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VIII.

WIND LOADING DESIGN


Data ;
Nominal vessel diameter, D

Height of roof (F&D type head), HD


Hydrostatic height of tank, H
Height of shell tank, Hs
Height at operating condition, Ho
Socket roof height, SF
Hydrostatic height of first shell, H1
Hydrostatic height of second shell, H2
Hydrostatic height of third shell, H3
Total height of tank, HT
Thickness of first shell wall, t1
Thickness of second shell wall, t2
Thickness of third shell wall, t3
Thickness of roof (F&D type), tr
Thickness of bottom flat, tb
Density of liquid, g

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Density of water, g1

Outside diameter of first shell, D1


Outside diameter of second shell, D2
Outside diameter of third shell, D3
Outside diameter of cyl. roof, D4
Density of FRP, r

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Inside diameter, Di
Vessel height, H

Design factor, F
Wind velocity, V
Wind pressure on shell projected area, Gr or Gs
Weigth of first shell wall, w1
Weigth of second shell wall, w2
Weigth of third shell wall, w3
Weigth of torispherical roof (F & D head), w4
Weigth of flat bottom, w5
Live load on roof, w
Uniform live load on roof, Wu
First shell analysis ;
Wind load, U ;
Projected area of shell, As

90.55
7.55
90.55
181.10
15.09
26.00
193.10
181.10
181.10
1.57
181.10
120.73
60.37
207.10
0.354
0.315
0.236
0.433
0.374
0.036

0.036 lb/in
91.26
91.18
91.02
91.02
0.065
10
74.56
0.11
397.07
352.80
264.37
673.35
156.56
250.00
1341.32

=
=
=

Di H1

Wind load on first shell, Us

=
=
=

Gs As
0.11 x
113.88
13.01 lb

Projected area of roof, Ar

=
=
=

0.1255 Di + SF. Di
0.1255 x
7.55
8.14 ft

=
=
=

Gr Ar
0.11 x 8.14
0.93 lb

Wind load on roof, Ur

7.55 x
113.88 ft

Bending moment at the base of the vessel, Mw ;


Mw = Us 0.5 H1 + Ur (H1 + SF + 0.1Di)
=
13.01 x 0.5 x
15.09
+ 0.93
=
113.04 ft-lb
=
1356.44 in-lb
Total lateral force, W ;
W = US + Ur
=
13.01 +
=
13.94 lb

in
ft
in
in
ft
in =
2.17 ft
in
in
in
in = 0.1312 ft
in =
15.09 ft
in =
10.06 ft
in =
5.03 ft
in
in
in
in
in
in
lb/in
in
in
in
in
lb/in
mph
psi
lb
lb
lb
lb
lb
lb
lb

15.09

x ( 15.1 +

0.13123

x 7.55

0.1312 + 0.1 x

8)

0.93

20 of 35

Total shell weight

fa

=
=
=
=
=

W1 + W2 + W3 + W4 + W5 + Wu
397.07 +
352.80
+
3185.46 lb
-3185.46 / (3.1416 x
-31.60 psi

264.37

90.55

673.35

0.354

156.56

+ 1341.32

Axial stress on the down wind side of the base resulting from the wind moment, fb ;
fb
= -Mw C/I
C

=
=

0.5 x (
45.63 in

90.55

= 3.141 x (D14-D4) / 64
= 3.14 (
=

fb

=
=

Total axial stress

91.26
4
104531.20 in

-1356.44
-0.59 psi
=
=
=

+ 2 x

45.63

) / 64

104531.2

fa + fb
-31.6 + -0.59
-32.2 psi

Allowable stress for first shell, S

=
=

90.55

Ultimate tensile strength for first shell, Su


F
=
10 / 1.2
= 8.33

fv

0.354

=
=
=

13.94 / (3.14 x
0.14 psi

91

24054.04 psi

Su / F
24054.04
/
2886.49 psi
x

8.33

0.35 )

Since fv < 200 psi, the criterion for type II laminates stated in para. NM3-310 applies.
[fa + fb] =
32.19 psi
<
2886.49 psi
Design is acceptable for wind load on the empty tank, as far as strength is concerned
Critical buckling stress for uniformly distributed axial compression, fcra ;
E
= Axial tensile modulus
=
1603602.96 psi
fcra

= 0.3 Et1/ R
= 0.3 x
1603603
=
3765.0 psi

0.354

45.28

Critical stress for buckling from bending under the wind moment, fcrb ;
fcrb = 1.3 fcra
= 1.3 x
3764.98
=
4894.5 psi
For shear, the critical buckling stress for walled tube of circular cross section, fcrv ;
fcrv

= 0.695 E (t1/R)1.25 (R/H1)0.5


= 0.695 x
1603603
= 1297.13 psi

x (

0.354

1.25
x(
45 )

45

The buckling interaction equation from para NM3-310 ;


