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Applied Thermal Engineering 23 (2003) 859870

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Optimal slot height in the jet cooling of a circular cylinder


F. Gori *, L. Bossi
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via di Tor Vergata 110, 00133 Rome, Italy
Received 11 March 2002; received in revised form 19 August 2002; accepted 10 January 2003

Abstract
Experimental results are presented for heat transfer cooling of an electrically heated circular cylinder, of
diameter D 10 mm, by a slot jet, of height S 2:5 mm, i.e. with D=S 4. Mean and local Nusselt
numbers are presented versus the Reynolds numbers, the distance of the cylinder from the slot exit, H , and
the angle from the impinging point. Mean Nusselt numbers, dened according to the cylinder diameter, D,
are higher than the values in an innite ow. The maximum mean Nusselt number is measured when the
cylinder is set at a distance H , from the slot exit, such that H =S 8. The minimum local Nusselt number is
measured at an angle of 180 from the impinging point, i.e. on the rear of the cylinder. Comparisons have
been done among the mean Nusselt numbers of this work and previous experimental results of the same
authors, carried out with diameter to slot height ratios equal to D=S 1 and 2. The conclusion is that the
mean Nusselt number, dened as Num D hm D=k, is higher for D=S 4, versus the Reynolds number,
dened as ReD WD=m. On the contrary, the mean Nusselt number, dened on the basis of the slot height,
Num S hm S=k, has similar values, for the dierent slot heights, versus the Reynolds number, dened as
ReS WS=m, with the trend of higher results for the slot with D=S 2.
 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Jet ow; Air; Slot; Cylinder; Optimal heat transfer

1. Introduction
Most of the investigations on jet ow heat transfer, reported in the literature, have been
concerned with the cooling of at surfaces [1], and those of cylinders are quite few. The experiments reported in [2] are for hemispherical cylindrical surfaces, where the ratio between the
cylinder diameter, D, and the jet height, S, is ranging from D=S 45:7 to 8. The experiments of [2]
did not establish an optimal value of D=S which realizes the maximum mean heat transfer.
*

Corresponding author. Fax: +39-06-2021351.


E-mail address: gori@uniroma2.it (F. Gori).

1359-4311/03/$ - see front matter  2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/S1359-4311(03)00025-5

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F. Gori, L. Bossi / Applied Thermal Engineering 23 (2003) 859870

Nomenclature
Latin
A
D
G
H
h
k
L
n
Nu
P
Pr
Re
S
T
v
W

cylinder surface, m2
cylinder diameter, m
mass ow rate, kg/s
distance between the slot and the cylinder, m
convective heat transfer coecient, W/m2 K
thermal conductivity of the air, W/m K
length of the cylinder, m
number of parts of the cylinder surface
Nusselt number, dimensionless
dissipated electric power, W
l=qa Prandtl number, dimensionless
Reynolds number, dimensionless
slot height, m
temperature, K
specic volume, m3 /kg
mean velocity, m/s

Greeks
a
l
q
h
m

thermal diusivity, m2 /s
dynamic viscosity, kg/m s
density, kg/m3
angle with the impinging point, 
kinematic viscosity, m2 /s

Subscripts
a
relative to the air
i
local on the cylinder surface
m
arithmetic mean
s
relative to the slot

The eciency of jet cooling, compared to uniform ow, is now well known. Submerged jets of
air are very eective to cool down several kinds of heat transfer apparatuses. A recent application,
patented by IVECO, includes the use of air jets in the cooling of the tube where supercharged air is
owing, from the turbo-compressor to the intercooler, in heavy trucks [3].
In order to optimize the heat transfer cooling, several parameters must be investigated. In case
of the cooling process involving one single cylinder, the most important variables are: the ratio
D=S, the distance H =S, and the turbulence of the jet ow. The cooling of a cylinder with a small
ratio D=S has been investigated in [4,5], where D=S 1. Further experiments have been presented
in [6], where D=S 2. The importance of the uid dynamics conditions has been investigated in

