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JUDICIALDISTRICTBEED
SECONDWORKSHOPDt.09.01.2016
ASUMMARYOFPAPER
CivilLaw:GroupA
Subject

:(A)ThecontemptofCourtsAct,1971Practice
andproceduretobefollowedbytheSubordinate
Courts.

01]

INTRODUCTION:

01.

The law relating to Contempt of Courts is dealt with by the Act

known as the Contempt of Courts Act,1971. Generally speaking


contemptofCourtisunderstoodas,anyconductwhichtendstobringthe
authority or administration of law into disrespect or disregard, or to
interferewithorprejudicepartieslitigantortheirwitnessesduringthe
legalproceeding.Thepurposeofthislawistogivepowerandjurisdiction
totheCourttopunishforitscontempttoensurefreeandunhampered
administration of justice. The independence of judiciary cannot be
effective unless it possess necessary power and measure for punishing
thosewhoimpedeinitsworkingandobstructtheexecutionofitsorders
anddecree.

2.

TheobjectofContemptproceedingisnottoaffordprotectiontothe

Judges personally from imputations to which they may be exposed as


usual.Itisintendedtobeaprotectiontothepublicwhoseinterestwould
beaffectedbytheactorconductofanyparty,ortheauthorityoftheCourt
islowereddownandthesenseofconfidencewhichpeoplehaveinthe
administrationofjusticeisweakened.
Historicalperspective:
03.

ThelawofcontemptinIndiahasitsrootintheEnglishlaw. Itis

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wellknownthatthesuperiorCourtsofrecordinEnglishhavefromearly
times exercised the powers to punish for the contempt. The law of
ContemptofCourtisfoundedentirelyonthepublicpolicy.Itisnotthere
to protect the private rights of the parties to the litigation. The first
legislationonthesubjectwasenactedinBritishIndiawhichisknownas
Contempt of Courts Act,1926, it was subsequently repealed by the
ContemptofCourtsAct,1952,whichhadincludedwithinitspurviewthe
CourtofJudicialCommissioneranditwasconferredwiththejurisdiction
toenquireintoandtrycontemptofitselforanyCourtssubordinatetoit.
04.

After the Indian independence and coming into force of the

Constitution of India in 1950, the process for enactment of new law


relatingtocontemptwasstartedandon1.4.1960aBillwasintroducedin
theparliamentinthisregardforenactmentoflawonthesubject. The
existing law of contempt is a self contained Code. Some important
features of this law are that as per Sec. 3 innocent publication and
distributionofmatterarenottreatedascontemptofcourt.Sec.4declares
thatapersonshallnotbeguiltyofcontemptofcourtforpublishingafair
andaccuratereportofjudicialproceedingoranystagethereof.Theonly
exceptiontothisgeneralruleisinrespectofproceedingheldincameraor
inchamber.Sec.5protectsapersonfromguiltyofcontemptofcourtfor
publishinganyfaircommentonthemeritsofanycasewhichhasbeen
heardandfinallydecided.
ContemptofCourt:Defined:
05. Generally the legal acceptation of the term 'contempt' primarily
signifies "disrespect to that which is entitled to legal regard". To speak
generally, Contempt of Court may be said to have taken place by any
conductthattendstobringtheauthorityandadministrationofthelaw
into disrespect or disregard, or to interfere with or prejudice parties
litigantortheirwitnessesduringthelitigation.

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06.

TheContemptActdefineswhatisacivilcontemptandwhat

is a criminal contempt. The two kinds of contempt are defined as


follows:
Sec.2(a)contemptofcourtmeanscivilcontemptandcriminal
contempt.
Sec.2(b) "civil contempt" means willful disobedience to any judgment,
decree,direction,order,writorotherprocessofaCourtorwilfulbreach
ofanundertakinggiventoaCourt.
"Sec.2(c)"criminalcontempt"meansthepublication(whetherby
words, spoken or written, or by signs, or by visible representations, or
otherwise)ofanymatterorthedoingofanyotheractwhatsoeverwhich:
(i)Scandalizes or tends to scandalize, or lowers or tends to lower the
authority of, any Court; or (ii) prejudices, or interferes or tends to
interfere with, the due course of any judicial proceedings; or (iii)
interferesortendstointerferewith,orobstructsortendstoobstruct,the
administrationofjusticeinanyothermanner.
InitiationofContemptProceedings:
07. ThepenalSec.12oftheContemptActdoesnotmakeanydifference
between the punishment for a civil contempt and punishment for a
criminal contempt. In regard to both kinds of contempt, the person
chargedisdescribedasanaccused.Thedifferencebeingthataperson
convictedofacivilcontemptisliabletobesenttocivilprisonandnot
whatisknownasacriminalprison.Nonethelessinboththecases,the
punishment is by way of incarceration. Following are some of the
situations or stages which may arise before the Court dealing with
contemptproceedings.
(1)

