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December 2014

Welcome to
your Digital Edition of
Aerospace & Defense
Technology
December 2014

Business Jets Bounce Back


Power Loss and Data Integrity in Military SSDs
Computer Simulations Role in Advancing
Composite Aircraft Structures
Mil-Aero Design Embraces Intelligent
Application-Ready ATCA Platforms

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Supplement to NASA Tech Briefs

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Intro

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Intro

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ToC

December 2014

Business Jets Bounce Back


Power Loss and Data Integrity in Military SSDs
Computer Simulations Role in Advancing
Composite Aircraft Structures
Mil-Aero Design Embraces Intelligent
Application-Ready ATCA Platforms

com
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Intro

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Aerospace & Defense Technology

Contents
FEATURES ________________________________________

37

4
4

Power Electronics
Power Loss and Data Integrity in Military SSDs

38

8
8

Simulation
Computer Simulations Role in Advancing Composite Aircraft
Structures

14
14

Computing
Mil-Aero Design Embraces Intelligent Application-Ready ATCA
Platforms

20 Materials
20 Infusing Lightweight Composite Structures
24 Business Jets
24 Business Jets Bounce Back

36

Tech Briefs
Continuous Sputter Deposition Coating for Long
Monofilaments
Hydrolytic Stability of Polyurethane-Coated Fabrics Used for
Collapsible Fuel Storage Containers

DEPARTMENTS ___________________________________
39
41
42
43
44

Technology Update
Application Briefs
New Products
Advertisers Index
Whats Online

ON THE COVER ___________________________________

30 RF & Microwave Technology


30 Enhancing Mission Readiness with Rugged Portable
Instruments
34 RF Photonics for Avionics Signal Processing
35
35

Materials Design Principles for the Dynamic Fracture of


Laminar Composite Structures
Development of Hydrophobic Coatings for Water-Repellent
Surfaces Using Hybrid Methodology

On its recent U.S. to Farnborough journey, the new


Cessna Citation X+ flew at between Mach 0.86 and
Mach 0.88 cruising above 45,000 ft. It has a maximum non-stop range of 3408 miles with a maximum
speed of Mach 0.93 carrying 12 passengers. To learn
more about the latest generation of business jets
entering the aviation market, read the feature article on page 24.
(Image courtesy of Textron Aviation)

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2014

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Power Loss and


Data Integrity in
Military SSDs

U.S. Army Photo

or the defense industry,


NAND Flash, with its lack of
moving parts, has made it the
common storage medium for
a variety of field applications. With its
small size, low power usage, high performance and robustness in extreme
environments, choosing solid state
storage has been a clear choice from
the beginning.
Performance wise, SSDs are superior
as well. Traditional rotating hard
drives access data sequentially via a
magnetic head which has to physically
move to the location where data is
stored. In contrast, data on a solid
state NAND flash can be accessed randomly across the entire medium. With
no "seek" times, access speeds to any
part of the disk are identically fast.
While superior in almost all performance characteristics to hard
drives, the random access nature of
NAND Flash means that unexpected
power loss can threaten data integrity.
Temporary data stored in DRAM
buffers as well as metadata will be lost
when power cuts out unexpectedly if
the proper mechanisms are not in
place.
Military buyers need to be aware
that the MIL-STD-810F/G spec is not
enough. SSDs intended for use in
harsh environments must not only be
ruggedized for shock, vibration and
temperature resistance, but also have
robust power loss protection mechanisms built-in.

The Challenge
Differences in the behavior of flash
vs. rotating media under power loss are
a result of the differences in the way the
storage medium is accessed. As flash
cannot be overwritten in place like hard
drives, a firmware layer is needed to
simulate a virtual block device and provide overwrite functionality.

Program Erase Cycles


Traditional software level I/O operations expect a block level device which
can be overwritten in place. However
with flash, write operations are more
complex. Data can only be written, or
"programmed" on a clean block. If the
block already contains data, it must be
erased before it is written to.

The Flash Translation Layer


To map logical data addresses to the
physical addresses, which change as
data is updated, firmware known as the
Flash Translation Layer (FTL) is needed.
This firmware not only handles address
remapping but also implements wearleveling and makes sure there are
enough clean blocks to write to so I/O
performance remains high. Because of
the abstraction of the FTL and its proprietary nature, firmware from different
flash vendors varies considerably and
can make a huge difference on flash reliability and performance.

DRAM Buffers

iCell Technology allows temporary data in DRAM


buffers to be fully flushed to flash in the event of
power failure

www.aerodefensetech.com

Intro

Flash memory can only be erased in


blocks much larger than it can be written
to. To maximize service life and I/O
speeds, as data is updated it will be written to new physical locations rather than
inefficiently erasing a large "erase block"
and programming a smaller "write block"
of data to the same physical location.
These new locations are not selected at
random, but spread across the disk to balance wear and optimize SSD endurance.
This technique is known as wear-leveling.

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A key technical aspect of a modern


SSD is the use of volatile memory
buffers for temporary data. DRAM is
used by the firmware to hold address
remapping data until it is flushed to
flash. The other role of the DRAM is to
act as temporary data storage until it is
time for a write operation. By caching

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2014

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Contact us today to see if TLI lithium ion rechargeable cells are right for you.

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Intro

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Power Electronics

I/O operations in DRAM until blocks of


non-volatile flash are ready to be written to, IOPS are increased and physical
P/E cycles are reduced, enhancing SSD
performance and service life.
While the DRAM buffers are essential to modern flash's high perform-

ance and durability, as a volatile memory technology their contents need to


be flushed to non-volatile flash storage
at regular intervals. If a power failure
occurs during this transitory period,
data will be permanently lost or corrupted.

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NAND Flash based SSDs outperform


traditional storage media in almost all
military scenarios but are vulnerable
to serious data loss without power
management protection. SSDs for military use and anywhere power is not
100% available need to have comprehensive power loss management
schemes in place for data security.
Through additional capacitors on
the IC, early voltage drop detection,
and specialized power loss data flush
schemes, iCell technology is able to
protect against data loss from power
interruptions. Military buyers are
keenly aware of MIL-STD-810F/G requirements for shock and vibration
resistance, wide operating temperature range, thermal protection, and
other environmental hazards, but
power loss protection is not always
considered. For data integrity, power
loss protection is a mandatory technology for SSDs operating in military
applications and wherever power
availability is not guaranteed.
This article was written by C.C. Wu,
Vice President, Innodisk Flash Business
Unit (Fremont, CA). For more information,
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Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2014

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Intro

While ordinary SSDs flush volatile


data to non-volatile memory regularly, if a power-down happens during
an intermediate state they have only
2ms worth of residual power to flush
multiple megabytes of data, which is
not enough to prevent data loss. iCell
technology from Innodisk is a comprehensive power protection technology which detects power loss early on
and then takes necessary actions
using residual power sources to save
volatile DRAM data into non-volatile
Flash.
When voltage detectors sense a
voltage drop from regular 5V to low
voltage, the SSD immediately goes
into abnormal power-down status.
iCell's high-density on-board capacitors then provide up to 60ms of continual operation after power loss, during which 6MB of data can be written
to flash, providing complete data protection.

Summary

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Intro

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Simulation

Computer Simulations
Role in Advancing Composite
Aircraft Structures

any of the computer simulation tools used today got their


start in the Aerospace industry
but their use has always been
coupled with significant physical testing.
The introduction of composite aircraft
structures, however, is creating a need for
more reliance on simulation tools and
methods. Aircraft designers find many
benefits in composites, but they also are
wary of some of the potential difficulties
that composites can presentissues that
the latest simulation software is designed
to manage.

properties of composites can be tuned


to an extent, because they are stiffer in
the direction that follows the reinforcing fibers. The way composites are built
up generally involves laminates in
which unidirectional layers of fabric are

stacked in a variety of orientations to


provide maximum stiffness where it is
required in the structure. In addition,
engineers can tailor composites to
change shape slightly when a load is applied. This characteristic enables the de-

Designing Laminate Composites with OptiStruct


Number of Plies

Ply Shape

45

-45

90

0
90
45
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Advantages of Composites
The aircraft designer is drawn to composites largely because of their extremely
high ratio of stiffness to weight. Exceptionally stiff carbon fibers are combined
with a plastic glue-like matrix to create a
very light but stiff material that offers
many advantages over more conventional materials. Carbon composites have
a stiffness and strength equal to or exceeding that of most metals but with a
density less than aluminum. This leads to
lighter and more fuel efficient aircraft.
Composites also have very attractive
fatigue properties. When cracks form in
the matrix, they are quickly arrested by
the fibers so they dont propagate like
they do in a metal structure. Various levels of material processing can be implemented to control the level of voids in
the matrix which then become crack initiation sites so the fatigue performance
can often be controlled to not pose any
risk to the structure. Composites can
fracture, but the amount of force that
must be exerted to produce cracks in
structural composites is substantial and
much of the energy goes into breaking
the fiber-matrix bond rather than deformation so the material itself absorbs most
of the energy.
The aircraft engineer gains flexibility
in design from composites. The stiffness

0
90
45
-45

Overview of 3-phase approach for composites optimization with OptiStruct.

More detailed picture showing the composites optimization approach in OptiStruct.

www.aerodefensetech.com

Intro

Stacking Sequence

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Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2014

Simulation

velopment of wings that are more aerodynamically efficient.


A unique benefit of composite structures is the ability to embed sensors in
the skin of the aircraft, allowing pilots to
monitor for any damage. The capacity to
discover a small problem before it grows
into an urgent one makes such sensors
invaluable.
A key benefit of composites is that they
are inherently corrosion resistant. Since
they do not contain metals, there is no
galvanic corrosion of the material. Corrosion is a major issue in metal aircraft requiring frequent inspection and tight
control over avoiding trapped moisture
in the structure. Over time, corrosion
can cause metal to fail in disastrous fashion, as witnessed in news reports about
portions of weakened metal fuselages
peeling off in flight. The environment in
which aircraft operate is very corrosive,
so a metal airplane must be inspected frequently for corrosion damage. With the

Ply shape definition in HyperMesh close to the manufacturing process.

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2014

Intro

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Simulation

corrosion resistance of composites, inspection intervals for composite airframes are increased saving operators
time and expense.
In addition to the cost and performance advantages to the airlines, composite structures can make flying more comfortable and convenient for passengers.
With a composite fuselage, the difference
in air pressure inside and outside the aircraft can be higher, since composites
handle repeated cabin pressurization and
depressurization much more effectively
than metals, which are subject to fatigue
from these operations. Therefore, the inflight cabin pressure can be raised, resulting in less ear popping when the plane
lands. The humidity inside the cabin also
can be set at a higher level in a composite
fuselage, which is not subject to corrosion. Higher humidity can prevent
headaches and dry mouth after extensive
flight times. Yet another benefit is that
windows in composite aircraft can be

Composites laminate visualization with overlay


of ply-layer angles.

larger because they are supported by very


stiff material.

Issues Raised by Composites


While composites resolve many problems that are common to metal structures, they have issues of their own. One
of the most significant is that, since they
are built up from a number of ply layers,
composites can delaminate between

those layers at the points where they are


weakest.
Delamination is especially likely
where loads perpendicular to the layers
or shear loads are applied. Similar to exerting pressure on a deck of cards, the
stack may fly apart if pushed in the
wrong direction. Internal load distributions can be extremely complex in composites, and in certain combinations of
loads, layers can tend to separate.
To meet the challenge of delamination and avoid buckling, compositestructure designers must confirm that
loads to which the composite is subjected are, for the most part, in-plane
where fibers are the strongest.
Design engineers must account for all
of the many potential load paths in the
structure if they want to reduce the
chances of delamination, and this is
one reason that computer simulation is
becoming more critical to compositeaircraft design.

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Simulation

Another issue that engineers face is


that, unlike with metals, no way exists
to inspect composites for weakness or
internal damage. When delamination
or cracks occur, they usually are internal, hidden inside the composite material where it cannot be seen. Embedded
sensors help catch these faults, but
they require an approach that is new to
the aircraft industry, necessitating adjustments in processes.
One of the most intractable problems surrounding composites becomes
apparent when joining composite
components to metal structures. Since
composites are the stiffer material,
they bear most of the load. Manufacturers compensate for this increased
stress by simply building up the composite-to-metal joint with more composite material. That adds weight,
however, and the metal tends to expand and contract at a different rate
than the composite to which it is connected. That kind of imbalance can
lead to failure of the joint.
This difficulty can be resolved, of
course, by simply making more components from composites, creating an
all-composite joint. Such a solution is
not easy, however. Composites normally are joined with an adhesive
layer that is itself prone to delamination when subjected to some kinds of
loads. Two composite parts could be
joined by fasteners, but that process
introduces stress concentrations from
drilled holes and the different rates of
expansion between the composite and
the fastener.
The ideal solution is to develop
more comprehensive, integral composite structures so that the joining of
parts is avoided, and aircraft developers are making great progress in developing integral manufacturing methods.

The Simulation Solution


Clearly, engineers, designers and
manufacturers who want to employ
composites in aircraft must consider
and test a multitude of factors. Increasingly they rely on computer simulation to help them with the task of evaluating all the variables that can affect
composite structures.

Bird strike analysis with RADIOSS including failure and delaminating theories.