[fa F/fcra] + [fb F/fcrb] + (fv F/fcrv) < 1
31.60 x 5 /
3764.98
+
0.59
x5/
4894.48 + (
0.14
which show that the empty tank will not fail by buckling under design wind load

Second shell analysis ;


Wind load, U ;
Projected area of shell, As

=
=
=

0.5
## )

x 5/ 1297.13 ) = 0.04 < 1 ok

Di H2
7.55 x
75.92 ft

10.06
21 of 35

Wind load on second shell, Us

=
=
=

Gs As
0.11 x
75.92
8.67 lb

Projected area of roof, Ar

=
=
=

0.1255 Di + SF. Di
0.1255 x
7.55
8.14 ft

=
=
=

Gr Ar
0.11 x 8.14
0.93 lb

Wind load on roof, Ur

Bending moment at the top of section I of the vessel, Mw ;


Mw = Us 0.5 H2+ Ur (H2 + SF + 0.1Di)
=
8.67
x 0.5 x
10.06
+
0.93
=
53.81 ft-lb
=
645.76 in-lb
Total lateral force, W ;
W = US + Ur
=
8.67 +
=
9.60 lb
Shell weight

fa

=
=
=

x(

10.06

x 7.55

0.1312

+ 0.1 x

7.55

0.93

W2 + W3 + W4 + W5 + Wu
352.80 +
264.37
2788.39 lb

=
=

0.13123

-2788.39 /(3.14 x
-31.12 psi

90.55

673.35 +

0.315

156.56 + 1341.32

Axial stress on the down wind side of the base resulting from the wind moment, fb ;
fb
= -Mw C/I
C

=
=

0.5 x
45.59 in

= 3.141 x (D24-D4) / 64
= 3.14 (
=

fb

=
=

Total axial stress

91 +2 x

91.18
4
92795.65 in

-646 x
-0.32 psi
=
=
=

45.59

0.315

4
91 ) / 64

fa + fb
-31.1 + -0.3
-31.4 psi

Ultimate tensile strength for second shell, Su =


F
=
10 / 1.2
= 8.33
Allowable stress for second shell, S

fv

=
=

92795.7

9.60 / (3.14 x
0.11 psi

91

20678.68 psi

=
=
=

Su / F
20678.68 /
2481.44 psi

0.31 )

8.33

Since fv < 200 psi, the criterion for type II laminates stated in para. NM3-310 applies.
[fa + fb] =
31.44 psi <
2481.44 psi
Design is acceptable for wind load on the empty tank, as far as strength is concerned

Critical buckling stress for uniformly distributed axial compression, f cra ;


E
= Axial tensile modulus
=
1378578.39 psi
fcra

= 0.3 Et2 / R
22 of 35

=
=

0.3 x
2877.0 psi

1378578

0.315

45.28

Critical stress for buckling from bending under the wind moment, fcrb ;
fcrb = 1.3 fcra
=
1.3 x 2877.03
=
3740.1 psi
For shear, the critical buckling stress for walled tube of circular cross section, fcrv ;
fcrv

= 0.695 E (t2/R)1.25 (R/H2)0.5


= 0.695 x
1378578
= 1178.75 psi

x(

0.315

45.28

)1.25 x (

45.28

The buckling interaction equation from para NM3-310 ;


[fa F/fcra] + [fb F/fcrb] + (fv F/fcrv) < 1
31.12 x 5 /
2877.03
+
0.32
x5/
3740.14 + (
0.11
which show that the empty tank will not fail by buckling under design wind load
Third shell analysis ;
Wind load, U ;
Projected area of shell, As

=
=
=

Di H3

Wind load on third shell, Us

=
=
=

Gs As
0.11 x
37.96
4.34 lb

Projected area of roof, Ar

=
=
=

0.1255 Di + SF. Di
0.1255 x
7.55
8.14 ft

=
=
=

Gr Ar
0.11 x 8.14
0.93 lb

Wind load on roof, Ur

7.55 x
37.96 ft

Bending moment at the top of section II of the vessel, Mw ;


Mw = Us 0.5 H3+ Ur (H3 + SF + 0.1Di)
=
4.34 x 0.5 x
5.03
+ 0.93
=
16.41 ft-lb =
196.91 in-lb
Total lateral force, W ;
W = US + Ur
=
4.34 +
=
5.27 lb
Shell weight

fa

=
=
=

x 5/ 1178.75 ) = 0.05 < 1

5.03

x ( 5.0

0.13123

x 7.55

0.1312 + 0.1 x

0.93

W3 + W4 + W5 + Wu
264.37 +
2279.03 lb

=
=

0.5
120.73 )

0.00

-2279.03 / (3.1416 x
-33.91 psi

90.55

673.35

+ 1341.32

0.236

Axial stress on the down wind side of the base resulting from the wind moment, fb ;
fb
= -Mw C/I
C