F. Gori, L. Bossi / Applied Thermal Engineering 23 (2003) 859870

861

[7], where it has been shown that the convective heat transfer coecient increases with the increase
of the turbulence intensity.
In case of a cooling process involving two or three cylinders in row, the additional parameter is
the distance among the cylinders. Two cylinders with D=S 2 have been studied in [8,9] and three
cylinders have been investigated in [4,5] for D=S 1 and in [10] for D=S 2.
This work presents the measurements carried out on a single cylinder with D=S 4. The investigation is aimed to compare the present results with previous data of the same authors, in
order to study the inuence of the ratio D=S on the heat transfer on a circular cylinder, or, in other
words, to nd the optimal ratio, D=S, which gives the highest mean Nusselt number along the
surface of the cylinder.

2. Experimental apparatus
The experimental apparatus is schematically shown in Fig. 1. The radial fan has an electric
power of 750 W and a maximum mass ow rate of 0.45 kg/s. The settling chamber is a rectangular
channel, 150 mm long and with a square section, 135 mm by 135 mm. The converging duct has a
contraction ratio of 13.5:1, an angle of 30 and a rectangular nal section, 135 mm by 2.5 mm.
The slot jet is made with a horizontal channel, 135 mm wide, 160 mm long and with the height of
2.5 mm. The length of the slot allows the ow to be fully developed at the exit.
The cylinder, sketched in Fig. 2, is made with an AISI 304L stainless steel tube, thickness 0.2
and 10 mm of external diameter. The tube is 135 mm long and it is wide as the slot jet. A Teon
bar is located inside the tube to press the thermocouples on its internal wall. Grooves on the
Teon bar allow to the thermocouples to be positioned correctly and the decreasing depth of the
grooves to be in tight contact with the internal side of the wall. Fig. 2 shows also the position of
each of the ve thermocouples along the circumference; at angles of 0, 90, 180, 225 and 315

Fig. 1. Experimental apparatus.

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F. Gori, L. Bossi / Applied Thermal Engineering 23 (2003) 859870

Fig. 2. Cylinder, Teon bar and positions of the thermocouples.

from the impinging point. The steel tube is heated by electrical current with a dissipated power
variable in the range 511 W.
The mass ow rate of air is measured by a pressure drop across the converging duct, as shown
in Fig. 1. The data acquisition system is made of on A=D converter and a multiplexer for the
thermocouples readings. The electric current is measured through the voltage drop on the 0.1 ohm
reference shunt of the feeder.

3. Experiments
3.1. Experimental analysis
In each experiment, temperatures, mass ow rate, electrical resistance of the cylinder, and
power dissipated are measured. The power dissipated locally on each thermocouple can be assumed as the same, along the circumference of the tube, because the temperature dierences
among the ve thermocouples are enough small to neglect the variation of the electric resistance of
the stainless steel tube in the dierent positions of the thermocouples. The power dissipated per
unit area of surface of the cylinder, P =A, is
P =A P =pDL

where P RI 2 is the power, R the electrical resistance of the steel tube, I the electrical current, A
the cylindrical surface, pD, the perimeter of the cylinder, L the cylinder length.
The local convective heat transfer coecient is then given by
hi P =ATi  Ta  P =pDLTi  Ta 

where Ta is the air jet temperature and Ti the average local temperature of the thermocouple.
The local Nusselt number is given by
Nuloc hi D=k P =pkLTi  Ta 

where D is the diameter of the cylinder and k the thermal conductivity of air.
The mean Nusselt number is dened as
Num hm D=k