As in other industries, simulation


can be used to design and test composite structures on computer screens before investing in an expensive build of
the physical aircraft. With composites,
however, simulation becomes more
complicated. Unlike metal and plastic
components, composites are not uniform materials. They consist of layers
of fibers with specific directionality
that can impact the way the structure
reacts. This heterogeneity exponentially increases the design variables
that must be considered. As a result,
we have seen many very conservative
designs emerge for aircraft that fail to
fully capitalize on the valuable characteristics of composites.
Today, however, engineers have
available to them simulation software
that can manage the burden of optimizing composite-based design with
more reliable and systematic results.
This software can reliably calculate the
number and location of plies that
should be incorporated, the ply angles
that should be used and the best way
to stack the plies. The computer-based
software can evaluate hundreds of load
cases simultaneously, considering innumerable variables, and automatically produce the calculations for the

12

www.aerodefensetech.com

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best composite structure for a specific


application.
With such advanced suites of simulation software, engineers can easily map
composite ply shapes and parameters
onto a simulation model and receive results for both individual layers and the
total aggregation of layers. The simulations produce results that are not easily
tested and can provide great insight
into the design and potential problems
that may exist. For example, simulation
can predict out-of-plane stresses between layers internal to the structure for
which there is no reliable physical testing method. In addition, optimization
methods can then develop a design that
minimizes these stresses to remove the
potential for delamination under normal loading conditions.
Simulation is becoming a crucial
process in the design of new-generation composite aircraft, producing
safer, more comfortable and more fuelefficient designs that are certain to
boost the application of composites to
more structures in the years ahead.
This article was written by Dr. Robert
Yancey, Vice President of Aerospace Solutions, Altair Engineering (Neptune Township, NJ). For more information, visit
http://info.hotims.com/49752-501.

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2014

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Mil-Aero Design Embraces Intelligent


Application-Ready ATCA Platforms
Cohesive Hardware/Software Solutions
Accelerate Development of High
Performance Data and
Video Applications

elecommunications design continues its evolution toward


higher bandwidth and performance, fueled by growth in Gigabit Ethernet, wireless network systems and
competitive business models incorporating multi-play network services. Similar
data-rich applications characterize military design, with a broad spectrum of
image-intensive applications powering
modern warfare. With fewer troops on the
ground, more use of reconnaissance gathered via autonomous vehicles, and realtime feeds informing command and operations, system developers must deliver
more network-centric solutions and applications that offer ideal support to today's
warfighter.
High performance AdvancedTCA
technology is playing an important role
here, capitalizing on its proven telecom
success by blending hardware and software into intelligent platforms that accelerate development of technically demanding military applications. Part of this
platforms maturation is its cohesiveness
as a building block solution, eliminating
its early piecemeal development approach
and more closely aligning with the COTSbased design that is essential in military
arenas. More complete ATCA platforms,
integrated with hardware, software,
firmware, operating systems, and developer toolkits, provide the design structure
necessary in an increasingly network-centric military. For designers, this enables
high performance network scaling to accommodate high availability, high bandwidth data and video applications, power
management, and more.

Applying Telecom Success


to Military Design
Telecoms ATCA standard is optimized
for applications like long-term rugged deployment of traditional local and long-distance service, video on demand (VOD)
and broadband communications services
such as high-speed Internet access and
video conferencing. Its robust, enterprisegrade performance applies effectively to
the data transmission, packet processing
and high performance computing that defines military computing today. Capitalizing on ATCAs advanced performance features, military designers can access its high
availability, fault tolerance and efficient

System Design Tools Accelerate


Development

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14

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Intro

cooling to deliver dedicated computing


power for uninterrupted application service meeting uptime of five nines
(99.999%).
Yet even with intrinsic platform advantages for military design, early deployments with ATCA resulted in extended development time and more of a
do-it-yourself (DIY) approach to developing complex applications. ATCA platforms
have picked up greater speed in mil-aero
adoption by evolving past fragmented design requirements, with modern ATCAbased platforms driving significant improvements in a once time-consuming
and costly design structure. Now available
as fully formed Application Ready Intelligent Platforms (Figure 1) that combine
hardware, operating system and software
components into a computing engine for
end-user applications, ATCA is more applicable to both the technical and market
challenges inherent to mil-aero environments.

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ATCA ARIPs are optimized for robustness, manageability and intelligence, and
include toolkits for power management,
diagnostics and application control. As an
example, the Intel Data Plane Development Kit (Intel DPDK), a lightweight runtime environment for Intel architecture
processors, offers access to low overhead
and run-to-completion mode to maximize
packet processing performance. Intel
DPDK provides a rich selection of optimized and efficient libraries, also known
as the Environment Abstraction Layer

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Computing

(EAL). These libraries are responsible for


initializing and allocating low-level resources hiding the environment specifics
from the applications and libraries, and
gaining access to low-level resources such
as memory space, PCI devices, timers and
consoles.
In traditional networks, switching modules would be used to route traffic between
in-band system modules and out-of-band
systems. Processor modules would be used
for applications and control plane functions, packet processing modules used for
data plane functions, and DSP modules
would handle specialized signal plane
functions. Using the Intel DPDK toolkit,
Intel x86 architecture-based processor
modules can not only handle traditional
processing applications and control functions, but they can also capably and efficiently perform packet processing functions. This streamlined and high
performance design approach lets military
developers take advantage of the continuing trend towards convergence of network
infrastructure; designs can rely on a common platform or modular components to
support multiple network elements and
processing functions for applications, control, packets and signals. In addition to reducing costs and time-to-market, this approach is both flexible and modular,
ensuring the ability to independently upgrade system components as needed,
using a common platform or modular
components in shelf systems and networks of varying sizes.
A military surveillance application illustrates the need for this type of performance; with cameras and sensors detecting
images within a large, specified field of vision, such systems have high-speed signal
processing requirements as well as overall
increased processing demands because the
system is steadily transferring data in and
out of storage. Similar requirements for
high-speed data apply to all branches of
the military. For example, in addition to
WIN-T, emerging missions for the Navy
will increase its use of sensors for improved performance and situational
awareness, improving torpedo defense systems to process data at rates equivalent to
current video processing in UAVs. UAVs in
turn, offer some of the most in-demand
capabilities and are poised to reshape the
battlefield by virtue of their ability to com-

press the observe, orient, decide and act


(OODA) loop for military leaders through
the use of real-time data processing and
sharing.

ARIP Boosts Video Transcoding


Performance
Just as telecommunications providers
are rapidly transforming their networks to
support new and innovative IP-enabled
communications services particularly
video streams in 4G/LTE mobile and OTT

Figure 2. ADLINK's DPDK is a development toolkit based on the Intel DPDK, allowing designers to easily
develop their own Intel DPDK based applications.

Power Management in the Data Center


The military is clearly looking for ways to manage power consumption
and thermal production in its data centers. Just last year the US
Department of Defense started utilizing data center containers in which
servers are submerged in oil for more efficient cooling. Power management software solutions also target this issuewith a different methodology, of courseallowing data center managers to set upper limits on server
power to maximize rack density without exceeding the rack power budget.
With power management software, users can monitor board-level power
levels and set policy triggers to limit consumption. For example, users can
establish lower power consumption policies during peak hours when energy cost is higher, and suspend power consumption limits during off-peak
hours. Or users can limit power consumption when inlet air temperature
reaches an established threshold. This flexible and intelligent power management improves overall data center efficiency and maximizes overall
data center power usage.

16

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Intro

services network military designers are


facing similar challenges. Real-time data
and video processing has become integral
to military superiority, supplying situational awareness, targeting and surveillance, next generation radar and sonar, or
3D training simulations to prepare
warfighters for the field.
Applications featuring both short- and
long-range, high-bandwidth wireless network access require flexible and efficient
video/media processing and communica-

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Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2014

Computing

Application Ready Intelligent Platforms


Manufacturers are also addressing the need for ARIPs for ATCA ARMbased platforms. As an example, ADLINK Software for Networks (ADSN),
built on the Broadcom Software Development Kit (SDK) and Cavium SDK,
is a comprehensive, optimized middleware toolkit designed to allow operators to easily configure, manage and monitor switch status, as well as
boost network application performance. It includes support for Layer 2
(IEEE 802.3), Spanning Tree Protocol (STP-IEEE 802.1D), VLAN support
(IEEE 802.1Q), Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP-IEEE 802.3AD)
and switch statistics. For Layer 3 protocols, the ADSN supports wirespeed layer-3 packet routing base on route protocols, such as
RIP/OSPF/BGP.
To fulfill different complex requirements, the ADSN also integrates with
the Linux kernel to support value-added features such as ACL/HighAvailability, and enabled hardware accelerators on ATCA switch and NPU
blades such as de/compress, crypto, regular express and so onto boost
performance. In addition, ADSN not only provides a traditional commandline interface for management, but also includes libraries of APIs and
SNMP interfaces for further customization and integration with other
network element management systems.

tions capabilities in their supporting networks, for example, IP stream-to-IP stream,


IP stream-to-file and vice versa. A networkcentric military must also economically
deliver application scalability and network
simplicity for next-generation IP video and
communications services. Flexible and
performance-optimized toolkits, such as
the Intel Media Software Development
Kit (Intel Media SDK), can accelerate
video applications by enabling scalability
and the economical execution of common
tasks such as video transcoding.
The Intel Media SDK is a cross-platform
(Windows and Linux) application programming interface (API) for developing
professional media applications, such as
video editing and processing, media conversion, streaming and playback, and
video conferencing. Military developers
can decode from video elementary stream
formats such as H.264, MPEG-2, VC-1, and
JPEG/Motion JPEG to uncompressed
frames, and later encode uncompressed

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Intro

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Computing

frames back to elementary streams. Datarich applications do not need to be redesigned to take advantage of new processor features as they emerge, as Intel Media
SDK supports current and future x86
processors.

Manufacturers Add Value


to Developer Toolkits
Manufacturers are further extending the
capabilities of development tools in ATCAbased systems, filling in additional features
or performance options that complete the
intelligent platform design approach. For
example, it is important to note that the
Intel DPDK is a data plane development
kit running in the user space, and not a
complete product on which developers
can directly build their applications. In
particular, it does not include the implementations required to interact with the
control plane, including kernel and protocol stacks. To address this, ADLINK has developed its own development toolkit

Figure 3. With value added by ADLINK MSDK Plus, Intel Media SDK becomes a comprehensive end-to-end
solution for media processing tasks. ADLINK MSDK Plus provides fundamental media processing functions
missing from Intel Media SDK.

based on the Intel DPDK (Figure 2). This


enables developers to manage both the
control plane and the data plane, performing tasks like cloning virtual NICs at the
control plane to sync with physical ports
at the data plane. Using such a toolkit, customers can easily develop their own Intel

DPDK based applications to interact with


control and data planes, not only improving packet processing performance, but
also making the development path easier
and reducing time to market.
Intel Media SDK is already a flexible solution for many media workloads. ADLINK

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Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2014

Computing

MSDK Plus expands on its functionality


by providing additional modules to handle common media processing tasks not
natively supported by the Intel API, including mux/demux of media container
files, RTP receiving and RTP streaming.
By utilizing ADLINK MSDK Plus, designers can easily build an end-to-end solution around the Intel Media SDK to meet
their media processing and communications needs. Designers developing fully
functional media applications will no
longer need to deal with these operations themselves, and can decode a container file without additional software to
separate the video elementary data from
the container file.
Figure 3 illustrates the four input/output modules ADLINK MSDK Plus provides to handle common media processing tasks, including mux, demux, RTP
receiver and RTP sender. Common
audio and video formats found in military applications can be muxed or demuxed to or from a container file, while
audio and video elements can be received and processed from separate RTP
streams, and delivered with their respective streams to a destination over the
network.

ance packet and data processing in a


rugged, bladed architecture.
Proven in the rugged world of telecom, ATCAs military niche is poised to
expand further with the development of
Application Ready Intelligent Platforms.
Not as simple as a bare-bones DIY platform and not as inflexible as a turnkey or
total solution platform, ATCA ARIPs perform as a set of validated, integrateable
modules that include essential operating
systems, firmware and middleware components. Risk and application development time are reduced, and designers are
enabled with a platform ready to conduct the final integration for their own
solutions in specific application areas.
Integrated software toolkits enable development at product quality level rather
than Proof of Concept (PoC). Systems get
to field faster with the standards-based,
proven rugged performance necessary
for advanced signal processing applications including command and control,

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Military computing covers a broad
spectrum, ranging from rugged handheld devices used in the field to enterprise servers performing in secure, datacenter-like conditions. ATCA is
optimized to fit somewhere between
these two extremes offering the compute density and raw performance required for military computings new
high-throughput voice and data networking functions.
For example, existing open standards
such as VME and CompactPCI offer
rugged form factor options that are suited
for heavy I/O, but they restrict network
performance based on electrical and thermal constraints as well as limited networking and processing capabilities. Enterprisegrade servers offer speed and processing
performance, however they are not rugged
enough to qualify as a reliable, high availability platform option. ATCA is optimized
to address these requirements, offering
military design value as a power efficient
open standard, supporting high perform-

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Intro

manned and unmanned aerospace surveillance, ground mobile communications and maritime networks, which
must collect and manage large amounts
of data in real time.
Better, real-time data is the nature of
military design. New, data rich applications and tech refresh projects often demand modern IOs such as USB 3.0, SATA,
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This article was written by Yong Luo,
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19

Materials

Infusing
Lightweight
Composite
Structures

The final demonstrator structure for the research


project was a liquid-resin-infusion wing bow spar.
Simulation shows filling times for the spar.

