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COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING AND DRAWING

Computer aided drafting (CAD) is fast becoming the primary means of


communicating. Design information in many industry sectors, particularly
in engineering and manufacturing. Two dimensional (2D) CAD drawings
and three dimensional (3D) CAD data can be shared with computer
numerical control (CNC) machines using computer aided manufacturing
(CAM) software. Three dimensional (3D) models can be rendered to
produce photo-realistic representations, or can be animated to produce
moving views of products and components as they would appear in
service. Additionally, models can be used to analyse features such as
mass, volume and mechanical properties.
Computer aided drafting these days is being extensively used in the
industry, 3D modelling draw isometric views, and carry out surface
modelling.
Advantages: quality; accuracy; time; cost; electronic transfer of
information; links with other software e.g. CAD/CAM, rendering software,
animation software, finite element analysis (FEA)
Requirements:
Software: operating systems; CAD software packages e.g. AutoCAD,
AutoCAD/Inventor, Micro station, Catia, Pro/ENGINEER, Solid works;
minimum system requirements e.g. hard disk space, memory required,
processor, video card. And it very compatible to surpac, datamine, Xpac
etc.
Hardware:
keyboard; mouse; other input devices eg light pen, digitiser, joystick,
thumbwheel; monitor; printer; other output devices e.g. plotter, rapid
prototyping; storage e.g. floppy disk, hard disk, memory stick, CD,
network.
CAD is able produce and use:
CAD drawings: orthographic projections; circuit diagrams e.g. hydraulic,
pneumatic, electronic; exploded/assembly drawing; standards e.g.
BS8888, BS3939, BS2917.
Commands: absolute/relative/polar coordinates; features e.g. line types,
grids, snaps, circle, text, hatching, dimensioning, layers/levels, colour;
viewing e.g. zoom, pan; inserting other drawings e.g. symbols, blocks;
modifying e.g. copy, rotate, move, erase, scale, chamfer, fillet
Interpret: determine properties of drawn objects e.g. list, distance, area,
volume.
3D drawings and views: 3D environment: 3D views e.g. top, front, side,
isometric 3D models: 3D techniques e.g. addition and subtraction of
material, extrude, revolve, sweep, 3D coordinate entry (x, y, z), wire

frame drawing, 2D to 3D (thickness, extrusion); surface models; solid


models.
Methods:
Tool bar method: they are readily avail on tool bar menu and can be
used by just click on respective command.
Dropdown: display from drop menu and select require command for
display.
Keyboard: create manually by using logical steps.
Classification of CAD commands: Categorised for our convenience
DRAWING COMMANDS:
LINE, POLYLINE, CIRCLE, ELLIPSE, ARC, POLYGON, RECTANGLE, SPLINE,
TEXT, IMENSIONING, OBJECT SNAP POINT, HATCH, LAYERS, UNITS.
EDITING COMMANDS:
LIMITS, ERASE, ARRAY, COPY, MOVE, OFFSET, STRETCH, OFFSET, PEDIT,
CHANGE PROPERTIES, TRIM, EXTEND, FILLET, CHAMFER, BREAK, MIRROR,
SCALE, ROTATE, EXPLODES, DIVIDE, ZOOM, AND PAN.
ENQUIRY COMMANDS: ID, LIST, DIST, AREA, DB LIST, STATUS,
SELECTION SETS i.e. WINDOW, CROSSING, FENCE, W PLOYGON, PLOTTING
AUTOCAD DRAWING COMMANDS
A. AutoCAD Line Command: The line command can allow you to
create a Single line or a series of lines.
To activate the Line command use one of the following options:
1- Draw Toolbar.

2- Draw from the pull-down menu bar.

3- Key board: Type L for line on the command line and press Enter.

B. AutoCAD Polyline Command: A polyline is connected sequence of


lines created as a single line.
To activate the P-line command use one of the following options:
1- Draw Toolbar.

2- Draw from the pull-down menu bar.

3- Key Board: Type Pl at the command line and then press Enter.

C. AutoCAD Circle Command: The circle command will allow you to


create circle with the following options:
-

Centre Radius
Centre Diameter
Two Points
Three Points
Tangent, Tangent, radius (TTR)
Tangent, Tangent, Tangent.

To activate the Circle Command use one of the following options:


1- Draw Tool bar.

2- Draw from the pull-down menu bar.

3- Key Board: Type C on the command line and then press Enter.
Centre, Radius Option
- Click Circle on the Draw Toolbar.
- Specify the centre point.
- Specify the radius.
Centre, Diameter Option
- Click Circle on the Draw Toolbar.
- Specify the centre point.
- Specify the diameter.
2P Option
- Click Circle on the Draw Toolbar.
- At the specify the centre point for the circle or[ 3P/2P/TTR].
- Click 2P
- Specify the first point of the circle's diameter.
- Specify the second point of the circle's diameter.
3P Option
- Click Circle on the Draw Toolbar.
- At the specify the center point for the circle or [ 3P/2P/TTR].
- Click 3P

- Specify the first point of the circle.