a private party may file or present an application or

petitionforinitiatinganyproceedingsforcivilcontempt;or
(2)

the Court may receive a motion or reference from the

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AdvocateGeneralor
(3)

withhisconsentinwritingfromanyotherpersonora

specifiedLawOfficeroraCourtsubordinatetoHighCourt;
(4)

the Court may in routine issue notice to the person

soughttobeproceededagainst;ortheCourtmayissuenoticeto
the respondent calling upon him to show cause why the
proceedingsforcontemptbenotinitiated;
(5)

the Court may issue notice to the person sought to be

proceededagainstcallinguponhimtoshowcausewhyhebe
notpunishedforcontempt.
08. Contemptgenerally(andcriminalcontemptinparticular)isamatter
between the Court and the alleged Contemnor. The jurisdiction in
contemptshallbeexercisedonlyonaclearcasehavingbeenmadeout.A
privatepartyoralitigantmayalsoinvitetheattentionoftheCourttosuch
factsasmaypersuadetheCourtininitiatingproceedingsforcontempt.
However,suchpersonfilinganapplication orpetition beforetheCourt
doesnotbecomeacomplainantorpetitionerinthe proceedings.Heis
justaninformeror relator.ItisthereafterfortheCourttoactonsuch
informationornottoactthoughtheprivatepartyorlitigantmovingthe
CourtmayatthediscretionoftheCourtcontinuetorenderitsassistance
duringthecourseofproceedings.ThesubordinateCourtcannottakeany
actionforcontemptforitscontemptandwhatthesubordinateCourtis
expected to do is to make a reference to the High Court for initiating
proceedings.
WhatConstitutesaCivilContempt:
09.Civilcontemptmeanswillfuldisobediencetoanyjudgment,decree,
direction, order, writ or other process of a Court or willful breach of
undertakinggiventoaCourt.

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10. Incivilcontempttheactofdisobedienceconsistsinrefusingtodo
whathasbeenorderedandindoingwhathasbeenprohibited.Itiswell
settledthatincaseofcivilcontemptunlessitiswillful,thecontemnor
cannot be held guilty of contempt of Court. The object to punish the
willfuldisobediencetoanyorderofCourtistosecuretheenforcementof
thesaidorder.

Whenthereisnocontempt:
1.

4.

Actingnegligentlyorinadvertently,wouldnotamount
todisobedience;
Acting bonafide under some misconception does not
amounttowillfuldisobedience;
Person having no knowledge of order, not guilty of
contempt;
Absenceofmensrea;

5.
6.
7.

Understandingoftheorder;
Ambiguousorders,notcomprehensibleorder;
Constitutionallyinvalidorder;

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Illegalorderororderirregularlyobtained;
Orderlackingterritorialorpecuniaryjurisdiction;
Orderimpossibletobeobeyed;
Bonafidedifficultiesinimplementingtheorder;
OrderpassedinignoranceofCourtorder;

2.
3.

13. Incorrectinterpretation.
Criminalcontemptandexceptions:
11.Criminalcontemptmeansthepublication,whetherbywords,spoken
or written or by signs or by visible representation or otherwise of any
matterorthedoingofanyactwhatsoeverwhichscandalizesortendsto
scandalize or lowers or tends to lower the authority of any Court or
prejudices or interferes or tends to interfere with due course of any
judicialproceedings,orinterferesortendstointerferewithorobstructsor
tends to obstruct, the administration of justice in any other manner.
However,

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1.