European researchers examine


simulation-based solutions for the
manufacture of large-scale, liquidresin-infusion composite substructures.

iquid resin infusion (LRI) is a


proven manufacturing technology for both small- and
large-scale structures for
which, in most cases, experience and
limited prototype experimentation is
sufficient to get a satisfactory design.
However, large-scale aerospace and
other vehicle structures require reproducible, high-quality, defect-free parts
with excellent mechanical performance. These requirements necessitate
precise control and knowledge of the
preforming (draping and manufacture
of the composite fabric preforms), their
assembly, and the resin infusion.
The INFUCOMP project is a multidisciplinary research project to develop
necessary CAE tools for all stages of the
LRI manufacturing process. An ambitious set of developments has been undertaken that build on existing capabilities of leading drape and infusion
simulation codes available today. The

Researchers first performed validations on simplified components, one being this stringer final
part.

main objective of the European Research Consortium is to develop liquid


composites molding (LCM) for the aeronautic sector.
Currently the codes are only accurate
for simple drape problems and infusion
analysis of resin transfer molding (RTM)
parts using matched metal molds. Furthermore, full chaining of the CAE solution will allow results from materials
modeling, drape, assembly, infusion,
and final part mechanical performance
to be used in subsequent analyses.
Although the materials and manufacturing methods in INFUCOMP are specific to aerospace structures, the research work is expected to be of great
value to other industries, including automotive and manufacturing, energy,
rail, and marine.
INFUCOMP has built on PAM-RTM,
an existing simulation software from
ESI Group, to provide a full solution
chain for LRI composites, including fabric modeling, drape, assembly, infusion,
cost, and final part performance prediction. Simulation tools will avoid costly
and time-consuming prototype testing,
allow the CAE design of alternative
manufacturing routes, and enable costeffective, efficient LRI composite structures to be designed and manufactured.
During the industrial validation
phase of the project on simplified components and a relevant LRI aircraft substructure, researchers from ESI Group,
Daher Aerospace, University of
Stuttgart, and INASCO (Integrated Aero-

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space Sciences Corp.) employed numerous enhancements to the state-of-theart for resin infusion simulationin
particular, better viscosity models and
essential developments to run under
distributed memory processing (DMP)
to take advantage of new-generation
cluster computers and massive parallel
computing. This includes coupling of
modeling and monitoring, allowing a
combination of predictive capabilities
provided by simulation with the capability of detecting unexpected events
and variations in real time provided by
process monitoring.

Experiment Setup
For the project, researchers employed
the DiAMon Flow monitoring system
developed by INASCO, which combines
flow, thermal, and cure monitoring as
part of an integrated sensor comprising
electric contact pairs, an inter-digitized
micro capacitor, and a thermocouple.
Capabilities include measurement of
the in-plane position and speed of the
flow front, estimation of the degree of
cure (through material state models
that result from the correlation between
the dielectric measurements and available cure kinetics models), and continuous monitoring of temperature.
All the sensors used in the system are
resistance sensors. When the resin arrives on the sensor, a 10 VDC passes
from one of the pins through the resin
and into the other pin. From the voltage drop that is recorded by the high

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2014

Materials

resistance sensing electronics, the presence of resin on this location, the value
of the resin resistance, the arrival time
of the resin, and the time since the resin
arrival are noted. The sensing area of
each individual sensor is protected from
direct contact with the carbon fabrics to
prevent the sensor from short-circuiting. This protection uses two layers of
glass cloth positioned on top of the
sensing area.
The resin used in this project is RTM6
from Hexcel. The preforms used are
made of Hexcel twill fabric 48302
weaved with carbon fibers T700 12K.
Material data were taken from previously conducted experimental and
modeling work:
Resin viscosity: 0.033 Pa.s-1 (taken from
RTM6 manual Hexcel); also, a new constitutive model has been applied;
Distribution medium permeability
(measured by University of Stuttgart):
K=0.74E-10 m;

Preform (48302 T700 Hexcel reinforcements) having in-plane permeabilities K1=K2=4.48E-12 m and
through thickness permeability
K3=2.79E-14 m.
The distribution medium is a two-dimensional flowing aid used to ease resin
flow and distribute the resin across the
surface of the laminate. It is commonly
accepted to consider K1=K2=K3 for distribution media.
Experimental set-up for the wing bow spar finaldemonstrator.

Validations on Simplified
Components
Validations on small-scale singularities that are representative of industrial
issues were conducted. For singularity
#1, step, the part to be infused has
two preforms: a lower preform of 3 mm
(0.12 in) thick and a thicker upper preform of 4.2 mm (0.165 in). The sensors
were positioned, and simulations were
carried out with PAM-RTM 2013. A
549,000 tetrahedron mesh was gener-

ated with Visual-Mesh. This mesh was


split into two zones, with one zone for
the distribution medium and one zone
for the preform. Distribution medium
permeability tensor was taken: K1 = K2
= K3 = 2E-10 m (calibrated to match
with experiment).
Simulation results show that resin
flows preferentially into the distribution medium; however, the preform

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Intro

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Materials

starts to be impregnated before the


complete filling of the distribution
medium, resulting in an orthotropic
flow process.
Experimental measurements give a filling time of approximately 900s (15 min).
The distribution medium permeability

tensor used in simulation has been calibrated to match with the experiment result. This flow media permeability tensor
will then be used for all other cases to validate the simulation tool.
For singularity #2, stringer, the
manufacturing part is made with a sim-

ple preform that is 3 mm thick, 280


mm (11.0 in) wide, 380 mm (15.0 in)
long, and reinforced by an stringer
that is 3 mm thick and 93 mm (3.7 in)
wide. Sensors were positioned, and a
79,600 tetrahedron mesh was generated with Visual-Mesh. The mesh was
split into three zones, and material data
were taken:
Resin viscosity: 0.033 Pa.s-1 (taken
from RTM6 manual Hexcel);
Distribution medium permeability:
K1=K2=K3 = 2E-10 m (calibrated for
the step case);
Preform (48302 T700 Hexcel reinforcements) permeability (measured
by Hexcel reinforcement):
K1=K2=4.48E-12 m in the plate and
in the ;
K3=2.35E-14 m in the plate (vf =
58%) and K3=1.974E-14 m in the
(vf = 61%).
Experimentally, resin passed through
the vent at 24 min (1440s) after the
start of infusion. The vent was clamped
at 45 min (2700s) after beginning of infusion. According to monitoring results, the resin maintained progress
after clamping and triggered the sensors at 60 min (3600s).
The simulation results show a resin
arrival at vent location after 1447s and
a total filling time of 3656s. These results are extremely close to the experimental results.

Industrial Demonstrator

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Intro

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The final demonstrator is a generic


wing bow sparan industrially relevant LRI aircraft substructure. Distribution media has been located on
both sides of the part based on simulation results to optimize through thickness flow and filling time. The final
demonstrator was equipped with several DiAMon Flow sensors to compare
experimental results with simulation
results.
A 950,424 tetrahedron mesh was
generated with ESIs Visual-Mesh software. Four zones (group of elements)
were generated to define materials
properties. One for the two distribution
media, one for the gusset filler, one for
the two C frames forming the I
stringer, and one for the top and bottom plates.

Materials

The preform is made of the woven


fabric type 48302E01 and the unidirectional fabric type X505E01 provided by
Hexcel reinforcements, and permeabilities of those two reinforcements were
measured by Hexcel reinforcements:
48302E01: K1 = 9.76E-12 m; K2 =
9.76E-12 m; and K3 = 1.13E-11*exp
(-9.8 vf) m (vf = fiber volume fraction);
X505E01: K1 = 2.03E-12 m; K2 =
2.03E-12 m; and K3 = 1.11E-12*exp
(-9.82 vf) m.
The bottom and the upper plates are
made of both 48302E01 and X505E01.
To represent properly the preform permeabilities, an equivalent permeability
was computed for the whole stacking.
The C frames constituting the I
stringer are made only with the
48302E01 reinforcement at 57% of
fibers.
Permeabilities used in the simulation
are:
Bottom/upper plates: K1 = 3.68E-12
m; K2 = 3.68E-12 m; and K3 = 1.5E
-14 m;
C frames: K1 = 9.76E-12 m; K2 =
9.76E-12 m; and K3 = 4.24E-14 m.
To model the resin inlet, the researchers used a flow rate boundary
condition with a maximum pressure.
As long as the inlet pressure is below
the maximum pressure, constant flow
rate is imposed at the inlet and constant pressure equal to maximum pressure is imposed. This kind of boundary
condition allows the proper description
of pressure evolution at the inlet without modelling the full injection line
from the resin pot to the mold.
Three injection points (inlets) were
defined on each channel used in the
real experiment by Daher. Numerically, 1.11E-6 m 3 /s was imposed on
each of those inlets with a maximum
pressure of 1E5 Pa (= 1 bar). Two vents
were defined numerically and were set
to 0 Pa.
The current framework for viscosity
modelling in the context of composites
processing is based on the use of temperature and degree of cure or glass
transition temperature as state variables. This implies that a viscosity development model needs to be coupled
with a model of the cure kinetics, while
the implementation of the model re-

The evolution of the flow front during infusion is shown.

quires a series of cure kinetics characterization experiments in addition to


the necessary rheological tests. This
type of model works well in the context
of autoclaving where the value of viscosity is important over a wide range of
degrees of cure (from the uncured material up to gelation).
However, the role of a rheological
model in the simulation of liquid
molding processes is different, as viscosity is one of the parameters governing the filling/infusion stage during
which the changes in degree of cure are
relatively small. These small changes
induce a significant increase in viscosity, which can eventually alter the outcome of the process. When models
based on the use of the degree of cure
are utilized, the accuracy of the simulation can be compromised by the fact
that one of the underlying variables of
the model has a small variation during
the process. This can result in usage of
a model that is developed over a range
of wide degrees of cure (from about 0 to
60%) only within a limited range (up to
about 10%).
The approach adopted by INFUCOMP researchers overcomes this limi-

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2014

Intro

tation by using the viscosity at a reference temperature as a state variable instead of the degree of cure. The reference viscosity follows its own kinetics.
Due to the higher permeability of the
distribution medium, resin preferentially
flows in this flow media. This phenomenon favors a transverse flow in the central part of the spar. Finally, infusion
time (2157s) is in good correlation with
experimental results (2100s). Moreover,
the last-filled zones correspond with
good precision to dry spots identified on
the actual part.
Again, simulation results were in
agreement with experiments and
found to be valuable to understand
and validate the infusion process. The
results also help researchers to understand the simulation workflow and
methodology as well as the monitoring
capabilities.
This article is based on SAE International technical paper 2014-01-0965 written by Pierre Marquette and Arnaud
Dereims of ESI Group; Michael Hugon and
Guenael Esnault of Daher Aerospace; Anthony Pickett of the University of Stuttgart;
and Dimitrios Karagiannis and Apostolos
Gkinosatis of INASCO.

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23

Business Jets Bounce Back


The business jet segment suffered badly from an extended economic downturn but
is now seeing a new generation of airplanes becoming available, introducing
features and technologies that are equal to, and in some cases superior to, jets in
airline service.
by Richard Gardner

The flight deck of the Citation X+ features a new Garmin G5000 avionics package with four intuitive full color touch-screen LCD panels and three 14-in
high-resolution displays, as well as fully integrated auto-throttles to reduce pilot workload, including fuel management.

he business jet market has a resilience all its own. While defense spending has sharply declined, the commercial sector is
over-flowing with multi-thousand order
backlogs. But if business jet orders can tail
off dramatically and then bounce back so
quickly, what accounts for this collective
long-term immunity to volatile market
demands?
One answer is competition. There are
now so many manufacturers of business

jets in the world there are niche markets


within the sector that enable products to
be offered for almost any need, from a private Airbus Corporate Jet (ACJ) A380
down to a 4-6 seat entry-level jet.
While the leading brands can supply a
family of platform aircraft, the market is
dynamic enough to also have space for
new start-ups that do not require the
same level of manufacturing infrastructure and corporate critical mass to bring
new lightweight airplanes to market.

The Dassault 7X was the first of a new Dassault generation of sophisticated fly-by-wire executive jets.

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The main challenge for all-new designs


is to keep the development timescale
through to test and certification as short
as possible, taking advantage of the latest
design and manufacturing tools that enable rapid prototyping and the full exploitation of composite structural materials. This requires very tight management
with a highly motivated team, with a
good knowledge of what this sectors customers are looking for (and what isnt already available). Get this combination of
factors right and priced at a realistic level
to break even, and with appropriate investment, a small project can breakthrough into big-time production numbers.
Worldwide business jet deliveries rose
by almost 20% during the first three
months of this year, with 154 aircraft
handed over. The North American market
remains the prime target with by far the
largest number of private and corporate
jets registered. This market recovered
rather faster than in Europe, where the financial cold wind caused a drastic slowdown in the rate of business expansion
and the replacement of older jets stopped
almost completely.
The unresolved fiscal problems in the
Eurozone means that it is unlikely that

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2014

Business Jets

European operators will be able to fully


exploit what is now available in the executive jet market, at least for the next few
years. New sales to the former Eastern European countries had been growing at a
faster rate, as were sales to Russia and
China, but the deterioration in
Western/Russian relations is unlikely to
promote further sales in the short term.