- Specify the second point of the circle.
- Specify the third point of the circle.
TTR Option
- Click Circle on the Draw Toolbar.
- At the specify the centre point for the circle or [ 3P/2P/TTR].
- Click 3P
- Specify a point on drawing for the first tangent point of the circle.
- Specify a point on drawing for the second tangent point of the
circle.
- Specify the radius of the circle.
D. AutoCAD Ellipse Command
The ellipse command has the following options:
- Endpoint Axis
- Centre
- Arc
To activate the ellipse command use one the following options:
1. Draw Toolbar.

2. Draw from the pull-down menu bar.

3- Key Board: Type Ellipse at the command line and then press Enter.
Drawing an ellipse with a Distance Option:
- From the Draw Menu, select Ellipse.

- Specify the first endpoint of the first axis. (1)


- Specify the second endpoint of the first axis. (2)
- At the specify the distance to other axis or [rotation] prompt,
Drag the cursor away from the previous point and click to specify a
distance. (3). See figure below

Drawing an ellipse with Rotation Option


- From the Draw Menu, select ellipse.

- Specify the first endpoint of the first axis. (1)


- Specify the second endpoint of the first axis. (2)
- At the specify the distance to other axis or [rotation] prompt,
click Rotation or enter R.
- Move the cursor around the center of the ellipse and click, or
Specify a value for the angle of rotation. See figure bellow.

Drawing an ellipse with a Center Option


- From the Draw pull-down menu, select ellipse, then click Center.

- Specify the center point. (1)


- Specify endpoint of axis. (2)
- At the specify the distance to other axis or [rotation] prompt,
Click Rotation or enter R.
- Specify a distance or locate point. (3) See figure bellow.

Drawing an ellipse with Arc Option


- From the Draw pull-down menu, select ellipse, then click Arc.

- Specify first endpoint on the elliptical arc. (1)


- Specify second endpoint on the elliptical arc. (2)
- Specify distance point. (3)
- Specify the start angle point. (4)
- Specify the end angle point. (5), See figure below

.
AutoCAD Arc Command

Arc command allows you to create arcs in several ways. Most arcs are drawn in
the counter-clockwise direction from the start point to the end point.
To activate the arc command use one the following options:
1- Draw Tool bar, on the toolbar select Arc

2- Draw from the pull-down menu bar.

3- Type A for Arc on the command line then press Enter.


List of Arc Options available on the drop-down menu.

Drawing Arcs with 3Points Option: This type of arc can be drawn in both
directions, counter-clockwise and clockwise.
1- Specify the first starting point. (1)
2- Specify the second point. (2)
4- Specify the end point of the arc. (3). See figure below.

Drawing Arcs with Start, Center, End Option: This type of arc can be drawn
in counter-clockwise direction.
1- Specify the start point. (P1)
2- Specify the center point. (P2)
3- Specify the end point of the arc. (P3). See figure below.

Note: You can use the same procedure to experiment the other options of
AutoCAD ARC command.
AutoCAD Polygon Command
The polygon command can allow you to create polygons of different shapes and
sizes.
To activate the Polygon command use one the following options:
1- Draw Tool bar

2- Draw from the pull-down menu: Enter the number of sides required for
the polygon.
3- Key Board, type Polygon> enter the number of side> Specify the center of
the polygon> Select an option from Inscribed in a circle or Circumscribed
about a circle.
4- Specify the Radius of the circle, enter a value and press Enter.

AutoCAD Rectangle Command


The rectangle command will allow you to create rectangles of different sizes by
specifying two points P1 and P2 diagonally opposite as shown in the figure below.

To activate the Rectangle command use one the following options:


1- Draw Toolbar.

2- Draw from the pull-down menu.

3- From the Command line: Type Rec for rectangle


Example:
- At the line command type: REC then press enter.
- At the Prompt: Specify first corner point
[Chamfer/Elevation/Fillet/Thickness/Width]:
Pick P1, see figure below.
- At the prompt: Specify second corner point or [Dimensions]:
Pick P2, see figure below.

AutoCAD Spline Command: Creates a non-uniform rational B-spline


(NURBS) curve.
To activate the Spline command use one of the following options:
- Draw Toolbar

- Draw from the pull-down menu.

- Type Spline at the command line:

You create splines by specifying points. You can close the spline so that
the start and
endpoints coincide to form a closed shape. Tolerance describes how
closely the spline

fits the set of points you specify. The lower the tolerance, the more closely
the spline
fits the points. At zero tolerance, the spline passes through the points

II. AUTOCAD EDITING COMMANDS


When you use AutoCAD Editing commands to modify the drawing you
have created with drawing commands you need to know how to select
objects.
AutoCAD provides you with three ways of selecting an object:
1- Individual selection.
2- Window selection.
3. Cross-Window selection
Individual selection: Also called Pickbox Selection, this method will
allow you to select an individual objects, you simply click on the object
with your mouse. You can continue selecting additional objects as needed,
each object selected will change appearance to dashed lines.
Window Selection: Will allow you to select several objects at the same
time. To make a window selection, you need to specify opposite corners,
from P1 to P2, that define a window area.