Innocentpublicationanddistributionofmatterisnot
contempt;
2. Fairandaccuratereportofjudicialproceedingisnot
contempt;
3. Faircriticismofjudicialactnotcontempt.
2]
12.

Contempt in the face of the Subordinate Courts : Statuary,


Provisions:
In case of the contempt committed in the face of the

subordinatecourt,thesubordinateCourtcantakeimmediateactionunder
Section228oftheIndianPenalCodereadwithSections345and346of
the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973. Section 345 of the Criminal
Procedure Code lays down the procedure for investigation and
punishmentfortheoffencesspecifiedinSection175,178,179,180or228
oftheIndianpenalCodecommittedinthevieworpresenceofanycivil,
criminalorrevenueCourt.
SUMMURYPROCEDURE
13.

The special feature of the procedure to be followed in a

contemptproceedingthatifisthesummaryprocedurewhichisrecognized
notonlyinIndiabutalsoabroad,fortakingaquickactioninthematter.
TheLimitationperiodforactionsofcontemptisaperiodofoneyearfrom
thedateonwhichthecontemptisallegedtohavebeencommitted[u/S.
20oftheAct].
03]

PROCDURETOBEFOLLOWEDBYSUBORDINATESCOURTIN
CONTEMPTPROCEEDINGS.

14.

Assection15(2)providesthattheHighCourtcantakecognizance

ofcriminalcontemptofasubordinateCourtonthereferencemadebyit.
Theword'reference'hasnotbeendefinedintheAct.Itappearsthatthe
word'reference'hasbeenusedinthesenseofconveyinginformationof
thecontempttotheHighCourt.Untilaruleismadetothecontraryunder
Section23oftheContemptofCourtsAct,1971,astatementsubmittedto
the High Court by the subordinate Courts through the District and

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Sessions Judge is taken as a reference within the meaning of Section
15(2).ThesubordinateCourtisnotboundtomakereference.Itissolely
withinthediscretionofthesubordinatecourttodecidewhetherreference
hastobemadeornot,thoughtthediscretionhastobeexercisedjudicially
andnotarbitrarily.
15.

Accordingly Rules to Regulate Proceedings for contempt

underArticle215oftheConstitutionofIndiaandtheContemptofCourts
Act 1971 framed by the Hon'ble Bomaby High Court as laid down in
Chapter34inpara667oftheCivilManualundertitleBombayHighCourt
Rules1994.However,theserulesprovidefortheproceduretobefollowed
whiletakingcognizanceofcontemptbytheHon'bleHighCourt.Thetopic
of todays workshop is restricted to the procedure followed by the
subordinate Courts when contempt of subordinate Court is committed.
Therefore,therelevantrulesinthatregardquotedforreadyreferenceas
under:
CognizanceandProcedure:Rule6saysabouttheparties
tothepetition.
(a)
Every petition for initiating proceedings for contempt of
Courtshallberegisteredascontemptpetition.
(b)

Inaproceedinginitiatedbypetitiontheinitiatorshallbe

describedaspetitionerandtheoppositepartyasrespondent.
(c)

In every petition for criminal contempt, the State of

Maharashtrashallbemadearespondent.
7(a)

EverypetitionorreferenceunderRule5(b),(c),(d)or(e)

shallcontain.
(i)

the name, description and complete address of the

petitionerorthedateordatesofcommissionofthealleged:
(ii)

natureofthecontemptalleged,andsuchmaterialfacts,

includingthedateordatesofcommissionoftheallegedcontempt,
asmaybenecessaryfortheproperdeterminationofthecase:

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(iii)

ifapetitionhaspreviouslybeenmadebyhimonthesame

facts,thepetitionershallgivethedetailsofthepetitionpreviously
madeandshallalsoindicatetheresultthereof:
(b)

EverypetitionunderRule5(c)shallbesupportedbyan

Affidavit.
(c)

Wherethepetitionerreliesuponadocumentordocuments

in his possession or power, he shall file such document or


documentsortruecopiesthereofwiththepetition.
8(1)