=
=

0.5

= 3.141 x (D34-D4) / 64
= 3.141(

fb

x
90.55
45.51 in

91.0

69415.61 in

=
=

-16.41
0.0 psi

Total axial stress

=
=

+ 2 x

91

0.236

) / 64

45.51

69415.6

fa + fb
-33.9 + -0.01
23 of 35

-33.9 psi

Ultimate tensile strength for third shell, Su


F
=
10 / 1.2 =
8.33
Allowable stress for third shell, S

fv

=
=

=
=
=

5.27 / (3.1416 x
0.08 psi

20797 psi

Su / F
20797
/
2495.60 psi

90.55

8.33

0.236

Since fv < 200 psi, the criterion for type II laminates stated in para. NM3-310 applies.
[fa + fb]
=
33.93 psi <
2495.60 psi
Design is acceptable for wind load on the empty tank, as far as strength is concerned
Critical buckling stress for uniformly distributed axial compression, f cra ;
E
= Axial tensile modulus
=
1386444.45 psi
fcra

= 0.3 Et3 / R
= 0.3 x
1386444
=
2170.09 psi

0.236

45.27559

Critical stress for buckling from bending under the wind moment, fcrb ;
fcrb = 1.3 fcra
= 1.3 x
2170.09
=
2821.11 psi
For shear, the critical buckling stress for walled tube of circular cross section, fcrv ;
fcrv

= 0.695 E (t3/R)1.25 (R/H3)0.5


= 0.695 x
= 1170.13 psi

1386444

x(

0.236

)1.25 x (

45.28

The buckling interaction equation from para NM3-310 ;


[fa F/fcra] + [fb F/fcrb] + (fv F/fcrv) < 1
33.91 x 5 /
2170.09
+
0.010759 x 5 /
2821.11 + (
0.08
which show that the empty tank will not fail by buckling under design wind load

Flat head roof analysis ;


Wind load, U ;
Projected area of roof, Ar

Wind load on roof, Ur

=
=
=

0.1255 Di + SF. Di
0.1255 x
7.55
8.14 ft

=
=
=

Gr Ar
0.11 x 8.14
0.93 lb

Bending moment at the top of section IV of the vessel, Mw ;


Mw = Ur (H4 + SF + 0.1Di)
=
0.93 x ( 0.00 +
0.13 + 0.1 x
=
0.82 ft-lb =
9.88 in-lb

0.1312

45.28

60.37

)0.5

x 5/ 1170.13 ) = 0.08 < 1

x 7.55

8)

Total lateral force, W ;


W = Ur
=
0.93 lb
Roof weight

fa

=
=
=
=
=

W5 + Wu
673.35
+
2014.67 lb

1341.3

-2014.67 / (3.1416 x
-16.35 psi

90.55

0.433

Axial stress on the down wind side of the base resulting from the wind moment, fb ;
fb
= -Mw C/I
24 of 35

=
=

0.5 x
45.71 in

= 3.14 x (D44-D4) / 64
= 3.14 (

fb

91.0

69415.6

=
=

-0.82 x
-0.001 psi

Total axial stress

=
=
=

91 +2 x

in

0.433

45.71

fa + fb
-16.353 +
-16.354 psi

fv

=
=

) / 64

69416

-0.001

Ultimate tensile strength for roof, Su =


F
=
10 / 1.2
= 8.33
Allowable stress for roof, S

90.55
4

24404 psi

= Su / F
=
24404.4 / 8.33
=
2928.53 psi

0.93 /(3.1416 x
0.01 psi

90.55

0.433

Since fv < 200 psi, the criterion for type II laminates stated in para. NM3-310 applies.
[fa + fb] =
16.35 psi <
2928.53 psi
Design is acceptable for wind load on the empty tank, as far as strength is concerned
Critical buckling stress for uniformly distributed axial compression, fcra ;
E
= Axial tensile modulus
=
1626963 psi
fcra

= 0.3 Etr / R
= 0.3 x
1626963
=
4668.68 psi

0.433

45.27559

Critical stress for buckling from bending under the wind moment, fcrb ;
fcrb = 1.3 fcra
=
1.3 x 4668.68
=
6069.28 psi
For shear, the critical buckling stress for walled tube of circular cross section, fcrv ;
fcrv

= 0.695 E (tr/R)1.25 (R/HD)0.5


= 0.695 x
1626963
=
4463.51 psi

x(

0.433

45.28

)1.25 x (

The buckling interaction equation from para NM3-310 ;


[fa F/fcra] + [fb F/fcrb] + (fv F/fcrv) < 1
16.35 x 5 /
4668.68
+
0.000542 x 5/
6069.28 + (
0.01
which show that the empty tank will not fail by buckling under design wind load

45.28

26.00

)0.5

x 5/ 4463.51 ) = 0.02 < 1

25 of 35