French Flair
In Europe, Dassault Aviation remains
the leading producer of business jets, with
its six-strong Falcon family setting the
standard in terms not only of sales (2250
to date) but advanced technology. The latest in a continuous product line dating
back to 1963 is the three-engine Falcon
8X, which was announced in May 2014
and which features a larger fuselage and
high performance wings with an integrated Honeywell EASy flight deck with
head-down displays, head-up displays,
and a synthetic vision system (SVS),

The new Dassault 8X is a 6450 nmi ultra-long-range aircraft and is making rapid progress. In late July the
wings, fuselage, and engines of the first aircraft were joined ready for the initial power-on and ground
tests. First flight is scheduled for early 2015, with first deliveries due at the end of 2016.

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2014

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Business Jets

SmartView, that provides a high level of


all-weather day and night situational
awareness.
The 7X was the first of a new Dassault
generation of sophisticated fly-by-wire executive jets incorporating the latest technology for discriminating top end cus-

tomers, and has now been followed by


the 5X and 8X. The SVS incorporates virtual representation of outside world features such as high ground, tall obstacles,
and runways, fusing GPS navigational information and radar pictures overlaid
with 3-D mapping from an onboard

global database and electro-optical/night


vision onboard sensors.
The new 8X aircraft is a 6450 nmi ultralong-range addition to the family and is
making rapid progress. In late July the
wings, fuselage, and engines of the first
aircraft were joined ready for the initial
power-on and ground tests. It has adopted
many of the advanced features of the Falcon 7X and 5X, including a fully digital
fly-by-wire flight control system. It has
the longest cabin of any Falcon, offering
improved comfort and new competition
at the upper end of the market. The 8X
wing is 600 lb lighter than the airfoil on
the 7X and its design gives Falcons advantages in aerodynamic efficiency, robustness, and maintainability.
Powered by three Pratt & Whitney
Canada PW307D engines, with 5% more
thrust than similar engines fitted to the
7X, the 8X is due to make its first flight in
early 2015, with first deliveries due at the
end of 2016.
Meanwhile, the twin-engine Falcon 5X
started ground tests this summer and the
first flight is expected in the first half of
next year, entering service in 2017. This
new aircraft, the largest Falcon to date,
features in addition to a fully digital flight
control system, a new design of wing
flaperon that allows steep approaches
at slow speeds. This enables the longrange aircraft to fly an intercontinental
stage and then land at a relatively short
airstrip, opening up many more direct
point-to-point flights using secondary
airfields.
Dassault Falcon Jet is a U.S. subsidiary
of the French company and supports the
Falcon family throughout the Americas
and the Pacific Rim in Asia, including
China. It also undertakes final fitting out
of green airframes assembled in France
and destined for customers in these regions.

Enter the Fastest Commercial Jet


Earlier this year, Cessna, part of Textron
Aviation, brought its recently certified
mid-size Citation X+ to the Farnborough
Airshow, making it the types first transAtlantic crossing in a normal business
flight profile, with an average ground
speed of 502 knot.
This new aircraft is extremely fast and
exceeded Mach 1 during the certificaAerospace & Defense Technology, December 2014

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Business Jets

tion tests, making it the fastest commercial jet currently available. It also has an
exceptionally high maximum altitude
capability of 51,000 ft, above the standard commercial air lanes, permitting
flights over many types of adverse en
route weather.
Since the demise of Concorde supersonic scheduled flights a decade ago,
trans-Atlantic flight times have been flatlined, and so an improvement in overall
timings will be welcomed by many highvalue business customers. On its U.S. to
Farnborough journey, the Citation X+
flew at between Mach 0.86 and Mach 0.88
cruising above 45,000 ft. Maximum nonstop range is 3408 mi and with a maximum speed of Mach 0.93, carrying 12
passengers.
The most noticeable external difference
with this latest model is the addition of
winglets, which enhance performance by
allowing cruise at higher altitudes consuming less fuel and enhancing takeoff
and landing at either higher altitude airports or in high temperatures. It is powered by two FADEC Rolls-Royce
AE3007C2 turbofans.
The cabin has a dual-zone temperature
control system to keep pilots and passengers comfortable. The extended cabin is
built up around an intelligent cabin management and entertainment technology
solution integrated with the avionics and
electrical systems. The Cessna Clarity system provides passengers with individual
touch screens that control cabin lighting,
window shades, temperature, and entertainment and communications options.
Garmin supplies its Synthetic Vision
Technology on the primary flight dis-

plays giving virtual views of runways, terrain, traffic, and obstacles. The flight deck
features a new Garmin G5000 avionics
package with four intuitive full color
touch-screen LCD panels and three 14-in
high-resolution displays, as well as fully
integrated auto-throttles to reduce pilot

workload, including fuel management.


The auto-throttle is integrated with the
flight-management system and automatic flight-control system for computer
control of engine thrust. This system can
be engaged prior to takeoff roll to control
fuel flow throughout the duration of the

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On its U.S. to Farnborough journey, the Citation X+


flew at between Mach 0.86 and Mach 0.88 cruising above 45,000 ft. It is powered by two FADEC
Rolls-Royce AE3007C2 turbofans.

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27

Business Jets

flight, or it can be disengaged for manual


throttle operation.
Cessna has also been giving its other
established models a refresh to increase
their sales prospects. This includes the Citation Sovereign and the FAA-certified Citation CJ3+, which features a new sevenseat cabin and incorporation of the
Garmin G3000 flight deck. The Cessna
Latitude is a new model in the superlight
category and is presently well into its
flight test program aimed at certification
and first deliveries in 2015.
Powered by two P&WC PW306D engines, the nine-seat Latitude features a
wider and taller cabin than the Sovereign,
but shares a common wing and rear fuselage. It also features the Garmin G5000
integrated flight deck and the Clarity
cabin management system. Range is 2500
nmi and it can cruise at up to 45,000 ft at
a speed of 440 knot.
This jet is to be joined in the Cessna
product line up by a bigger family member, the super mid-size Longitude, sharing the same main features, and cabin
cross section, but will be 9 ft longer with
two more powerful Snecma Silvercrest
engines giving it a 4000-nmi range and
490 knot cruise speed. This model will
become the companys top-of-the-range
offering.

Established Leaders
Gulfstream has dominated the super
mid-size and very-long-range segments
for almost as long as they have existed.
Over the years the format has evolved to
incorporate regular upgrades in terms of
avionics and communications, with new
models also offering longer range, higher
altitude and more cabin features.
New wings and winglets have transformed capability and the current modelsthe G280, G450, and G650are
maintaining their presence in these niche
segments. However, they are certainly
not alone and in more recent times serious competition for ultra-long range requirements has come from many different directions.
Bombardier has been suffering from
high-profile delays with its CSeries, but in
its portfolio of business jets it is making
good sales progress with its growing family of Global Express models, as well as
finding new applications for specialist

The most noticeable external difference with the Citation X+ is the addition of winglets, which enhance
performance by allowing cruise at higher altitudes consuming less fuel and enhancing takeoff and landing
at either higher altitude airports or in high temperatures.

The under-development Bombardier Global 7000 will be powered by GE Passport 20 engines with
16,500-lb of thrust. It will fly 7300 nmi at Mach 0.85.

versions of its popular Challenger 604


and completion of the certification for
the latest super mid-size Challenger 350,
which replaces the successful and long
running Challenger 300.
The 350 has two Honeywell HTF7350
engines giving the aircraft a range of 3200
nmi carrying up to ten passengers at a
speed of up to Mach 0.82. The cockpit is
built around the Rockwell Collins Pro
Line 21 avionics system. The companys
superlight Learjet 75 and light Learjet 70
models have now entered the market and
are being followed by the new mid-size
Learjet 85. This has a largely composite
structure and flight tests are now underway.
Powered by two P&WC PW307B engines, the eight-seat model comes right
into the middle of the most hotly contested segment of the market offering a
2600-nmi range with a top speed of 450
knot. As with its competitors, it is very
well equipped in the cockpit area, being
fitted with the companys Vision flight
deck incorporating a Rockwell Collins
Pro Line Fusion avionics system.

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This flight deck design is also a feature


on the emerging Global 7000 and 8000.
These are new models in development
that build on the market success of the
original Global 5000 and later Global
6000 that offers extended range. They
will become the largest members of the
Bombardier executive jet family and expand its range flexibility out to just under
8000 nmi with a high Mach 8.5 cruise
speed.

Brazilian Festival
Embraer took a great leap a few years
ago by launching its Phenom family of superlight executive jets. The result has been
a runaway success, with this compact
twin-engine jet soon achieving a significant slice of the market, and acting as an
entry level for many operators requiring
a modern technical solution in a minimum package that can still provide speed
and comfort over a worthwhile range.
About to enter service is the Embraer
Legacy 500, which has been in flight test
since 2012. Its product line partner, the
Legacy 450, which differs only in cabin

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2014

Business Jets

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About to enter service, the Embraer Legacy 500 is in the midsize category and
the 450 the mid-light category, but both share a high level of commonality and
a top speed of up to Mach 0.83.

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Lightning Strike Protection


for Composite Aircraft

For the corporate customer in need of a business jet with a wingspan of 262 ft, a
cabin area of 5145 ft2, and a range of 9756 mi, Airbus is offering the ACJ A380.

length, is following twelve months behind, but is also now in


the air. This is a new design and incorporates a digital flight control system, Rockwell Collins Proline Fusion integrated avionics
system, and Honeywell HTF7500E engines.
The 500 is in the midsize category and the 450 the mid-light
category, but both share a high level of commonality and a top
speed of up to Mach 0.83. The company regards these aircraft as
potential market-leading offerings as they introduce fly-by-wire
controls into this market segment for the first time.
The Embraer Executive Jet Division continues to sell limited
numbers of its corporate and VIP versions of its regional jets, including the Lineage brand, and at the top end is expected to add
an executive model based on the 2013-announced EMB-170 E2
family. This would compete with the ACJ and BBJ (Boeing Business Jet) directly, though trading internal capacity for operating
economics with reduced fuel consumption.
The BBJ family, based on the 737-700 and -800, has carved a
good slice out of the high-end corporate, VIP, and government
segments but the outstanding demand for standard commercial
Boeing 737s, which will be replaced by the 737Max later this
decade, means that there is extreme pressure on deliveries for
new airframes for fitting out as BBJs.
Boeing is also delivering special VVIP examples of the giant
747-8 and 787 models, which, along with similar executive conversions of the complete Airbus family of narrow and wide body
airliners right up to the A380, demonstrates that there really are
no upper limits to this high-prestige market.

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29

RF & Microwave Technology

Enhancing Mission Readiness


with Rugged Portable Instruments

o support warfighters in the


field, engineers and technicians
install, maintain, troubleshoot,
and repair a wide range of mission-critical radar and communication
systems. These tasks typically require
measurements of cables, antennas, components, signals, and more. Often, this
work must be done in non-ideal conditions such as rain or shine, hot or cold,
aboard a ship, in an aircraft, or in a vehicle.
In many ways, this environment is inhospitable to benchtop instruments such
as spectrum analyzers and network analyzers. Fortunately, strong alternatives are
available in the form of rugged, handheld
instruments that provide advanced all-inone capabilities (Figure 1).
With a focus on radar line-replaceable
units (LRUs), this article will outline common test needs, describe the single-instrument solution, and present three example
measurements.

characteristics such as pulse


width, rise time, and fall
time. In the frequency domain, comparisons of amplitude versus frequency
provide information about
insertion loss, perhaps between two cables. Examples
include relative amplitude
and relative phase between
multiple channels in a
monopulse radar system.
In a lab or on a bench,
several instruments might
be needed to perform these
tests. Even if it were feasible
Figure 1. Rugged, all-in-one analyzers enhance technical support
of mission-critical systems in challenging conditions.
to carry multiple, full-sized
units into the field, the test
signal. This is often performed using a
site would have to offer protection from
peak power sensor connected to a peak
the elements. Also, even under ideal conpower meter. In the frequency domain,
ditions, some instruments require 30 mingeneral spectrum analysis is needed to
utes of warm-up time before providing
measure the quality of a signal source
fully calibrated results.
within an LRU. Vector network analysis is
Measuring in the Field
needed to measure magnitude and phase
Testing LRUs
As an alternative, all-in-one analyzers
versus frequency along transmission
As a general overview, LRU characterizaare becoming available, and are designed
paths, which include antennas, cables,
tion requires testing in both the time and
to provide precise measurements in harsh
and filters.
frequency domains. Some tests are abenvironments. For example, Keysights
Relative measurements provide addisolute and others are relative. Absolute
FieldFox handheld RF and microwave antional information about system performmeasurements made in the time domain
alyzers provide a fully sealed enclosure
ance. In the time domain, comparing two
include the peak power of a pulsed radar
that meets the requirements of US MILpoints in time provides essential pulse
PRF-28800 Class 2 and IEC/EN 60529
IP53. The design minimizes internal heat
and provides an operating range of 10 to
+55C (14 to 131F). It also enables an average operating time of 3.5 hours with the
built-in lithium-ion battery. A vertical orientation makes the unit comfortable to
hold, and the keypad layout enables easy
operation with just thumbs, even when
wearing gloves. With a nonslip rubber grip
built into the case, the instrument wont
slide off the hood of a vehicle.
The 3.0-kg (6.6-lb.) unit can be configured as a cable-and-antenna tester, spectrum analyzer, vector network analyzer, or
a combination analyzer. RF units have a
maximum frequency of up to 6.5 GHz,
and the microwave models can reach up
to 26.5 GHz. Depending on the configuration, capabilities include power meter
measurements, spectrum analysis, chanFigure 2. Field measurements of pulsed radars are simplified with automatic calculation of essential values
such as pulse width and pulse repetition interval (994.25 ns and 10 s, respectively).
nel power measurements, pulse profiling,
30

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RF & Microwave Technology

interference analysis, full two-port vector


network analysis, and vector voltmeter
measurements.
Measurements of S-parameters, frequency spectra, and more, match very
closely with those made with benchtop instruments. In many cases, results correlate
to within a few hundredths of a decibel.
Three examples illustrate the types of
bench-quality measurements that can be
made in the field: basic power measurements on a radar transmitter, the magnitude and phase characteristics of a rotary
joint, and phase alignment of a stable local
oscillator (STALO).

