integration. This gives
x
BIDS, det; (1032)
‘where n is the number of integration points, w;is the value ofthe weight for integration
point i, B, = B(E,.n,) is the strain-isplacement matrix evaluated at integration point i,
det J, = det 1G,.7, is the determinant ofthe Jacobian evaluated at integration point, and
G7) are the values of the mode! coordinates for integration point i
10.5 Formulation of Force Vector for Plane Stress Linear Triangle
In plane stress the loads may be applied as point forces atthe nodes, pressures on the
clement edges, or distributed body forces over the element volume. The latter case is
‘common when gravity loading is imposed. These types of loading are shown, respectively,
in Figure 10.4, Figure 1055 and Figure 10.8. Note that the positive direction of these
actions is as shown. Since the three-noded triangle uses linear shape functions to model
the displacements, itis possible to compute consistent nodal forces fora linearly varying
‘edge pressure or body force oad, Problems involving more complicated distributed loads
‘would require an clement of higher order.
6
‘Figure 10.4: Plane stress linear triangle with point foree loadingm
™ normal tration shear traction
Figure 10.5: Plane stress linear triangle with pressure loading
Figure 10.6: Plane stress linear triangle with body force loading
the elementis loaded only by point forces atthe nodes, as shown in Figure 104 then the
lobal force vector can be assembled directly (inthe same way a8 forthe truss clement
‘scussedin Chapter), For example, consider the mesh of two linear plane stress elements
shown in Figure 107.
Figure 10.7: Mesh of plane stress linear triangles with point forces applied at nodes
‘Ignoring boundary conditions, the global force vector for this case is simply413
FT a [Pa 0 Pep yg 0 Py 0 Py)
For the case of pressure loading onan element ede, the traetions are usually specified in
{ermsof their normal and shear components as shown in Figure 10.5. Consider the loaded
‘edge shown in Figure 108, where the model coordinate F ranges from E = 1 atnode one
toF = + Latnode to.
Figure 108: Tractions on edge of plane stress linear triangle
‘Along the edge, the normal ang shear tractions may be expressed as
n= Nid + Nada
= Nyda + Meda
where
M=-}E-0) (00.33)
R= 3€+) 0.34)
sche unalone ier sap eons (0) athe psc a
Smet oe mtngennsbuton tom he oplaiadg tonsotctnad
Cae eae tom cnc tgcnadeatosheoniee
i
m0
0%
ea
Neat = | ofan
thn, 0
iid
(2038)
of
In this equation, the shape Functions are given by (10.11), (10.12) and (10.13) and are
evaluated along an edge. As the three edges ofthe triangle are described by the equations
£ = 0,9 = Gor + — 1 = O,thenoneofthese conditions will be true along the loaded16
‘edge. This implies that one of the three shape functions will also be zero. For the case
shown Figure 10.8, we have £ +1 ~ 1 = Oand hence Ny = 0, Since the pressures and
slsplacements vary linearly in terms of the model edge coordinate & , equation (10.35) can
be replaced by the equivalent expression
(20.36)
This is more convenient to evaluate numerically as the limits range from ~1 to +1 when
the integral isexpressed in terms of. With reference to Figure 10.8, we see that resolving
inthe horizontal and vertical directions gives
“
de= joa + guna = aft + on$h oan
4
ay = aysina ~ gycosa = 9/5 ~ an SE (20.38)
Now along the element edge we also have
Mix, + Nox
y= M+ May
and hence
a
N e (2040)
(aot)us
where
WW, oN, 00g
N=/o N, 0 N,00
2 4 9,2)
(act + gn]
at een (40.42)
Equation (10.41) may be integrated numerically using the Gauss rule to give the surface
[pressure contribution tothe element force vector as
AYN yw (2043)
‘here ms the numberof integration points, wis the value ofthe weight for integration
pointi, 8, = NCE; )is the edge shape function matrix evaluated at integration point, ia
evaluated at integration point, and £} is the value of the model edge coordinate & for
integration point, Once each element force vector is formed, i then inserted into the
slobal force vector using the element steering e=tor
‘The final type of loading to be considered, shown in Figure 10.6, i caused by body forces.