EverypetitionorreferenceunderRules5(b),(c),(d)or(e)

shall on being filed on received be forthwith posted before the


Courtforpreliminaryhearingandforordersastoissueofnotice.
Upon such hearing, the notice, may issue such notice to the
Contemnorand,ifnotsosatisfiedmaydismissthepetition.
(2)

theCourtmay,ifitthinksitabsolutenecessarytodoso,

andwheretheCourtisoftheopinionthatmereserviceofnotice,
willtosecurethepresenceoftheContemnor alongwithissueof
noticealsoissueabailableornonbailablewarrantforarrestof
theContemnor.
9(1)

NoticetothepersonchargedshallbeformI.Theperson

chargedshall,unlessotherwiseordered,appearinpersonbefore
the Court as directed on the date fixed for hearing of the
proceeding,andshallcontinuetoremainpresentduringhearing
tilltheproceedingsinfinallydisposedoffbyOrderoftheCourt.
(2)

When action is initiated on a petition or a reference, a

copyofthepetitionorthereferencealongwiththeannexuresand
Affidavitshallbeserveduponthepersoncharged.
10.

The person charged may file his reply by way of an

AffidavitorAffidavitswithin14daysfromtheserviceoftheNotice
orwithinsuchtimeastheCourtmayfix.

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11.

Nofurtheraffidavitordocumentshallbefiledexceptwith

theleaveoftheCourt.
12(a) Referenceundersection15(2)oftheActmaybemadeby
subordinateCourtseithersuomotuoronanapplicationreceived
byit.
16.

The subordinate Court is required to examine the facts and see

whetherreferenceshouldbemadetotheHighCourt.Intakingdecision
astowhetherreferenceshouldbemadeornot,thesubordinateCourthas
to observe some procedure based on the principles of natural justice.
Whiledecidingtomakeareference,thesubordinateCourtisrequiredto
statereasons.IfthesubordinateCourtrefusestomakethereference,the
informationofcontemptmaybebroughttothenoticeofHighCourtor
SupremeCourtandtheHighCourtorSupremeCourtanditmaytake
actionsuomotuongettingsuchinformation.
17. Before making a reference, the subordinate Court shall hold a
preliminary enquiry by issuing show cause notice stating therein the
allegedactscommittedbytheContemnerandhowitamountstocontempt
ofsubordinateCourtandcallingtheexplanationoftheContemnerifany
inthatregard.Thenoticeshouldbeaccompaniedbycopiesofrelevant
documents,ifany,tothecontemnerandafterhearinghimthesubordinate
Courtshallwriteaconsignedreasonedorderofreferenceindicatingwhy
contempts appears to have been committed. A subordinate Court must
justifythatthereisanycontempt.
04] IMPORTANTRULINGSONTHELAWOFCONTEMTP:

Can the Hon'ble High Court take action suo motu of the

contemptofasubordinateCourt?
This question was answered in the affirmative by the Hon'ble
SupremeCourtinthecaseofS.K.SarkarVs.V.C.Misra(1881)1SCC

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436inthesewords;
Wehave,therefore,nohesitationinholdinginagreementwiththe
HighCourt,thatsubsection(2)ofSection15,properlyconstrued,does
notrestrictthepoweroftheHighCourttotakecognizanceofandpunish
contemptofasubordinatecourt,onitsownmotion.

Reference:

Referencemeansastatementofasubordinatecourtsubmittedtothe
HighCourtthroughproperchannel,i.e.throughtheDistrictandSession
Judge,hastobetakentobeareferencewithinthemeaningofsubsection
(2)ofSection 15ofthe1971Act.TheHon'bleBombayHighCourtin
Prabhakar Vs. Sadanand 1975 Cri.LJ. 531 has taken this view: A
referenceinthecriminalproceedingsisawellknownexpression.Under
theCriminalProcedureCodewheneverSessionsJudgesmakereferenceto
theHighCourt,theywriteaspeakingorder.