Measuring Transmitter Power

Figure 3. Separate displays of S21 magnitude and


phase can be used to determine if a rotary joint is
performing as expected or requires replacement.

Figure 2 shows the measured power of


an unmodulated 40-GHz radar pulse versus a function of time. The measurement
was made by connecting a 40-GHz USB
peak and average power sensor to a 26.5GHz analyzer running in power-meter
mode. Results can be presented as a measurement trace of magnitude versus time,
or as a simple numeric readout of peak or
average power.
The table at the bottom of the trace was
produced using the automatic pulseanalysis capability. This calculates essential
parameters such as peak and average
power, rise and fall times, pulse width and
duty cycle, and pulse repetition interval
(PRI) and pulse repetition frequency (PRF).

Characterizing a Rotary Joint


In a radar system with rotating antennas, the elements of a rotary joint provide
RF continuity. During periodic system
maintenance, verifying magnitude and
phase performance through the joint
helps detect rotational variations that can
affect radar performance.
Figure 3 illustrates a typical way to
measure a multi-channel rotary joint. In
this case, the signals of interest are the outputs from the monopulse antenna (sigma
and delta) and the output from the omnidirectional antenna (omega).
After disconnecting the antennas from
the rotary joint, a high-quality cable is
used as a test jumper between the ports of
the rotary joint. This cable should have
good stability in amplitude and phase
across the frequency range of interest.
The other side of the rotary joint is connected to the handheld unit, which is opwww.aerodefensetech.com

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Figure 4. Measurements of relative differences


between the sum and difference channels can be
used to adjust phase along the STALO path.

erating in its vector network analyzer


mode. For the first measurement, the analyzer output is connected to the sigma
port, and the output of the omega port is
connected to the analyzer input; the test
jumper is connected between the other
sigma and omega ports of the rotary joint.
For the second measurement, the analyzer
output is connected to the delta port, and
the jumper is connected between the
other delta and omega ports.
For each setup, the analyzer measures
the transmission characteristics through
the series connection. Magnitude and
phase through each signal path is measured as a function of angle as the rotary

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2014

RF & Microwave Technology

joint is manually rotated through 360 degrees. The limit line capability of the analyzer can be used to indicate pass or
fail of magnitude or phase for any part
of the rotary joint.
In some test environments, it may be
difficult to control and observe the analyzer display while simultaneously rotating the joint. For example, trying to observe variation in the S21 parameter
during a 360-degree rotation of the joint
may require multiple people or long
cable runs. With FieldFox, one possible
solution is remote operation through an
app that runs on iOS devices. This enables a single operator to wirelessly control and observe measurements as the
joint is rotated.

Checking Phase in the STALO


Transmission Path
Many radar systems have phase adjustments along the STALO path, and these
can be used to rebalance the system dur-

ing routine maintenance. The process


centers on measurements of the phase
differences between the sum and difference channels of the receiver.
In general, a standard network analyzer cannot be used because the RF receiver input and IF receiver output use
different carrier frequencies. The solution
is a vector voltmeter capability that can
measure the ratio of the signals at the
downconverted IF frequency.
Figure 4 shows the setup for an A/B
ratio measurement using the analyzers
vector voltmeter mode. In this case, port
1 is the A measurement and port 2 is the
B measurement; the analyzers internal
source is turned off because it isnt
needed.
In this arrangement, the omega channel serves as the reference for both ratio
measurements, one versus the sigma
channel and the other versus the delta
channel. Because this test requires only
the relative phase between the sum and

difference channels, the / measurement is used to zero out the meter. Port 1
is then connected to the delta channel;
the relative differences in amplitude and
phase between the sigma and delta channels will be displayed on the readout.

Enhancing Readiness and Availability


Physically, a rugged handheld analyzer
reduces the size and weight of the test
equipment that must be carried into the
field for technical support. Functionally,
an all-in-one analyzer reduces the amount
of equipment needed in the field kit. One
that also provides fast, accurate RF and microwave measurements will minimize test
time while helping maximize the uptime
and performance of complex mission-critical systems.
This article was written by Wilkie Yu of
Keysight Technologies Inc., formerly Agilents electronic measurement business.
For more information, please visit
www.keysight.com/find/fieldfoxapps.

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RF & Microwave Technology

RF Photonics for Avionics Signal Processing

he maturity of RF photonic components has reached the point where


fiber optic links are being system-tested
to replace traditional copper coax links
on avionic platforms. Many demonstrations of RF photonic links have been
made with traditional and non-traditional modulation formats to improve
the RF performance of the link. While
the advantages of RF photonic links in
regard to size and weight are important,
the large instantaneous bandwidth of
the fiber optic links is a key driver for
the use of this technology in the airframe.
As signals of interest evolve to higher
frequencies, the use of RF photonics
provides a path to identify and catalog
these new signals. With the acceptance
of the fiber optic link as a replacement
to coax, the next step is to move the
photonic technology to provide signal
processing capability in the optical domain before converting back to an electrical signal. The current challenges are
to continue to explore new photonic
technologies for improved RF performance at the receive end of the link. The
Air Force Research Laboratory is testing
several methods to solve these problems.
Starting with a traditional RF photonic link shown in the figure, the RF
signal is received at the antenna and
then modulated onto an optical carrier
provided by the laser. The RF modulated
light is then passed down a fiber optic

link to a photodetector, which then recovers the RF electrical signal. The RF


signal would then be passed through a
tuner to frequency down convert it to
an intermediate frequency (IF) chosen
by the local oscillator (LO). The IF signal is then digitized at an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and processed.
Since the RF signal is already in the optical domain, the photodetector and
electronic tuner can be replaced with an
optical tuner that can down convert the
signal to an electrical IF.
An optical tuner can reduce mixing
spurs in RF frequency down conversion.
Such a system is important as it can provide better spur free performance than
current electronic tuners and over a
larger bandwidth. In addition, work
continues on photonic ADCs that can
digitize 10 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth with a resolution greater than 8
effective number of bits. A combination
of these technologies can provide an RFto-bits architecture without an opticalto-electronic conversion in the middle.
In support of the frequency down
converter and ADC technologies, work
continues on the optical clock that is
used either for the LO or the sampler in
these architectures, respectively. Optoelectronic oscillators continue to be investigated for improved performance;
however, the limited frequency tunability is still a drawback to these types of
low-phase-noise clock sources. New
methods have been shown to make tun-

able RF sources using the injection locking of two lasers. These sources continue to be further explored in order to
determine their noise performance over
their tunable range.
Other signal processing applications
include signal discrimination in cluttered RF environments. Once the RF
signals have been modulated onto the
optical carrier, a portion of the light
can be split off for spectrum analysis.
Demonstrations have already been
made with a rare-earth doped crystal in
a spectrum analyzer with an RF instantaneous bandwidth of 10 GHz with the
potential for even higher bandwidths.
Another demonstration has been made
with a multimode optoelectronic oscillator for selective amplification of RF
signals with an input sensitivity less
than 15 dB above the thermal noise
limit. These systems are sensitive to frequency agile signals and can be used to
cue a narrowband receiver to analyze
the signal.
Work continues on using RF photonic
solutions for signal processing at the receive end of the fiber optic link on an
avionics platform. Multiple applications
exist that can benefit from the large instantaneous bandwidth of photonic systems. However, to compete with electronic solutions, integrating photonic
solutions into small form factors will
continue to be emphasized.
To learn more, visit www.dtic.mil/
dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a588088.pdf.

A traditional RF photonic link with electronic tuner and digitizer, showing the electro-optic modulator (EOM), photodetector (PD), local oscillator (LO), and intermediate frequency (IF).

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Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2014

Tech Briefs
Continuous Sputter Deposition Coating
of Long Monofilaments
Monofilaments with continuous, conformal metal or ceramic coatings could be used to develop new
sensing and photonic technologies.
Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

thin, uniform coating on long segments of monofilament could drastically improve the functionality of many
complex fibers. A length of fishing line,
microtubing, or polylactic acid (PLA)
coated with copper could be left to cure
within an epoxy, and upon removal of
the monofilament, a narrow channel
with a thin outer wall of copper would remain. That channel would be open for
fluid flow, and also have a conductive
shell. The vascularized material could
be used for thermal management or selfhealing composites.
Two apparatuses were created to coat
filaments using the magnetron sputter
deposition (MSD) process that applies relatively uniform, nanometer-thick coatings. The first apparatus simultaneously
rotated four monofilaments about their
own axes. The monofilaments were attached to two sets of rotating axles. In the
driven set, one of the axles was elongated
and coupled to an external motor via a
rotary vacuum feed-through. Each of the
four driven axles was directly connected
to its neighbor by nylon gearing. In the
free set of axles, there were neither gears
nor couplings, and each axle was free to
rotate independently.
As the motor turned, the rotation was
transferred to each of the four driven
axles, which rotated each monofilament.
The torsion in each monofilament was
released as each opposing axle rotated
freely. In the experiment, the distance between the two sets of axles was 5.25,
though that distance could be modified
up to 8.25.
The second apparatus was designed to
rotate and translate a single monofilament. The added functionality of translating the monofilament allowed for
longer sections of monofilament to be
coated. With the second apparatus, each
point on the surface of the monofilament
followed a spiral path about the longitudinal axis of the monofilament. Two independent motors, each attached to a ro-

Coated (top) and uncoated (bottom) 1.4-mm diameter monofilament.

tary vacuum feed-through, drove the apparatus. Each motor was coupled to a
0.625 wide roller of Buna-N polymer.
The roller surfaces were separated by
0.04 and the axes of the wheels were offset by 90.
Aluminum faceplates guided the
monofilament between the rollers, constraining the monofilament axis to a 45
angle with respect to each roller axis. As
the monofilament passed between the
two rollers, it was both rotated and translated along its longitudinal axis. Both
motors were driven at similar speeds,
measured in revolutions per minute
(RPM). After passing under the MSD
source, the monofilament passed
through a small hole in an aluminum
plate placed 7 from the aluminum faceplate attached to the rollers.
Though many methods exist to measure the rate of coating thickness growth
on a flat surface, no procedure was found
to explicitly measure the coating thickness
of a cylinder. The simplest estimation was
found by comparing the surface area of a
flat rectangle and a cylinder. The resistivity
of copper is 18 orders of magnitude
smaller than the resistivity of the monofilament material. Therefore, practically all
of the current flows through the copper
coating and the area through which electric current passes can be defined as the
cross-sectional area of the coating.
To test uniformity and coating thicknesses, a set of simple experiments was
performed on 6 long monofilament segments. Three types of monofilaments

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2014

Intro

were used: a commercially available


nylon fishing line with a diameter of
0.028, a larger complex polycarbonate
fiber with a diameter of 0.06, and a PLA
monofilament with a diameter of 0.02.
Apparatus 1 was used in this experiment
set, coating two monofilament segments
at a time. Copper coatings were applied
using 120150 W of direct current (DC)
power for time periods of 24 minutes. In
each test, the segments were rotated at 3
4.5 RPM. The segments were mounted 6
below the deposition source.
Experiment 1 yielded five measurable
data points. Copper coatings were successfully applied to three types of filaments, each with a distinct material and
diameter. Each coated monofilament was
conductive and completely coated. The
data collected in experiment set 2
demonstrate a definitive positive correlation between the rotation rate of the
drive wheels and the resistance measured
through the coating of each monofilament. After concluding experiment set 1,
very few conclusions could be made with
respect to the coating growth rate on a rotating monofilament. However, it was
conclusive that coatings applied were
conductive and the resistance of each
coating could be easily measured with
the use of Ag paint and an LCR meter.
The results of experiment set 2 support
the hypothesis that the slower a monofilament is fed through the MSD process,
the less resistive the coating will be. The
lower resistance corresponds to the presence of a thicker coating of copper. The