F. Gori, L. Bossi / Applied Thermal Engineering 23 (2003) 859870

863

The mean convective heat transfer coecient, hm , is given by


P hm ATm  Ta

by assuming the mean temperature, Tm , as


Tm Ri Ti =n

where n is the number of thermocouples. In the present experiments n is equal to eight, due to the
symmetrical conditions of the thermocouples and the ow.
3.2. Experimental uncertainties
The copperconstantan thermocouples have 0.25 mm diameter wires. Their calibration uncertainty is lower than 0.05 C. The local temperature, registered by each thermocouple, is assumed to be a 10 min average, where the maximum variations are 0.15 C. In conclusion, the
uncertainty of the temperature measurement is assumed to be 0.15 C.
The stainless steel tubes are electrically heated by passing direct current throughout the thin
thickness of the tube by a stabilized (104 relative value) power supplier Kepco, model JQE. The
power dissipated allows to evaluate the temperature gradient in the radial direction. The radial
temperature gradient dT =dr has been evaluated for the maximum power dissipated. A temperature drop of 0.035 K has been calculated within the thickness of the steel cylinder, i.e. lower
than the uncertainty of the temperature measurement, 0.15 C.
The experimental temperature dierence along the circumference of the tube is a function of the
angle from the impinging point. The dierence between the thermocouple at 0 (on the impinging
point) and that at 180 (on the rear point) is variable between 3 and 5 C for the dierent powers
applied and the dierent air velocities. The corresponding variation of the electric resistance along
the outer wall of the tube is lower than 0.5%. The circumferential heat ux along the wall has been
evaluated by the measurement of the temperatures on the impinging point and the rear point. For
the maximum power applied the dierence in temperature has been measured as about 5 C and
the corresponding heat ux has resulted to be 1.2% of the total power dissipated. Considering
that the dierence between the temperature of the impinging air and the wall is variable between
16 and 24 C, the contribution of the circumferential heat ux is negligible and the thermal
boundary condition of constant wall heat ux can be applied.
The measurements of the electric power dissipated in the tube gives a maximum uncertainty of
102 W. The evaluation of the power dissipated in each experiment has been carefully controlled
taking into account the inuence of natural convection, thermal radiation, heat conduction at the
edge of the cylinder, and boundary condition of the casing.
The present apparatus cannot be put vertical, in order to investigate the inuence of natural
convection, superimposed to forced convection. From the uncertainty analysis, the contribution
of natural appears negligible, especially at the higher Reynolds numbers investigated, and in any
case, comprised in the overall uncertainty of the Nusselt number evaluation.
The uncertainty on the evaluation of the Nusselt number has nally resulted to be within
6%.

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F. Gori, L. Bossi / Applied Thermal Engineering 23 (2003) 859870

4. Experimental results
Axial velocity and turbulence intensity have been measured at the exit of the slot jet in order to
correlate the present measurements of the heat transfer coecients to the actual percent turbulence intensity at the exit of the jet [10]. In fact, it has been shown in [7] that the mean and local
Nusselt numbers can be inuenced by the turbulence promoted by a grid located inside the jet slot.
The mean axial velocity of the air at the slot exit have been measured for the investigated
Reynolds numbers range. The turbulence intensity is around 10% at Reynolds numbers of about
6000 and it decreases to about 6% at Reynolds numbers equal to 20,000. It is important to associate the present heat transfer results to the level of turbulence because of the important role
played by the turbulence.

4.1. Slot with D=S 4 (D 10 mm, S 2:5 mm)


Fig. 3 presents the mean Nusselt number, Num D , versus the Reynolds number, ReD , with the
cylinder located at several distances from the slot exit, H =S. It is also shown for comparison the
mean Nusselt number given by the expression of Whitaker [11], for uniform ow:
2=3

0:5
0:06ReD Pr0:4
Num D 0:4ReD

It is evident that a jet ow realizes a higher mean Nusselt number, for Reynolds numbers greater
than about 6000. The dierence is increasing with the Reynolds number. The jet ow realizes a
Nusselt number higher than in an uniform ow because of the shear, the vortex and even the
turbulence produced by the jet from the slot exit to the impinging point of the cylinder.

Fig. 3. Mean Nusselt number, Num D versus Reynolds number, ReD .

F. Gori, L. Bossi / Applied Thermal Engineering 23 (2003) 859870

865

Fig. 4. Mean Nusselt number, Num D versus H =S.