ReferencebyDistrictJudgetoHighCourtforviolatinginjunction
order passed by subordinate Court, action under section 15 not
justifiedHighCourtcanrefusetotakeactionasheldincaseofStateof
UPVs.BehariLal2003Cri.L.J.163(ALL).
Inthecaseof CourtofSmallCauses,MumbaiVs.VaziralliPvt.
Ltd.,2006(4)Mh.L.J.139,itisobservedbyHon'bleBombayHighCourt
that,Referencetoinitiatecontemptproceedings,nottoberesortedtotoo
frequentlyandtoolightly.Powermustbeinvokedonlywheninterferencein
judicialproceedingsiswritlargefromtheconductofthecontemner.
Hon'bleApexCourtincaseofD.N.TanejaVs.Bhajanlalreported
in(1988(3)SCC26)heldthat,acontemptisamatterbetweenthecourt
and the alleged contemnor. Similar view is taken in the case of Om
PrakasJaiswalVs.D.K.Mittalandanother reportedin (2000(3)SCC
171) Hon'ble Apex Court held that, contempt generally and criminal
contempt certainly is a matter between the court and the alleged
contemnor.Noone can compel or demand asof right the initiationof

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proceedingsforcontempt.
18.

AsperSection5oftheContemptofCourtsAct,afaircriticismof

judicialactisnotacontempt.Apersonshallnotbeguiltyofcontemptof
courtforpublishinganyfaircommentsonthemeritsofthecasewhichhas
been heard and finally decided but any criticism of a court when
transgresses the limits of fair and bonafide criticism it amounts to
contemptofcourt.IfanactispunishableundertheIndianPenalCodeor
anyotheroffenceitwouldnotbeacontemptofcourt.Hon'bleBombay
High Court in case of Shri. R. S. Paranjape Vs. Shri. Sunil S. Doshi
reportedin 2010(112)Bom.L.R.2537 heldthat,intheapplicationfor
transferifanexpressionofapprehensionbylitigantthat,justicewillnot
bedone inhiscaseismadethenitwouldnotamounttocontemptof
court. Hon'ble Apex Court in case of Leila David Vs. State of
Maharashtraandothers,WritPetition(Criminal)No.D22040of2008
heldthat,theprocedureforinitiatingcontemptofcourtistobefollowed
insummaryway.
05]

Conclusion:

19. After thorough discussion of law of contempt and practice and


proceduretobefollowedincontemptproceeding,itbecomesclearthat,
theveryobjectofenactinglawisnotonlytoprotectthejudicialofficers
butalsotopreservethedignityofthecourtforproperadministrationof
justice.Theobjectofcontemptlawisthat,thefountainofjusticecannot
be allowed to be colluded by disgruntled litigants. Said protection is
necessary for the courts to enable them to discharge their judicial
functionswithoutfear.However,thecontemptjurisdictionisrequiredto
beusedindeservingcasesonlyandnotinroutinemanner.
Thecontemptjurisdictionistoupholdmajestyanddignityofthe
lawcourtsandtheimageofsuchmajestyinthemindofpubliccannotbe
allowed to be distorted. Nowadays dangerous trend of making false

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allegationsagainstjudicialofficersandhumiliatingthemisincreasingday
byday.Suchtendencyhastobecurbedwithheavyhandsotherwisethe
whole judicial system itself would collapse. A deliberate attempt to
scandalizethecourtwhichwouldshaketheconfidenceofthelitigantsin
thesystemwouldcauseseriousdamagetotheinstitutionofjudiciary.
It can be seen from the above discussion that the jurisdiction and
powerconferredonthesubordinateCourtsinrespectofitscontemptis
only to the extent of making an enquiry for the purpose of deciding
whethercontempthasbeencommittedornot.
Ifsubordinatecourtisprimafacieoftheopinionthatcontempthas
beencommittedbythecontemner,thenthesubordinatecourthastopass
areasonedorderandmakeareferencetotheHighCourt.
Itisanimportantaspectoflawofcontemptthatevenifcontempt
proceedingsareinitiatedonanapplicationorpetitionfiledbyanylitigant,
hisroleisverylimitedandonlytotheextentofbringingthefactstothe
noticeofthecourtregardingthecontempt.Oncethisstageisover,then
thematterofcontemptisbetweenthecourtandthecontemnerandeven
ifthe applicantorpetitionerinsuchcasewhoinitiatedthe proceeding
diedtheproceedingdonotabate. Therefore,thecontemptproceedings
onceinitiatedcaneitherendinpunishingthecontemneroriftheCourtis
satisfied with the explanation and defence of the contemner then the
proceedingcanbedroppedbytheCourt.

Subject : (B)
TYPESOFEASEMENTUNDERTHEEASEMENTACT,

1882.
01]

INTRODUCTION:

20.