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35

Tech Briefs

consistent conductivity of each coating


suggests a uniform coating process with
thorough coverage.
These two experiments provide consistent data to suggest proof-of-concept and

possibilities for future research. Either device may be used to coat monofilaments
with the MSD process.
This work was done by William G. Pritchett, Daniel M. Baechle, and Eric D. Wetzel of

the Air Force Research Laboratory. For more


information, download the Technical
Support Package (free white paper) at
www.aerodefensetech.com/tsp under the
Materials & Coatings category. ARL-0169

Hydrolytic Stability of Polyurethane-Coated Fabrics


Used for Collapsible Fuel Storage Containers
Coated fabric tanks are used to store fuel and water in the field.
Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

ollapsible fabric fuel tanks have provided critical tactical bulk petroleum
storage for military operations for over 50
years. Beginning in the 1940s with the 900
to 3,000-gallon pillow tanks, collapsible
fabric tanks have evolved into the primary
tactical fuel storage vessels now used by all
of the military services.
Early collapsible tanks were made from
thick Nitrile thermoset rubber-coated fabric materials that were heavy and required
several soldiers and a significant amount
of materials-handling equipment to deploy. Technological advances in materials
and fabrication techniques led to the manufacture of larger and lighter coated fabric
tanks made from thinner thermoplastic
urethane-coated fabrics.
The Army currently has a large number
of fabric-reinforced elastomer tanks ranging in size from 100 to 210,000 gallons
used for storing fuels and water in the
field. Collapsible fuel tanks, fabricated
from urethane-coated nylon fabric, were
first introduced by the military during the
Vietnam conflict. Their performance then
and until recently, particularly in any
humid tropic environment, has been less
than satisfactory. Unless formulated and
produced according to stringent limitations, urethane-based fabric coatings were
extremely susceptible to ultraviolet and
hydrolytic degradation. At that time, tanks
had to hold high-aromatic gasoline as well
as diesel and jet propulsion fuels. The only
urethane that could handle the high-aromatic gasoline fuels was polyester urethane, which was more vulnerable to hydrolysis than polyether urethane.
In 1990, the Army directed that these
tanks would no longer be used for long-

Fabric-reinforced elastomer tanks range in size


from 100 to 210,000 gallons used for storing fuels
and water in the field. Shown here is an example of
50,000-gallon fuel tanks

term storage of gasoline fuels. This change


in policy allowed a shift in emphasis from
high-aromatic (gasoline) fuel-resistant
coatings to more hydrolytically stable materials, such as polyether urethanes. Concurrently, the Army focused on determining the causes of coating and seam
failures. Those studies demonstrated unequivocally that those failures were attributable to the leaching out of protective stabilizers from tank materials by contact
with fuel puddles on the outer tank surface. Military specifications for fuel tanks
prior to that work merely based requirements for hydrolytic stability on the urethanes ability to resist deterioration after
immersion in water at 160 F. After that,
work materials were aged in water after extraction in fuel.
For the work described here, three seambreaking-strength specimens 1 wide (parallel to the seam) and extending (perpendicular to the seam) 3 beyond both edges
of the seam were punched out and tested
at room temperature in accordance with

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ASTM D751. Reported values are expressed


in pounds per inch, and failure within the
seam on any specimen constitutes failure
of this test. Three peel-adhesion specimens
1 wide (perpendicular to the seam) and of
sufficient seam length to determine both
the initial and after conditioning tests on
the same specimen, were used and tested
at room temperature in accordance with
ASTM D413. Reported values are expressed
in pounds per inch of width.
Infrared spectra for all the polymer samples were collected using a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectrometer equipped with a Gateway
(Specac) accessory and a seven-reflection
attenuated total reflectance crystal. The accessory contains a pressure mechanism
that assures good sample-to-crystal contact. All IR spectra were collected using 128
scans and 4-cm-1 resolution.
Polyurethane elastomers are phase-segregated linear block copolymers that contain
an ordered hard segment phase and a soft
rubbery phase. The hard segment phase is
responsible for the cross-linking in the elastomer.
These
microstructures
of
polyurethanes are well known for controlling the physical properties of these phaseseparated materials such as tensile strength,
tear strength, and puncture resistance. For
this study, currently manufactured
polyurethane-coated fabrics, as well as several candidate coated fabrics, were obtained. Samples were obtained from commercial coating sources familiar with fuel
storage tank construction and fabrication.
Seven polyurethane-coated fabrics were
procured. The polyurethane-coated fabric
consists of nylon- or polyester-woven fabric that is coated on both sides with

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2014

Tech Briefs

polyurethane rubber to create a rubber


composite. Coating thicknesses were all
very consistent between manufacturers,
ranging between 1.4 and 1.6 mm (approximately 0.05 in). Fabric densities ranged
from 41.6 oz/yd2 to 45.2 oz/yd2; this is an
important characteristic physical property
because the increase in fabric densities results in heavier fuel storage containers,
which are more difficult to deploy.
Urethane coatings are particularly susceptible to undergo hydrolysis, which is a
chemical reaction with water, resulting in
chemical breakdown of the urethane coating, resulting in cracking or extreme soften-

ing of the urethane polymer. Hydrolysis


can be quite rapid in certain urethane systems, so the resistance to hydrolysis of these
urethane-coated fabrics was evaluated.
Since hydrolysis of the urethane coating
would not affect the strength of the base
fabrics due to the nylon/polyester woven
fabric, accounting for all of the composite
tensile strength, it is preferable to evaluate
the hydrolytic stability in the bond line
where the urethane coating is fully responsible for the mechanical strength.
The seam-breaking strengths were measured at room temperature after water immersion at 180 F at time increments of 28,

42, and 70 days. All materials provided adequate mechanical integrity after 28 days
of immersion; however, all of the materials
seam-breaking strengths decreased with
water immersion. The inside coating of
this tank material became hard and brittle
after the samples that had been exposed to
water for 42 days and beyond, which is indicative of a failure due to hydrolysis.
This work was done by James M. Sloan of
the Army Research Laboratory. For more information, download the Technical Support Package (free white paper) at
www.aerodefensetech.com/tsp under the
Materials & Coatings category. ARL-0170

Materials Design Principles for the Dynamic


Fracture of Laminar Composite Structures
Providing significant improvements in impact and ballistic resistance via materials and structural design.
Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

rack bridging (e.g., from stitches or


pins) and friction have profound and
potentially very useful effects on delamination crack growth, controlling growth
rates (damage levels) and the energy absorbed. However, the implications for
structural design principles have remained
quite obscure. The difficulty is that no simple analogue of crack toughness, which
underpins static structural design, exists
for dynamic cases with large-scale bridging
effects. The external shape of the structure
and the loading configuration dictate
stress waves, frictional contact zones, and
crack tip stress intensity factors in a way
that is very difficult to approach, other
than by brute case-specific numerical simulation. The problem is compounded by
the common occurrence of multiple cracking, a complexity that is rarely entertained
in laboratory fracture specimen design.
Physically sound material models for the
important structural problem of multiple,
nonlinear cracking in laminated structures
with large-scale bridging due to friction
and reinforcement had previously remained undeveloped, in spite of the technological importance of these systems.
A program of basic research was conducted to develop engineering principles
for dealing with dynamic, multiple cracking damage in laminated structures, in-

cluding large-scale crack bridging due to


through-thickness reinforcement and friction. Bridging and friction were treated by
materials models at the smallest scales relevant to the mechanisms. By reference to
the fundamentals of the dynamic growth
of single cracks, which are already largely
understood, simple approaches have been
formulated for calculating the development of distributed delamination cracks in
laminated structures. To treat large-scale
bridging effects, structural sub-component
models must support dimensions of ~100
mm or more. This approach bridged
scales ranging from this characteristic size
down to that of micro-mechanisms (friction, fiber bridging) within the process
zone of a single crack. Thus, a direct link
has been established between structural
performance and materials design.
The analyses show the existence of
regimes, within the full computed solution space, where crack growth is approximately steady state. A simplified approach
to inferring rate effects in the cohesive law
can then be taken by restricting the domains of the solutions considered to the
steady-state domains. A limited solution
domain is conservative with respect to assessing information content, because the
full domain must contain more information.

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2014

Intro

In the steady-state regimes, the local


sliding speed in the process zone, which is
the parameter that controls rate effects in
the cohesive law, is a known function of
the crack tip speed and the sliding displacement profile. Both of these quantities
could be measured using a digital image
correlation system. In addition, the average sliding speed along the process zone
when the crack is propagating in steadystate conditions coincides with the local
sliding speed if the profile is approximately linear. In this case, numerical solutions obtained for a rate-independent cohesive law would represent general
rate-dependent materials since a rate effect
would simply imply different but fixed
values of the cohesive parameters.
By examining the steady-state domains
for different rate-independent cases, behavior for assumed rate-dependent variations can be reconstructed. In the ENF
specimen, this can be done if the crack is
propagating in small-scale bridging conditions; in other specimens where the load is
applied directly onto the crack surfaces,
behavior of rate-dependent materials can
also be reconstructed for general largescale bridging conditions using solutions
for rate-independent materials.
The research contributes to a systematic
method for simplified design of laminated

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37

Tech Briefs

engineering structures, which will impact


the design and performance of all lightweight military vehicles and structures.
Newly gained understanding points the
way to significant improvements in impact and ballistic resistance via materials
and structural design.

This work was done by Qingda Yang of


Rockwell Scientific Co.; Brian Cox of Teledyne
Scientific Co.; Roberta Massab, Martin Andrews, and Andrea Cavicchi of the University
of Genova; Weixing Josh Zhou of the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign; Christian Lundsgaard-Larsen of the Technical Uni-

versity of Denmark; and Holly Barth of the


University of California Berkeley for the Army
Research Office. For more information,
download the Technical Support Package
(free white paper) at www.aerodefensetech.com/tsp under the Information
Sciences category. ARL-0109

Development of Hydrophobic Coatings for Water-Repellent


Surfaces Using Hybrid Methodology
Hydrophobic materials are self-cleaning, wicking, water-repellent, and antimicrobial.
Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

oatings that impart hydrophobic properties are of considerable interest. For


applications such as aircraft windows, optical components, protective eyewear, and
clothing, this type of surface is desired for
the material to be soil-repellent and waterresistant. A prime model of a surface with
these characteristics can be found in nature the leaves of the lotus flower have
super-hydrophobic properties as a means
of self-cleaning.
To achieve a super-hydrophobic surface,
the surface energy and surface roughness
of a material play a key role and must be
investigated. The lower the surface energy,
the higher the hydrophobicity of that surface, and to further increase the hydrophobicity, an appropriate surface
roughness is required. The goal for this
study was to develop a low-cost, thin hydrophobic coating comprised of silica
nanoparticles with pendant fluorocarbon
chains extending toward the surface. To
achieve this hydrophobic surface, wet
chemistry and atmospheric pressure
plasma treatment techniques were used
on ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE).
Through wet chemistry techniques, the
surface roughness of the UHMWPE was increased physically by depositing silicon
dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles on the surface
of the sample. Plasma-enhanced chemical
vapor deposition under atmospheric pressure was used to deposit a fluorocarbon
coating. This technique does not require
the use of vacuum equipment, is capable
of large area deposition, produces minimal
waste, and is capable of controlling the
coating chemistry.

A cylindrical atmospheric pressure plasma system


was used to pretreat the UHMWPE. This system
consists of two high-voltage electrodes and one
grounded electrode.