The maximum mean Nusselt number is measured at H =S 8 for each Reynolds number. The
maximum dierence between jet and uniform ow, as given by Eq. (7), amounts to about 80%, at
ReD 22; 000.
The mean Nusselt numbers, Num D , are presented versus H =S, at several Reynolds number, ReD ,
in Fig. 4. The trend of the mean Nusselt number, versus H=S, is to have a maximum, at about
H =S 8, and then to decrease again with the increasing H =S.
The local Nusselt numbers at H =S 8 are presented in Figs. 5 and 6. Fig. 5 reports NuD versus
ReD at the impinging angles around the circumference of the cylinder. As expected, NuD has the
maximum at 0, i.e. at the impinging point. The results of Fig. 6 show a minimum in the NuD on
the rear point of the cylinder, i.e. at 180 from the impinging point.
4.2. Empirical correlations of Num D for the slot with D=S 4
The mean Nusselt numbers of this work, for the slot with D=S 4, have been correlated by the
following empirical expression
Num D 0:048Re0:819
0:055Re0:819
Pr0:4
D
D

in the range H =S 220 and ReD 4; 00022; 000, with a maximum deviation of 20%.
Taking into account the dependence on H =S, two expressions can be used
0:13
0:4
Re0:83
Num D 0:034H =S0:13 Re0:83
D 0:039H =S
D Pr

for H =S 28, and


Num D 0:10H =S

0:35

Re0:83
D 0:115H=S

0:35

0:83 0:4
ReD
Pr

for H =S 820, with a maximum deviation of 15%.

10

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F. Gori, L. Bossi / Applied Thermal Engineering 23 (2003) 859870

Fig. 5. Mean Nusselt number, Num D , versus ReD at H =S 8.

Fig. 6. Local Nusselt number versus the angle from the impinging point, at H =S 8.

4.3. Empirical correlations of Num D for the slot with D=S 12


The empirical correlation of Num D , found with the experimental data of [6,810], for a slot with
D=S 2, in the range 2 < H =S < 20 and ReD 4; 00020; 000, is given by

F. Gori, L. Bossi / Applied Thermal Engineering 23 (2003) 859870

Num D 0:13Re0:690
0:149Re0:690
Pr0:4
D
D

867

11

with a maximum deviation of 12%.


The expressions with the explicit function H =S, for D=S 2, are
0:12
0:4
Re0:68
Num D 0:121H =S0:12 Re0:68
D 0:139H =S
D Pr

12

for H =S 26, Re 4; 00020; 000, with an uncertainty of 8%; and


0:13
0:4
Re0:69
Num D 0:178H =S0:13 Re0:69
D 0:204H =S
D Pr

13

for H =S 610, Re 4; 00020; 000, with an uncertainty of 4%.


The empirical correlation of Num D , found with the experimental data of [4,5], for a slot with
D=S 1, at H=S 8, is given by
0:125Re0:684
Pr0:4
Num D 0:109Re0:684
D
D

14

with a maximum deviation of 20%, while, in the range 4 6 H=S 6 10, it is


Num D 0:233Re0:610
0:267Re0:610
Pr0:4
D
D

15

with a maximum deviation of 20%.


The expressions with the explicit function H =S, for a slot with D=S 1, are
0:022

Num D 0:216H =S

0:022

Re0:61
D 0:248H =S

0:4
Re0:61
D Pr

16

for H =S 48, Re 4; 00020; 000, with an uncertainty of 15%; and


0:345H=S0:211 Re0:639
Pr0:4
Num D 0:301H =S0:211 Re0:639
D
D

17

for H =S 811, Re 4; 00020; 000, with an uncertainty of 7%.