‘Neglecting contributions from other types of loading, the consistent nodal forces are given
by the second term on the right-hand side of (10:31) according to
‘This equation may be integrated numerically aoording to
Ta AS NTH, ders, aos)
‘where isthe number of integration points, isthe value ofthe weight for integration
point i, N, = N(E,,1,) is the shape function matrix evaluated at integration point i,
et J, = det JG,,7, )isthe determinantof the Jacobian evaluated at integration pointi, and
(i,m) ate the vals of the mode coordinates for integration point
1046 Worked Example of Numerically Integrated Plane Stress L
ar Triangle
‘Th illustrate the steps involved in forming the stiffness relations by numerical
integration, a worked example is presented for the plane stress linear triangle. In
performing the numerical integration by hand, we first note from (9.40) that the
determinant of the Jacobian is constant and given by116
dety = 24 (1045)
Substituting equations (9:36)(2.39) in (929), we also see that
» »
| % no oH
wala #|"afy-n 4-9
a” &
Using (10.27), the partial derivatives ofthe shape functions can then be found using
aN, aN, aN
|e =e
x me &!_ [%- ys Ym My]
avy aN, aN3)2a]x,— x) 4-H 2 —¥Y (20.46)
Tasertng these derivatives in (10.21 we obtain the strsin-isplacement matrix
Ds 0 yn 0 ye 0
Bed}O mm 0 xy 0 mm os)
be Yn ta Jn Xn Ja
where
mato I aos
set AT ae
Math Meee
In the plane stress constitutive relations defined by equation (10.8), let us define the D
matrix
Pu Pn o
p=|P2 Pa 0 a048)
0 0 Dy
with Ds
nn = A + 2G, Diy = Aand Dy = 6.
Substituting (20.45), (10.47 and (10.48) into (10.32) yields the element stiffness according
to[Yas 0 a0]
0 xn Yale,
e 0 x2
ene aps 2 A]
wend aa] Ona yal ¢
Yi. 0 xy
Ox Jy
To evaluat this stifiness,
7
Dy 0
2Dn 0
0 Dsl
fs 9 yn O yy 0
0 xm 0 x3 0 ra)e2dxw,
Fan Yon Fas Yar Xt Yi
is necessary to determine the highest order polynomial that
‘occurs inside the summation sign. Inthe case of the linear triangle the B matrix is made
up of constant terms and thus corresponds toa polynomial of degree zero. Similarly, the
Jacobian matrixis also constant. Thus we see thatthe highest degree entry inthe clement
Stifinessmatrixisequal othe product ofconstant terms, Thus thehighestorderterminside
the summation for kis therefore also a constant and, from Table 9.1, itis necessary to use
only a one-point Gauss rule
For m1, the stiffness matrix summation becomes
¥23 0 25]
0 aa Yn
ke Ps © Aallyt De 9 [a]
2A) Ox yall g 24
Yig 0 ty
0 xa Yn
Dyyavn
?
Patna
Puvatn Duratn
Dy Yat Dsvatas
Pyain Pvtatn Pun
+ * +
Dsstais DesYors Dstt
x- 4
U4) Pwo Pntmts Params
+ +
DasYn%2 Daa DasYnts
Pura Pinte Pwarn
# 4 ?
Pskatn Dy Yotn Py tata
Duyatn Dutota Davarry
+ + #
Pyknta Psion Padirs
PP Diz 0] fr 0 yn 0 2 0
O xq 0 xy 0 xyheaa xd
0 Ds) 32 Yas *13 Yo1 Ya a2, 2
Panry
+
Dayiaya,
Padsta
+
DasYtn
Pret
+
Pada
gmmevic:
Puri
#
Dasa,
Daviakn
Das Ya%n
Duran
Divaus
Toillustrate the formation of the element force vector, consider the edge loading shown
ln Figure 10-5 for the special case where the normal edge traction is uniform and the shear
traction is zero. Substituting q, = 0, equation (10.42) simplifies to
i
2
where, from equations (10.39) and (10.40), the derivatives are given by
X,
®, -le-
Fn Bae}
am, VX,
A =1
BrP Pr oy)
‘To integrate equation (10.41) numerically using a Gauss rule, we need to determine the
highest degree of the terms inside the suramation, From (10.33) and (10.34), the shape
function matric i linear inthe edge coordinate . Since the terms in tare all constants,
this implies thatthe highest order term in the summation is linear and, hence, a one-point
rule is sufficient to integrate the force vector exactly. For the one-point rue in Table 4.1,
equation (10.41) becomes,
mE) 0
0 M@|r ong,
realMGy 0 ff 20°91
0 WE] Fe - x)
o 0
0
Substituing F, = Oand w, = 2we obtain
1/2 O-¥)]
0 1216 ay Hea — x)
can p2 ff 22-1 ak) or-yp
0 1/2/]-$6@, ~ 2) He ~20)
oo 0|
oo Q
Sitice x» ~ xj = Leos@ and yz ~ y, = Lsina, where L isthe length of the edge and ais
its inclination to the x-axis, this force vector may also be written as
ait. | sina
2 |ncosa
°
049
‘As an immediate check on these values we note that
S nodal xforces = gy X hk x sina = total road applied to edge
S nodal y-frces = gq X AL x cosa = total load applied to edge i
10: Plane Stress Quadratic Tangle '
‘As shown in Figure 10.9, the plane stress quadratic triangle has six nodes and two
“degrees of freedom at each node. Using sn isoparametric formulation, quadratic functions
fare used to model both the displacements and the geometry and the element may have
‘curved sides
@ Qeasny
® @ OO:
© ar) Go)
‘model coordinates
Figure 109: The quadratic tiangle
‘The interpolation and mapping for the quadratic triangle elements has already been {
discussed in Chapter 9. The displacements are computed using
= Nit, + Nyy + Nyy + Nyt + Nous + Notts (049)
8 Nyy + Nyy, + Ngby + Navy + Navy + Neve 4030)
‘where the shape functions aze given by equations (8.21)(9.26) according to I
N= 2OE- 17>
M= 4
Ns= 2) ~ 1/2)
y= AONE +=,
Ny= 2E+n~1/2VE +91)
Ne=-4GVE +9
It is convenient for later work to express equations (10.49) and (10.50) in the single
equation120
yf =] 0M, ON, ON, OM ONS ON,
{] [eeteeeaeaenral
where the shape function matrix N and the element nodal displacement vector w are
defined as
Ny ON, ON, 0 Ny ON ON, 0
N=1 0 N, 0 .N, 0s 0.Ny 0 Ng O Ng Gost)
we fla Hs ta vey Hs a Hs Hy Hy ve) (aos)
‘The strain-displacement matrix B is obtained by differentiating equations (1049) and
(20.50) according to
al
INy aN, aNg i}
ee an, fay
ew OTN,
5 °
aNg
[b a Bll.