Prior to any other treatment, a cylindrical atmospheric pressure plasma system was used to pretreat the UHMWPE.
To ensure that silica particles adhered to
the UHMWPE film, a pretreatment using
the cylindrical atmospheric plasma system was used. The pretreatment serves to
create reactive chemical groups on the
surface of the inert UHMWPE for subsequent processing. After the pretreatment
of UHMWPE films using the cylindrical
atmospheric plasma system, silane coupling chemistry was used to incorporate
nanoparticles for a textured surface to increase the surface roughness of the material. A micropulsed atmospheric pressure
plasma jet (APPJ) system was used to deposit a fluorocarbon coating on the nanotextured UHMWPE.
The wetting behavior of UHMWPE
films that were pretreated by the cylindrical plasma system and coated with different weight-percentages of LudoxTMA
were studied through WCA. Generally,
UHMWPE films exposed to He-H2O

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plasma at longer pretreatment times were


found to contain the highest concentration of silica nanoparticles on the surface
of the sample. This is a result of the higher
surface concentration of functional groups
created on the surface of UHMWPE films.
In relation to the 0.5-wt% Ludox and 1wt% Ludox, the 0.75-wt% Ludox was
found as the weight-percent loading solution with the highest contact angle.
Microstructural analysis shows that the
processes used to create the hydrophobic
coating proved to be successful. A fluorocarbon coating was successfully deposited
onto the UHMWPE. There was an approximately 25% increase in water contact
angle (WCA) measurements of the bare
substrate after 1 minute of exposure to the
plasma. It was found that longer pretreatment times resulted in more Ludox silica
nanoparticles adhering to the surface of
the UHMWPE, leading to lower WCAs,
and that longer deposition times resulted
in a higher fluorine concentration in the
coating.
This hybrid methodology of using combined plasma and wet chemistry was a
very cost-efficient method for creating
water repellency, by creating nanotextured
features through SiO2 nanoparticles and
depositing fluorocarbon-like coatings to
achieve hydrophobicity on surfaces.
This work was done by Amanda S. Weerasooriya, Jacqueline Yim, Andres A. Bujanda,
and Daphne Pappas of the Army Research
Laboratory. For more information, download the Technical Support Package (free
white paper) at www.aerodefensetech.
com/tsp under the Materials & Coatings
category. ARL-0171

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2014

Technology Update
Researchers Develop Multiphysics Model for Electro-Thermal Analysis of UAV

ives College University and Kulab (KU Leuven University campus Ostend) in Belgium are undertaking an
aeronautical research program for the development of a
new UAV aimed at performing scientific missions along the
Belgian coastline above the North Sea. The main performance requirement of the UAV, dubbed Litus, is to be electrically powered with a range of 160 km and a payload up to
5 kg.
During the conceptual design stage, several different aircraft configurations were investigated. This ranged from a
conventional configuration to a twin-boom configuration.
Eventually, a canard configuration with swept wings and a
vertical tail at each wing tip was chosen for its aerodynamic
efficiency. The final design resulted in a UAV that has an
overall span of 5.87 m and a length of 3.43 m and which
can cruise at 80 km/h for 2 h with a payload of 5 kg, meeting the requirement of a 160 km range. The maximum takeoff weight will be 65 kg. A propulsion system of two electrical brushless dc motors was selected to minimize the
environmental impact during operations by avoiding gas
emissions and reducing noise emissions. A push-configuration with two independent propulsion systems was selected
to comply with safety requirements.
During the design phase of the project, simulation models of the electrical network were created with the multiphysics simulation software LMS Imagine.Lab AMESim.
First, the electrical system that will be used during the test
flights was completely modeled.
Also the input control signals were modeled and are used
to control the behavior of the electrical system. The objective of the electrical system model was to support the sizing
of the components and batteries to achieve the required
performance. Therefore, the modeling of the components
focused on their energetic and thermal behavior and not on
their dynamic behavior. The energetic behavior of all components was validated on test benches.
Afterward, the electrical system model was also extended
with thermal behavior of all components inside the fuselage
to identify if additional ventilation of the fuselage is needed
or dedicated cooling of some components. Outcome of
these simulations was that cooling was needed for the ESC
(electronic speed control).

The real-time simulation of complex systems has become recently possible due to technological breakthroughs and recent
advances in computation power and multi-core processor architectures. In this case, recent improvement in the efficiency of
the LMS Imagine.Lab AMESim solver has enabled the use of dynamic simulation models of relatively complex systems in real
time. As a result, software-in-the-loop, hardware-in-the-loop
(HIL), and pilot-in-the-loop (PIL) applications can now make
direct use of physics-based simulation models that are created
during the design phase of the system. This removes the need
to create new approximation models. Moreover, the key physical parameters can still be changed for real-time applications.
In the case of the electrical network model of the Litus, all
component elements used already are in the form of a
quasi-static description, except for the batteries. This means
that the models did not include fast transient effects as this
was not required for the energy management and thermal
management analyses for which it was used. On the contrary, the model of the servo motors was extended to better
capture their performance limits.
In the original simulation model, a servo motor was modeled as a variable resistance where a look-up table contained

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The Vives Litus UAV features a canard configuration with swept wings and a
vertical tail at each wing tip.

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2014

Intro

Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/49752-821

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39

Technology Update

the measured relationship between


the servo rotation angle and the power
consumption. There was also a lookup table to define the relation between
the user input and the servo force
which was not used.
In the real-time model, the model of
the servos was replaced with a model
that also takes into account the maximum rotation speed of the servo. Additionally, the aerodynamic force is
also taken into account based on an
analytical formulation for hinge models of control surfaces.
The behavior of the servo motor was
validated with a step input in an isolated model. The results showed that
initially the maximum rotation speed
is used and subsequently the servo
angle converges to an angle near the
required angle.
The flight simulator of the Litus
takes into account the electrical system. Therefore, the real-time model of
the electrical system will be used in a
PIL simulation, essentially a flight simulator.
A mission profile composed of five
phases was flown with the flight simulation. First is the take-off phase during which the throttle is set to maximum (100%). This phase takes about
10 sec. Subsequently, there is the
climb phase where the throttle is set to
90% and the elevator settings are in-

In this case, the pilot-in-the-loop simulator ran on


a standard workstation, with higher performance
possible on a dedicated real-time platform.

This graph compares the resulting roll angle and


roll angle of the same maneuver but where the
user input is sent directly to the flight dynamic
module, hence without servo properties. This latter plot illustrates the effect of the electrical system model on the flight dynamics of the aircraft.

creased. The climb phase is performed


for about 100 sec. The next phase is
the cruise phase where the thrust is set
to 75% and the elevator settings are reduced. This is maintained for about
400 sec. Finally, there are the descent
and landing phases where the thrust
of the engines is further reduced.
The electrical network model of the
Litus UAV that was created during the
development phase has been successfully used as a real-time capable simulation model without major changes.
This simulation model has been coupled with flight dynamics and visualization modules of the open source
simulation software FlightGear. It was
demonstrated that during the PIL simulation key parameters of the electrical
network can be visualized. Moreover
the effect of the performance of the
key electrical components, such as
servo motors, on the flight dynamics
can be taken into account during realtime simulation. Consequently, this
research confirms that the proposed
simulation architecture is suitable to
take into account the effect of the
electrical system on the aircraft flight
dynamics.
This article is based on SAE International technical paper 2014-01-2169 by
Yves C.J. Lemmens and Tuur Benoit of
LMS, Rob De Roo of Vives, and Jon Verbeke of KULAB.

Small, Sensitive Antennas

esearchers create metamaterials by


carefully designing and fabricating
novel structures to exhibit patterns of
electromagnetic propertiesspecifically, dielectric permittivity and/or
magnetic permeabilityat the microor nano-scale. This special spatial
arrangement of elements ensures that
the volumetric arrays interact with
electromagnetic fields in desirable
ways.
The resulting materials (or devices)
can, for example, efficiently absorb or
emit EM radiation across a wide bandwidth, or do so along specified directions, making them perfect for sensitive, highly directional antennas or

beam-steering arrays. Such high-function, low-form-factor metamaterial antennas could be fully embedded in the
skin and even conform to airframe
contours without compromising aerodynamic performance.
It is little wonder then that a variety
of companies are working in this field,
according to a recent report by technology consultants Lux Research. Lead
author Anthony Vicari and his Lux colleagues cited vigorous R&D effort on
metamaterial antennas at startups such
as Kymeta, Fractal Antenna Systems,
and Metamaterial Tech; industrial
firms including Harris Corp., Kyocera
Wireless, and EMW; large aerospace

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and defense contractors like Lockheed


Martin, Boeing, and Raytheon; and
even consumer electronics giant, Samsung. Among the leading academic institutions in this area, they said, are
Duke University and Queen Marys
University of London.
Another big player in metamaterial
antenna technology is BAE Systems, the
British multinational aerospace and defense firm. Earlier this year, the company
announced that company researchers
had built a prototype metamaterial antenna lens that was significantly flatter
and more compact than the conventional analogue on which it was based.
Steven Ashley

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2014

Application Brief
Unmanned Ocean Drone
Liquid Robotics
Sunnyvale, CA
408-636-4200
www.liquidr.com
Accurately forecasting weather conditions and currents
prior to mission deployment is an invaluable intelligence
tool for the warfighter. Being able to accurately predict a
Category-5 typhoon or hurricane, instead of a tropical
storm, also saves lives, saves property, and saves time in
evacuations. The Liquid Robotics' Wave Glider , a surfboard-sized ocean drone filled with sensors, computers,
and communications equipment, can survive a Category-5
typhoon while continuously collecting and transmitting
meteorological and oceanographic data. Previously this
type of data was unobtainable because it was too risky to
send manned ships out in the middle of a hurricane/typhoon; buoys can become severely damaged or come off
their moorings in such conditions; and satellites have difficulty seeing through the dense cloud cover.
To accurately predict the intensities of storms or to accurately assess environmental conditions, the Wave Glider
acquires real-time data directly from the surface of the
ocean where the weather conditions are occurring. The
unmanned ocean drones compute in-situ and provide realtime communications to the user.
A Wave Glider ocean drone battled Super Typhoon Rammasun, which roared into Southern China in July 2014.
The drone survived one of Asias most powerful typhoons
in 40 years, yet
continuously
collected data
throughout the
storm.
With
projected sustained winds of
over 145 mph,
gusts to 175
mph, and estimated waves of
45 feet, the Wave Glider navigated directly into the eye of
Super Typhoon Rammasun. On a meteorological mission,
the drone traveled through the 400 square miles storm as
it collected and transmitted vital, real-time wave, temperature, conductivity, and current data, from the surface of
the ocean, as well as current data down to 100 meters with
full directional wave spectrum data.
As the United States military increasingly relies on information dominance as a key attribute of modern warfare,
ocean and environmental data have become increasingly
important to the modern warfighter. The Wave Gliders
long duration (up to a year at sea), durability through
weather conditions, and real-time communications can
provide a new and unique competitive tool to assist commanders in achieving battlefield information dominance.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/49752-507

Rod Ends and Spherical


Bearings designed and
manufactured to Aurora's
exacting standards for quality
and durability.
Registered and Certified to
ISO-9001 and AS9100.
From economy commercial to
aerospace approved,
we've got it all !

Aurora Bearing Company


901 Aucutt Road
Montgomery IL. 60538
Complete library of CAD drawings and 3D models available at:

w w w . a u r o r a b e a r i n g . c o m

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2014

Intro

Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/49752-826

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41

Product Spotlight
INTRODUCING
COMSOL 5.0
COMSOL redefined the
engineering simulation market with the release of COMSOL Multiphysics software
version 5.0, featuring the
new and revolutionary
Application Builder. COMSOL users can now build applications for use by
engineering and manufacturing departments,
expanding accessibility to their expertise and to
cutting-edge simulation solutions. See how at
comsol.com/release/5.0

New Products
True DC Switch and X-Band Core Chip

COMSOL, Inc.
Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/49752-828

EPOXY
ADHESIVE FOR
SERVICE UP TO
400F
Master Bond EP21TCHT-1 is a heat resistant polymer system formulated for high performance
bonding and sealing applications. It features high
thermal conductivity and superior electrical insulation properties with a service operating temperature range of 4K to 400F. EP21TCHT-1 is NASA
low outgassing certified and is therefore highly
recommended for use in vacuum environments.

Master Bond Inc.


Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/49752-829

WIRELESS
PROPAGATION
SOFTWARE
Remcoms Wireless InSite
is site-specific radio propagation software for the analysis and design of wireless communication systems. It provides accurate
predictions of propagation and communication
channel characteristics in complex urban, indoor,
rural and mixed path environments. Applications
range from military defense to commercial communications, including wireless links, antenna coverage optimization, and jammer effectiveness. Visit
www.remcom.com/wireless-insite for more information.

Remcom

Peregrine Semiconductor Corp. (San


Diego, CA) recently introduced two
new integrated productsa True DC
switch and an X-band core chip. Built
on Peregrines UltraCMOS technology, both products integrate RF, digital
and analog components onto a single
chip.
With a wide frequency range of 0 Hz
to 8000 MHz, the UltraCMOS True DC
SPDT switch (PE42020) features high
power handling, 30 dBm at 0 Hz and
36 dBm at 8 GHz, and maintains excellent RF performance and linearity from
DC through 8000 MHz. Moreover, it
can switch DC and AC peak voltages in
the range of +10V to -10V at currents
of up to 80 mA.
The X-band core chip integrates a
seven-bit digital phase shifter, a sevenbit digital step attenuator, high isolation signal-path switching, and a compact digital serial interface control
with true CMOS compatibility on a
single die. The chip offers a maximum
power handling of +18 dBm from 910.1 GHz and covers 31.75 dB attenuation range in 0.25 dB steps.
For Free Info Visit
http://info.hotims.com/49752-510

Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/49752-830

A WORLD OF FIBER OPTIC


SOLUTIONS

T1/E1 & T3/E3 Modems, WAN


RS-232/422/485 Modems and Multiplexers
Profibus-DP, Modbus
Ethernet LANs
Video/Audio/Hubs/Repeaters
USB Modem and Hub
Highly shielded Ethernet, USB (Tempest Case)
ISO-9001
http://www.sitech-bitdriver.com/

S.I. Tech
Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/49752-831

Mini
Embedded
Systems
4DSP (Austin,
TX) builds mini
embedded systems in the FMC (FPGA Mezzanine
Card) form factor. The FMCs are stacked
over one another. A typical system features a 12V-30V DC input power supply;
Atom CPU + 64GB SSD + Gigabit Ethernet; and Kintex-7 FPGA with 1 GB DR3
SDRAM. The ruggedized, approximately
3" 3" form factor can be conduction
cooled.
For Free Info Visit
http://info.hotims.com/49752-515

42

www.aerodefensetech.com

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Military Grade Lithium Batteries