Whereverimmovablepropertyisinvolved,therearecertainrights

connectedtotheenjoymentofsuchimmovableproperty,withoutwhich

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rightmaynotbeconvenientlyandfullyheldandenjoyed.Suchrightsare
calledeasement.
Therightofeasementisasoldasthedaywhenthehumanrace,
firstemergingfrombarbarism,adoptedthecustomoflivingtogetherin
towns,orlivingasother'sneighbor,orrespectingeachother'srights.The
rightofeasementisthenecessaryconsequenceoftherightofownership
ofimmovableproperty.
Aneasementisarightofwayorasimilarrightoverothersland.
Severalauthoritieshavedefinedeasementindifferentways.Easementis
aninterestinpropertywhich,thoughdirectfromanownershipintheland
itself,neverthelessconfersontheholderanenforceablerighttousethe
propertyofanotherforaspecificpurpose.
EASEMENTDEFINED
Section 4 of the Indian Easement Act provides definition of
easementasunder,
An easement is right which the owner or occupier of certain land
possesses, as such, for the beneficial enjoyment of that land, to do and
continuetodosomething,ortopreventandcontinuetopreventsomething
beingdone,inorupon,orinrespectof,certainotherlandnothisown.
DOMINANTANDSERVIENTHERITAGESANDOWNERS.
Thelandforthebeneficialenjoymentofwhichtherightexistiscalled
the dominant heritage and the owner or occupier thereof the dominant
owner,the land on which the liability is imposed is called the servient
heritage,andtheowneroroccupierthereoftheservientowner.
EXPLANATION.
21.

In the first and second clauses of this section, the expression land

includes also things permanently attached to the earth, the expression


beneficialenjoymentincludesalsopossibleconvenience,remoteadvantages
and even a mere amenity, and the expression to do something includes

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removal and appropriation by the dominant owner, for the beneficial
enjoymentofthedominantheritage,ofanypartofthesoiloftheservient
heritageoranythinggrowingorsubsistingthereon.
22.

Easementisarighttousetherealpropertyofanotherforaspecific

purpose.Itisitselfarealpropertyinterest,butlegaltitletotheunderlying
land is retained by the original owner for all other purposes. Typical
easementsareforaccesstotheanotherpropertyforutilityorsewerlines
bothunderandaboveground,useofspringwater,entrytomakerepairs
onafenceorslidearea,drivecattleacrossandotheruses.Easementmay
bespecificallydescribedbyboundaries.
02]

TYPESOFEASEMENT:

23.

Section5 of the Easement Act, 1882 provides four types of

easements.I)Continuouseasementisonewhoseenjoymentisormaybe
continuouslywithouttheactofman.II)Discontinuouseasementisone
thatneedstheactofmanforitsenjoyment.III)Apparenteasementisone
theexistenceofwhichshownbysomepermanentsignwhichuponcareful
inspection by a competent person would be visible to him. IV) Non
apparent easement is one that has no such sign. An illustration of
continuouseasementisarightannexedtoA'shousetoreceivelightbythe
windowswithoutobstructionbyhisneighbour.Arightofwayannexedto
A'shouseoverB'slandisadiscontinuouseasement.
24.

Therearetwomainkindsofeasement.Oneispubliceasementand

another is private easement. A public easement can be entertained by


public at large. For example a right to public thoroughfare, road,
streetlights, drainage etc. Private easements are those in which the
personsofinherenceissomeprivateindividualorclassofindividualsand
notthepublicatlarge.Forexamplearighttoaprivatestreet.
25.

Section6oftheEasementActdivideseasementintotwokindson

thebasisofdurationofitsenjoyment.1)Permanenteasement,and2)

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Easementforlimitedtimeoncondition.Permanenteasementmeansthe
dominantownerenjoys the easementuninterruptedlyandpermanently.
Whereaseasementforlimitedtimeofoneconditionisaneasementfora
termofyearsorotherlimitedperiodorsubjecttoperiodicalinterruption
orexercisableonlyatacertainplaceoratcertaintimesorbetweencertain
hoursorforaparticularpurposeoronconditionthatitshallcommenceor
become void or voidable on the happening of a specified event. For
examplerightofwaymaybelimitedtoaparticularseasonandtheyear,
righttorepairetc.
26.