These are ofthe standard form
where the strain vector eis defined in (10.7), the element displacement vector wis defined
in (1052), and the strain-displacement matrix B is,2
(ios)
For an isoparametric formulation, thex-andy.coordinates at any point within the element
can be writen inthe form
2 Nyx + Naty + Nyy + Nate + Noxs + Nex (1054)
y= Naya + Nova + Nays + Nave + Neds + Neds (20355)
Differentiating (10.54) and (10.55) with respect to the model coordinates & and gives
(1056)
‘The strain-displacement matrix B (10.53) contains partial derivatives of the shape
functions with respect tothe real coordinates andy. These are computed inthe same way
as for the linear clement by using equation (10.27).
10.8 Numerical Integration of Stiffuess Matrix for Plane Stress Quadratic Triangle
‘The virtual work equation for the plane stress quadratic triangle is identical to that for the
Iinear plane stress triangle, except that the point force and virtual displacement vectors
become
Pra (Py By Pa By
Pa Pa Pa Pa Ba Pa Pu Pos Ps Ps By}
Ba = my by tp Bry bis dry buy dg dug Svs du, br
Apart from this minor change the derivation ofthe stiffness equations forthe two types of
elements are the same. To form the stiffness equations for the quadratic element, we
substitute (108), (1053) and (1056) into. equation (10.30) and apply numericalm
integration. The numberof integration points required depends on whether the triangle
hhas straight orcurved sides. Inthe former case, che srain-Sisplacement matrix Bisa linear
function ofthe model coordinates and and the determinant ofthe Jacobian is constant.
‘Thus the highest degree term inside the summation sgn is quadratic and, from Table 9.1,
a three-point integration rule is necessary to evaluate the element stiffness exactly, When
the element has curved sides, de is no longer constant and the terms in the B matrix
‘become very complicated. Indeed, from (10.56), we see that the determinant of the
Jacobian may have terms which are of quadratic degree. Using (10.27), we also see that
the derivatives in the B matrix re given by
aN,
=
wy aN
y © dety | ae am ~ on a
which are ratios of wo quadratic polynomials. In equation (10.30), one ofthe 1/detJ terms
cancels with the det in the summation but there is still one left over. Once the matrix
‘product is multiplied out, we conclude that the highest order term in the stiffness matrix
is the ratio ofa fourth order polynomial and a quadratic polynomial. For an element which
has highly curved sides, asuitable strategy would be to use a rule which integrates a fourth
‘order polynomial exactly. More commonly, where only one edge ofthe element is curved,
‘a three-point rule is usually of sufficient accuracy.
10.9 Formulation of Force Vector for Plane Stress Quadratic Triangle
‘Under point force loading, the global frce vector canbe assembled directly as described
for the plane stress linear triangle. For edge pressure and body force loading itis generally
necessary to use numerical integration to compute the consistent nodal forces. Since this
clement uses a quadratic expansion to model the displacements, it can accommodate 2
‘quadratically varying edge pressure or body fore load,
ae
Figure 10.10: Tractions on edge of plane stress quadratic triangle
Consider the loaded edge shown in Figure 10.10. Along this edge the model coordinate
has values of F = -1 at node one, F = 0 at node two, and & = + 1 atnode three, The
‘normal and shear tractions may be expressed asFez}
0 = Mian + Nodua + NsQus
a= Nida + Noga + Mage,
where
x
f
28E-)
DE+1)
me Le+y
are quadratic one-dimensional shape functions and (q,;,q,) are the prescribed nodal
values of (gq, 42). Neglecting contributions from other ypes ofloading, the consistent nodal
forces forthe element are again given by equation (10.41) in which
w_[ 0% 0M 0 000000
N=lo m0 N, 0 N000000
and
Finally, we note that the consistent nodal forces caused by body force loading are again
defined by equation (10.44), except that det J is now given by (10.56) and N is given by
(033).

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