Tadiran (Lake Success, NY) has introduced the TLM Series of military grade
lithium metal oxide batteries. TLM military grade batteries are cylindrical in
shape, constructed with a carbon-based
anode, multi metal oxide cathode, organic electrolyte, and a shut-down separator for enhanced safety. These batteries
feature an open circuit voltage of 4V, a
discharge capacity of 500 mAh (20 mA at
2.8V RT), and the ability to handle 5A
continuously and 15A maximum pulses.
TLM series batteries
deliver a storage life of
up to 20 years due to a
very low annual selfdischarge rate and operate over a temperature range of -40C to
85C (with storage up to 90C). The batteries comply with MIL-STD 810G specs
for vibration, shock, temperature shock,
salt fog, altitude, acceleration (50,000 g)
and spinning (30,000 rpm). They also
conform to UN 1642 and IEC 60086 standards for crush, impact, nail penetration,
heat, over-charge and short circuit.
For Free Info Visit
http://info.hotims.com/49752-511

3U VPX Graphics
Board
WOLF Advanced
Technologys (Ontario,
Canada) new 3U VPX board,
the VPX3U-GTX850M, is developed
using NVIDIAs GeForce GTX-850M
CUDA powered 28nm GM107 GPU
which is clocked at 862MHz and has 5
Streaming Multiprocessors for Maxwell
(SMMs) each housing 128 Arithmetic
Logic Units (ALUs) for a combined total
of 640 Shader cores for CUDA or OpenCL
parallel processing. An additional 40 Texture Mapping Units and 16 Render Output Processors, with a massive 2MB L2
cache and 2GB of GDDR5 memory running a 128-bit interface offers DirectX
11.2 or OpenGL 4.4 rendering capability
per watt. The GPU also supports the sixth
generation PureVideo HD video engine
(VP6) for hardware decoding of MPEG2
and H.264 compressed video at resolutions up to 4K.
For Free Info Visit
http://info.hotims.com/49752-512

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2014

Production/Circulation __________________________

www.aerodefensetech.com
Published by Tech Briefs Media Group (TBMG),
an SAE International Company

Editorial ______________________________________
Thomas J. Drozda
Director of Programs & Product
Development (SAE)
Linda L. Bell
Editorial Director (TBMG)

Scott Sward
Publisher, Periodicals & Electronic
Media (SAE)
Joseph T. Pramberger
Publisher (TBMG)
Debora Rothwell
Marketing Director (TBMG)

Terry Costlow, John Kendall,


Bruce Morey, Jenny Hessler,
Jennifer Shuttleworth, Linda Trego,
Steven Ashley
Contributing Editors (SAE)

Billy Hurley
Associate Editor (TBMG)
Patrick Ponticel, Ryan Gehm
Associate Editors (SAE)

Ad Index

Marcie L. Hineman
Global Field Sales Manager (SAE)
Lorraine Vigliotta
Marketing Client Manager (SAE)
Kaitlyn Sommer
Marketing Assistant(TBMG)

Tech Briefs Media Group, an SAE International Company


261 Fifth Avenue, Suite 1901, New York, NY 10016
(212) 490-3999 FAX (212) 986-7864

Jack Yamaguchi
Asian Editor (SAE)

Lindsay Brooke
Senior Editor (SAE)

Martha Saunders
Audience Development/Circulation
Assistant (TBMG)

Matt Monaghan
Assistant Editor (SAE)

Richard Gardner
European Editor (SAE)

Jean L. Broge
Managing Editor (SAE)

Jodie Mohnkern
Circulation and Mail List Manager (SAE)

Sales & Marketing ________________________________

Kami Buchholz
Detroit Editor (SAE)

Bruce A. Bennett
Editor (TBMG)

Marilyn Samuelsen
Audience Development/Circulation
Director (TBMG)

Kendra Smith
Managing Editor, Tech Briefs TV

Lisa Arrigo
Custom Electronic Products Editor (SAE)

Kevin Jost
Editorial Director (SAE)

Adam Santiago
Production Manager (TBMG)
Kevin Coltrinari
Assistant Production Manager (TBMG)
Lois Erlacher
Art Director (TBMG)
Bernadette Torres
Designer (TBMG)

TBMG Sales Representatives


www.techbriefsmediagroup.com/home/sales
SAE International Sales Representatives
http://sae.org/reps

For free product literature, enter advertisers reader service numbers at www.techbriefs.com/rs, or visit
the Web site beneath their ad in this issue.
Reader Service
Number

Company

Page

Reader Service
Number

Company

Page

3M Defense Markets Division . . . . . . . . . .807 . . . . . . . . . . . .13

Master Bond, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .825, 829 . . . . . . . .29, 42

ACCES I/O Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .815 . . . . . . . . . . . .26

Mini-Systems, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .820 . . . . . . . . . . . .33

Altair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .819 . . . . . . . . . . . .32

Morehouse Instrument Co. . . . . . . . . . . . .823 . . . . . . . . . . . .25

Aurora Bearing Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .826 . . . . . . . . . . . .41

OMICRON Lab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .816 . . . . . . . . . . . .18

Avionics Interface Tech. (AIT) . . . . . . . . .806 . . . . . . . . . . . . .11

OTEK Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .821 . . . . . . . . . . . .39

Bal Seal Engineering Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .824 . . . . . . . . . . . .19

Photon Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .805 . . . . . . . . . . . .10

Boyd Coatings Research Co., Inc . . . . . . . .817 . . . . . . . . . . . .27

Proto Labs, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .808 . . . . . . . . . . . .15

COMSOL, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .828, 833 . . . .42, COV IV

Remcom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .830 . . . . . . . . . . . .42

Crane Aerospace & Electronics . . . . . . . .800 . . . . . . . . . . . . .2

S.I. Tech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .831 . . . . . . . . . . . .42

CST of America, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .832 . . . . . . . .COV III

Specialty Coating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . .812 . . . . . . . . . . . .21

Dexmet Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .827 . . . . . . . . . . . .29

Tadiran Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .803 . . . . . . . . . . . . .5

Evans Capacitator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .802 . . . . . . . . . . . . .6

The Lee Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .799 . . . . . . . . . . . . .1

Fluke Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .801 . . . . . . . . . . . . .3

Thermacore, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .809 . . . . . . . . . . . .17

Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. . . . . . . . . . .818 . . . . . . . . .COVII

Verisurf Software, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .813 . . . . . . . . . . . .22

Keystone Electronics Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . .814 . . . . . . . . . . . . .7

W.L. Gore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .811 . . . . . . . . . . . .31

M.S. Kennedy Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . .804 . . . . . . . . . . . . .9


Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2014

Intro

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43

Whats Online
Top Products

Top Articles

Intelligent Manufacturing Software

Following are the most-read articles over the past month at


http://articles.sae.org, covering the aerospace, automotive,
off-highway, and truck/bus industries.

The CNC system solution IndraMotion MTX from


Rexroth has enhanced functionalities through Open Core
Engineering. With
Open Core Engineering, Rexroth
enhances classic
PLC programming
by bridging the
gap to IT automation. It increases
engineering efficiency thanks to
open standards,
software tools, and function toolkits. Machinery manufacturers can create individual software functions independently, allowing them to access the control via defined interfaces in real time. This interface technology to Rexroth
controls allows OEMs to develop individualized functional
capabilities and set themselves apart from the competition. More detail at http://articles.sae.org/13563.

Camera to SWIR Imaging


A clip-on system from UTC Aerospace Systems converts a
camera to a day/night short wave IR (SWIR) imaging system. The Sensors Unlimited Warrior C2S lightweight, fieldready module and covert laser illuminator locks into the
front of a Canon EOS 5D camera (Mark II and Mark III
models) to provide operators with SWIR imaging capabilities on the battlefield. The system enables identification
quality SWIR imagery, even in total darkness. More detail
at http://articles.sae.org/13458.

Racecar with Composite-Intensive Suspension Gets


Track Tested in 2015
A racecar fitted with a prototype rear suspension will compete in the Sports Car Club of America's 2015 season as a
proof-of-concept demonstrator for using thermoplastic composite suspension components in future light-duty vehicle
production applications. Read more at http://articles.
sae.org/13523.

A rendered CAD model of the rear suspension shows the thermoplastic composite components in red. The glass-reinforced nylon 6 parts are the primary springs,
and the upper control arms function as secondary springs in roll conditions.

Isuzu Takes High-Level Approach to T4F Solutions


Depending on which off-highway engine manufacturer
youre talking to, it is either an advantage that its teams of engineers design specifically and solely for the off-highway industry, or it is an advantage that its teams of engineers design
for both the on- and off-highway industries. Read more at
http://articles.sae.org/13466.

3-D Manufacturing of Titanium Components Takes Off


USB Load Cells
LC411-USBH low-profile compression load cells from
Omega enable 1000 readings per second and feature a USB
output to connect directly to a computer. Free PC software
simplifies data logging and charting. Also included are .NET
APIs and a command set for command line access. No additional power supply is needed. The load cell is powered directly from the computers USB port. More detail at
http://articles.sae.org/13460.

Rotary Transformer Coupled Torque Sensors


The Model T261 series rotary transformer coupled
torque sensors from SensorData Technologies meet the
demanding inline testing requirements of small motors,
pumps, compressors, turbines, fans, and other fractional
horsepower rated devices. Overall performance of the
T261 Series offers higher stiffness and lower inertia than
comparable torque sensors on the market. Units are available in three standard rated capacities of 5, 10, and 20 K
rpm, along with three unique mounting configuration
options (others upon request). More detail at
http://articles.sae.org/13560.

44

MRO providers are discovering ways to innovate their procedures while remaining viable and profitable through the
current downturn in government spending. Read more at
http://articles.sae.org/13268.

Trimming Wiring Harnesses Becomes Design Focus


Wires and cables help design teams add electronic features and
functions, but networks and wiring harnesses add a fair amount of
weight while their connections can be the cause of failures. Thats
prompting developers to examine ways to reduce the size and
weight of wires and cables. Read more at http://articles.
sae.org/13419.

Carbon-Fiber Concept Trailer From Great Dane Cuts


Weight by 4000 lb
The Walmart Advanced Vehicle Experience is a prototype
tractor-trailer developed to demonstrate the possibilities of future transport, and the truck is not the only place where innovation reigns. The trailer body is built almost exclusively with
carbon fiber, and it incorporates other technologies such as
advanced adhesives and low-profile LED lighting. Read more
at http://articles.sae.org/13507.

www.aerodefensetech.com

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Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2014

Make the Connection


Find the simple way through complex
EM systems with CST STUDIO SUITE
Components dont exist in electromagnetic
isolation. They inuence their neighbors
performance. They are affected by the
enclosure or structure around them. They
are susceptible to outside inuences.
With System Assembly and Modeling,
CST STUDIO SUITE helps optimize
component and system performance.

RCS & Surface Current Simulation


of a Helicopter

Working in aerospace and defense?


You can read about how CST technology was used to simulate the RCS &
surface currents of this helicopter at
www.cst.com/heli.

If youre more interested in lters, couplers,


planar and multilayer structures, weve a
wide variety of worked application examples
live on our website at www.cst.com/apps.
Get the big picture of whats really going
on. Ensure your product and components
perform in the toughest of environments.
Choose CST STUDIO SUITE
Complete Technology for 3D EM.

CST of America, Inc. | To request literature, call (508) 665 4400 | www.cst.com
Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/4975-

Intro

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NOW
AVAILABLE

comsol.com/release/5.0

FROM MODEL

TO APP

Verify and Optimize your Designs with


COMSOL Multiphysics

The Application Builder provides you with


tools to easily design a custom interface
for your multiphysics models. Use
COMSOL Server to distribute your apps to
colleagues and customers worldwide.

NOW
W FEAT
TURING THE
E APPLLICATIION BUILDE
ER

Visit comsol.com/release/5.0

PRODUCT SUITE
COMSOL Multiphysics
COMSOL Server
ELECTRICAL
AC/DC Module
RF Module
Wave Optics Module
Ray Optics Module
MEMS Module
Plasma Module
Semiconductor Module
MECHANICAL
Heat Transfer Module
Structural Mechanics Module
Nonlinear Structural Materials Module
Geomechanics Module
Fatigue Module
Multibody Dynamics Module
Acoustics Module

FLUID
CFD Module
Mixer Module
Microuidics Module
Subsurface Flow Module
Pipe Flow Module
Molecular Flow Module

INTERFACING
LiveLink for MATLAB
LiveLink for Excel
CAD Import Module
Design Module
ECAD Import Module
LiveLink for SOLIDWORKS
LiveLink for Inventor
LiveLink for AutoCAD
LiveLink for Revit
LiveLink for PTC Creo Parametric
LiveLink for PTC Pro/ENGINEER
LiveLink for Solid Edge
File Import for CATIA V5

MULTIPURPOSE
Optimization Module
Material Library
Particle Tracing Module

CHEMICAL
Chemical Reaction Engineering Module
Batteries & Fuel Cells Module
Electrodeposition Module
Corrosion Module
Electrochemistry Module

Copyright 2014 COMSOL. COMSOL, COMSOL Multiphysics, Capture the Concept, COMSOL Desktop, and LiveLink are either registered trademarks or trademarks of COMSOL AB. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners, and COMSOL AB and
its subsidiaries and products are not aliated with, endorsed by, sponsored by, or supported by those trademark owners. For a list of such trademark owners, see www.comsol.com/trademarks

Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/49752-833

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