Easementmaybeacquiredbydifferentmodes.Easementsaresuper

added rights to the ordinary natural incidents of the ownership of a


dominant tenement. There are various ways to acquire easement.
Following are some ways to acquire right of easement 1) easement by
conduct,2)easementbyprescription,3)easementbyoperationoflaw,4)
easementcreditedorrecognizedbyajudgmentordecree,5)easementby
necessity,6)easementbyquasieasement,7)easementbycustomorby
transfer.
Section13:Easementsofnecessityandquasieasements:
Whereonepersontransfersorbequeathsimmovablepropertyto
another,
(a)

if an easement in other immovable property of the transferor or

testatorisnecessaryforenjoyingthesubjectofthetransferorbequest,the
transfereeorlegateeshallbeentitledtosucheasement;or
(b)

Ifsuchaneasementisapparentandcontinuousandnecessaryfor

enjoyingthesaidsubjectasitwasenjoyedwhenthetransferorbequest
tookeffect,thetransfereeorlegateeshall,unlessadifferentintentionis
expressedornecessarilyimplied,beentitledtosucheasement;
(c)

Ifaneasementinthesubjectofthetransferorbequestisnecessary

forenjoyingtheotherimmovablepropertyofthetransferorortestator,the

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transferororthelegalrepresentativeofthetestatorshallbeentitledto
sucheasement;or
(d)

If such easement is apparent and continuous and necessary for

enjoyingthesaidpropertyasitwasenjoyedwhenthetransferorbequest
tookeffect,thetransferor,orthelegalrepresentativeofthetestator,shall,
unlessadifferentintentionisexpressedornecessarilyimplied,beentitled
tosucheasement.

Whereapartitionismadeofthejointpropertyofseveralpersons

(e)

If an easement over the share of one of them is necessary for

enjoyingtheshareofanotherofthem,thelattershallbeentitledtosuch
easement,or
(f)

Ifsuchaneasementisapparentandcontinuousandnecessaryfor

enjoyingtheshareofthelatterasitwasenjoyedwhenthepartitiontook
effect, he shall, unless a different intention is expressed or necessarily
implied,beentitledtosucheasement.
RecentRulingonthepoint:
InarecentcaseofKarbhariS/oAbajiLodhe&OthersVs.DevidasS/o
Ukandrao Lodhe & Others reported in2015 (1) Mh.L.J.700, itis
observedbyHon'bleBombayHighCourtthat,Whenduetosubdivisionof
a particular survey number or Gat number, bandhs are created on the
boundariesofthesubdivisions,thesebandhscanbeusedbytheownersof
such subdivisions of lands. Such easementary right created in favour of
ownersofsubdivisionsfallsundersection13ofEasementsAct,1882.Over
theyears,suchrighttousebandhsaswaybecamecustomaryrightbutithas
it'sorigininconceptof'easementofnecessity.'
Sec.15 Acquisition by prescription ThisSection 15 dealswiththe
method of acquiring easements. An easement by prescription under
Section15oftheActisinfactanassertionofahostileclaimofcertain
rightsoveranotherman'spropertyandinordertoacquiretheeasement

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the person who asserts the hostile claim must prove that he had the
consciousnesstoexercisethathostileclaimonapropertywhichisnothis
own and where no such consciousnessis proved he cannot establish a
prescriptiveacquisitionoftheright.
Enjoymentmustbeasofrightwithoutinterruptionforthestatutory
period of 20 years and it must be as an easement. A mere
Discontinuanceoftheexerciseoftheallegedrightatthewillofthe
dominant tenement is not necessarily an interruption which will
defeataprescriptiveclaim.Theremustbeanadverseactindicating
that the right is disputed and an actual discontinuance of the
enjoyment by reason of an obstruction which is submitted to or
acquiescedin forayear.Adiscontinuousofthe enjoymentdueto
naturalcausesandnottoanyactofthepartiesdoesnotamountto
an interruption. Discontinuance means such a voluntary
discontinuanceoftheuser.
CardinalRuleofPrescription:Onemustbearinmindthecarinalrules
ofprescription,first,thatnolengthofenjoymentcanestablishatitlewich
couldhavenolegalorigin,as,forinstance,anestateorinterestwhichthe
lawdoesnotrecognise;andnext,thatantiquityoftimejustifiesalltitles,
and supposes the best beginning the law can give them. So that, if
evidencebegivenafterlongenjoymentofpropertytotheexclusionof
others,ofsuchacharacterastoestablishthatitwasdealtwithasofright
asadistinctandseparateproperty,inamannerreferabletoapossible
legalorigin,itispresumedthattheenjoymentinthemannerlongused
wasinpursuanceofsuchanorigin,which,intheabsenceofproofthatit
wasmodernisdeemedtohavetakenplacebeyondlegalmemory.
Plaintiffisrequiredtopleadandprovethathehadbeenenjoying
theeasementasofrightforaperiodmorethan60yearscontinuouslyand
uninterruptedlytheperiodof20yearsshallbetakentobeaperiodwithin
twoyearsnextbeforetheinstitutionofthesuitwhereintheclaimtowhich
suchperiodrelatesiscontested.