4.4. Empirical correlations of Num D for the three slots, D=S 1; 2; 4
The general expression which can correlate the data of the three slots, i.e. D=S 14, is the
following:
Num D aH =Sb D=Sc Red Pr0:4

18

where the coecients a, b, c, d are:


a 0:0516, b 0:179, c 0:214, d 0:753, in the range, H =S 28, Re 4; 00020; 000, with
an uncertainty of 19.5%;
a 0:0803, b 0:205, c 0:162, d 0:800, in the range, H =S 812, Re 4; 00020; 000,
with an uncertainty of 16.1%.
4.5. Comparison of Num D among the three slots
The comparison of the mean Nusselt numbers among the three slots, namely D=S 1; 2; 4, is
presented in Fig. 7, where Num D is reported versus ReD at H =S 8. The mean Nusselt numbers
are higher for D=S 4, while the lowest values are measured for D=S 1.

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F. Gori, L. Bossi / Applied Thermal Engineering 23 (2003) 859870

Fig. 7. Mean Nusselt numbers, Num D , versus ReD , for the three slots, at H =S 8.

The same ReD means the same mean velocity for the dierent slots. The Reynolds number can
be expressed as a function of the mass ow rate, G,
ReD WD=m GDv=SLm

19

where v is the specic volume and L the wideness of the rectangular slot. The values of v, L, m are
the same, for the three slots, but, the slot with higher D=S requires a lower mass ow rate G in
order to have the same ReD . The resulting mean Nusselt number is then higher for a lower mass
ow rate because it requires a higher dissipated power to have a similar temperature dierence.
4.6. Comparison of Num S for the three slots and empirical expressions
Fig. 8 presents the mean Nusselt number, Num S , versus the Reynolds number, ReS , i.e. the
Reynolds number dened according to the slot height, instead of the cylinder diameter. The
empirical relations, correlating the experimental results, are the following:
for D=S 1,
Pr0:4 0:1075Re0:684
Num S 0:123Re0:684
S
S

20

for D=S 2,
Pr0:4 0:078Re0:737
Num S 0:0895Re0:737
S
S

21

for D=S 4,
Pr0:4 0:0368Re0:818
:
Num S 0:0422Re0:818
S
S

22

F. Gori, L. Bossi / Applied Thermal Engineering 23 (2003) 859870

869

Fig. 8. Mean Nusselt numbers, Num S , versus ReS for the three slots, at H =S 8.

As a numerical example, for ReS 5; 000 it is obtained:


Num S =Pr0:4 47:6 for D=S 2;
Num S =Pr0:4 44:8 for D=S 4;
Num S =Pr0:4 41:7 for D=S 1.
For ReS 10; 000 it is obtained:
Num S =Pr0:4 79:4 for D=S 2;
Num S =Pr0:4 78:9 for D=S 4;
Num S =Pr0:4 66:97 for D=S 1.
The Reynolds number ReS is dened as
ReS WS=m Gv=Lm

23

The comparison at the same ReS means that the mass ow rate is the same, for the dierent
slots. In conclusion, this comparison seems to be more appropriate than that based on ReD , in
order to compare the results of dierent slots.
The second observation is that, at low ReS , the Num S of the three slots are quite similar, with the
trend of the slot with D=S 2 to gives higher Nusselt numbers. This trend is conrmed at higher
ReS where it is more evident that the Num S , obtained for D=S 2, are higher than those obtained
for D=S 1. Then the conclusion is that the optimal ratio is D=S 2.

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F. Gori, L. Bossi / Applied Thermal Engineering 23 (2003) 859870

5. Conclusions
The mean Nusselt number, Num D , has the maximum value at H =D 8 in the Reynolds number
range ReD 400022; 000. The local Nusselt number, NuD , has the maximum value on the impinging point and the minimum value at 180 from the impinging point, i.e. in the rear point of the
cylinder. The mean Nusselt numbers, Num D , measured in this work, for a slot with D=S 4, have
been compared with the measurements, performed by the same authors in previous works, with
the slot with D=S 12. Comparing Num D versus ReD , the maximum values are those obtained
with the slot D=S 4. On the other hand, if the comparison is carried out with Num S versus ReS ,
the maximum values are those obtained with D=S 2, which is considered the optimal slot ratio.
This last comparison is considered more appropriate because the same ReS means the same mass
ow rate, for the dierent slots.

Acknowledgement
The present work was made possible by a MIUR COFIN research contribution.

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