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THE SKELETALSYTEM

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TWO MAIN GROUPS
1. AXIAL SKELETON
- is made u of skull, ribs, and the vertebrae.
- Hold the body upright.
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a. SKULL is a framework of bone enclosing the brain.
Divided into 2 parts
CRANIUM
- is a rounded box that encloses the brain.
FACIAL PORTION
- includes the jaws, teeth, and areas for the organs of hearing, sight, and
smell.
b. THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN
- also called spinal column and backbone.
- Is attached to the skull, which it holds up and to the pelvis where it is
anchored to the lower limbs.
- Is made up of a series of irregular shaped bones. The 33 or 34 bones in a
child will eventually fuse or grow together to form 26 separate bones that
adults have.
FIVE DIFFERENT REGIONS
a. THE CERVICAL VERTEBRAE OR NECK BACKBONES
- Seven in number, are located in the neck.
- Atlas the first vertebra, supports the head.
- Axis - second cervical vertebra, serves a pivot when the head is turned from
side to side.
b. THORACIC VERTEBRAE OR CHEST BACKBONES
twelve in number, are located in the thorax
c. LUMBAR VERTEBRAE OR LOWER BACKBONE
- Five in number, are located in the lower part of the back
d. SACRAL VERTEBRAE OR PELVIC BACKBONE
- Are five separate bones in the child, which eventually fuse to form a single
bone called sacrum in the adult.
e. COCCYX OR TAILBONES
- Consist of four or five tiny bones in the child, these are fused to form a single
bone in the adult.
c. RIBS
- also called thoracic basket.
-twelve pairs of ribs
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2. APPENDICULAR SKELETON
- Includes all the bones attached to the axial skeleton.
- Shoulder, arms, forearms, wrists, hands and fingers (upper division)
- Hips(pelvic girdle), thigh, legs, ankles and feet.
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a. SHOULDER GIRDLE - consists of the clavicle( collar bone) and the scapula( shoulder blade)
b. HUMERUS arm bone
c. FOREARM BONES ulna(which lies in the medial and a little finger side) and the radius( on the lateral or
thumb side)
d. THE WRIST contains light small carpal bones arranged in rows to form metacarpals( is the framework for
the palm of each hand
e. PHALANGES - finger bones, 14 in number in each hand, two for the thumb, and three for each finger.
Phalanx single finger bone.
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JOINTS a place where two bones meet
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Joints can be classified according to the amount and type of movement they allow________________________________
Ball-and-socket
Joints
Ball-and-socket
Hinge
Saddle
Ellipsoid
Gliding
Pivot

Example of Bones
Shoulder and hips
Knee
Thumb
Wrist
Tarsals/ metatarsals/ cluster of bones on foot
Neck

A. MOVABLE JOINTS allows bones to move


1. Ball-and-socket joint
2. Hinge Joint
3. Pivot Joint
B. IMMOVABLE bones are tightly held together such that they cannot move
CONNECTIVE TISSUES the skeleton would fall apart if not with this tough and tensile materials.
LIGAMENTS a tissues that attaches one bone to another
they are white cordlike bands that hold the bones at the joints
CARTILAGE smooth, slippery, protect the ends of the bones in the joints
serve as a cushion
it has natural oil for the smooth movement of the bones
TENDONS- a white stingy, tough tissue at the end of each muscle
FUNCTION OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM
1. The skeletal system forms a strong framework for the body support. It also gives shape to the body.
2. The skeletal system protects vital organs of the body.
a. VERTEBRAE protects the spinal cord
b. SKULL protects the brain
c. RIB CAGE protects the heart and lungs
d. PELVIC BONE protects the kidney and other organs of the abdomen
3. The bones of the skeletal system, along with the muscles, allow the body to move
4. Bone marrow is formed at the center of the long bone.
Bone marrow soft and may be yellow or red in color
it manufactures red blood cells, and these cells nourish our bones.
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OSTEOPATHOLOGIST a bone expert
BONE SCAN is considered an important tool for detecting cancer that started in a different organ, such as breast (for
females) or prostate(for males).
- Can be used to detect some abnormalities related to leukemia (cancer of the blood or bone marrow) and
lymphoma (a solid tumor).
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