18
In Justiniano Anato v/s Smt.Bernandette B.Pereira AIR 2005 S.C
236Hon'bleSupremeCourtheldthatinordertoestablisharightbyway
ofprescriptiononehastoshowthattheincumbenthasbeenusingthe
landasofrightpeacefullyandopenlyandwithoutanyinterruptionforthe
last20yrs.Thereshouldbecategoricalpleadingsthatsincewhatdateto
which date one is using the access for the last 20 years .In order to
establishtherightofprescriptiontothedetrimentoftheotheronehasto
averspecificpleadingsandcategoricalevidence.
Knownmethodofacquiringprescriptiveeasementsare;
1)presumptionunderEasementAct,
2)prescriptionunderSec.25oftheLimitationActand
3)claimfoundedonlostgrant.
Theprescriptiveeasementareoftwokinds1)positiveoracquisitive
prescription and 2) negative or extinctive prescription. In positive
prescriptionitistitleofrightbutinnegativeprescriptiveitisdivestivefact
namelyprescriptionoftitlebyadversepossession.
Customaryeasements:Whentheeasementisacquiredbyvirtueoflocal
custom such easement called as customary easement. The examples or
illustrations are found below Sec. 18 of the Law of Easement. The
essential characteristics of custom are that it must be of immemorial
existence, it must be reasonable, it must be certain and it must be
continuous. Want of continuity or interruption or disturbance raises a
strong presumption as to its non existence. The party must plead in
specifictermsastowhatisthecustomthatheisrelyingonandhemust
prove the custom pleaded. Hearsay evidence is allowed to prove
immemorialcustom.Thereforeastothedatefromwhichthecustomis
saidtohavebeenprevailedaftertheexistenceofcustomforsomeyears
has been proved by direct evidence then it can be shown to be
immemorialbyhearsayevidence.

19
Conclusion:
Thus concluding, an easement is a right which the owner of a
propertyhastocompeltheownerofanotherpropertytopermitsomething
tobedone,ortorefrainfromdoingsomethingonthesurvientelementfor
thebenefitofthedominanttenement.E.g.Righttolight,rightofway.The
property in respect of which as easement is enjoyed is the dominant
element,anditsowner,dominantowner,andthatoverwhichtherightis
exercisediscalledthesurvienttenement,anditsowner,asurvientowner.
Howeverunlike a lease, an easementdoesnotgive the holder a
rightofpossessionoftheproperty.Thus,accordingtotheresearcheran
easementaryrightisprovidedforspecificrelieffromspecificviolationsof
common basic rights. In the case of the right to way, any wrongful
interferencewiththerightofwayconstitutesanuisance.
Inthecaseofrighttoaccessofair,itiscoexistencewiththerightto
light.Theownerofthehousecannotbyprescriptionclaimanentitlement
oftheflowanduninterruptedpassageofcurrentofwind,neitherishe
entitledtorightofuninterruptedflowofbreezeassuch,andhecanclaim
onlysuchamountofairwhichissufficientforsanitarypurposes.Hence,it
isonlyinrareandspecialcasesinvolvingdangertohealthcasesthatthe
Courtwouldjustifyasinterferingwiththerighttodiminutionoflightand
airaspertheprovisionsofIndianEasementsAct,1882.