Only objects that are entirely within the window area are selected and
change to dashed lines. If any part of an object is outside the window, that
object is not selected and will not change appearance.
Cross Window Selection:

Cross window selection will allow you to select several objects at the same
time. To make a window selection, you need to specify opposite corners,
from P1 to P2, that define a window area.
Any objects that are inside or touched by the crossing window are
selected. The cross window has a dashed appearance as shown in the
figure above.
II. MODIFYING COMMANDS
Erase Command: The erase command is used to delete selected objects
from you drawing.
The command can be activated from:
- Modify Toolbar.

- Pull-down Menu.

- Command line: Type erase or e then press enter.

Procedure:
1- Choose one the method described above to activate Erase this Command.
2- Select the object to erase then press enter

COPY Command
In AutoCAD you can use Copy command to create duplicates of objects at
different locations from the original.
Procedures:
1- Select the Copy command from:
- Modify Toolbar.

- Modify pull-down menu

- Type CO at command line.


2. Select the object you want to copy.
4. At the "Specify the base point or displacement" Pick a point on the
object. This point will serve as handle for the object.

5. At the "Specify second point or displacement" pick a point on the


screen or enter distance. You can create multiple copies without
leaving the copy command.
MOVE Command: This AutoCAD command will allow you to move objects at
specified distance in a specified direction.
To activate the Move Command use the following options:
Modify Toolbar

Modify from the Pull-Down Menu

Type M for move at the command line and press enter

Example: Sequence for the Move command

OFFSET Command
The Offset command creates new object parallel to the original object at
specified distance and direction.
Procedures:
1- Select the Offset Command from:
- Modify Toolbar.

- Modify pull-down menu

- Type Offset at command line.


2- At Specify offset distance or [through]: Enter a value or pick a point on
the screen.
3- At Select object to offset or <exit>: select the object.
4- At specify point on side to offset: pick a point on the screen you want to
place the new object.
Trim Command
The Trim command is use to shorten drawn lines to meet the edges of
other objects.
Procedures:
1- Select TRIM Command from:

- Modify Toolbar.

- Pull-Down menu

Type Trim at the command line.


2. Select cutting edge then press enter. See figure below.
Example:

3. Select object to trim then press enter. See figure below.

Extend Command:
The Extend command is use to lengthen drawn lines to meet the edges of
other objects. When you use Extend command, you select lines as
boundary edges and extend other lines to those edges.
Procedures:
1- Select EXTEND from:
- Modify Toolbar or,

- Pull-Down Menu or,

- Type EXTEND at the command line.


2- Select boundary edges then press enter.
3- Select edge to extend then press enter to terminate the command.
Example:

Mirror Command:
The mirror command creates a mirror image of objects. Mirror command is
useful for objects that present symmetry. You draw half of the object and you
mirror the other half.
Procedures:
1- Select Mirror command from:
- Modify Tool bar

- Pull-Down menu

- Type Mirror at the command line.


2- Select object then press enter.
3- At Specify first point of mirror line, select P1, see figure below.
4- At Specify second point of mirror line, select P2, see figure below.
5- At Delete source object? [Yes/No] <N>. Press enter.
Example:

Fillet Command: The fillet command will allow you to round sharp corner.

The command can be activated from:


- Modify Toolbar.

- Pull-Down Menu.

- Command line.

Procedure:
Command: Fillet
Current settings: Mode=TRIM, Radius = 20.000
Select first object or [ Polyline/Radius/Trim]: Type R to set the radius.
Specify fillet radius<20.000>: 10
Select first object or [ Polyline/Radius/Trim]: Pick P1
Select second object: Pick P2.
ENQUIRY COMMANDS:
AutoCAD has many tools to help you as a designer. The properties
command gives you a lot of information about an object you have
selected and allows you change most of them. AutoCAD also has some
commands used specifically for pulling information from objects.
Most of these commands can be accessed from the Home > Utilities tool
panel. Here is a list of those commands (click on the icon for more
information):

COMMA
ND

KEYBOARD

Distance

DISTANCE /
DI

Distance measures the


distance and angle between
two points

Radius

MEASUREGE
OM

Measures the radius of an


arc or a circle.

Angle

MEASUREGE
OM

Measures the angle


between two lines.

ICON

DESCRIPTION

AREA
Area

Area Calculates the area


and perimeter of objects or

of defined areas.

Volume

Area Calculates the area


and perimeter of objects or
of defined areas.

MEASUREGE
OM

Mass
Propertie MASSPROP
s

List

LI

ID

ID

None

Mass Properties Calculates


and displays the mass
properties of regions or
solids.

None

List Displays database


information for selected
objects.

ID Point Displays the


coordinate values of a
location.

The first one, DISTANCE (DI), is quite straight forward. It allows you to
select two points on the screen and AutoCAD will tell you the total
distance as well as the changes in X, Y & Z.
Command: DI DIST
Specify first point: <SELECT ANY POINT>
Specify second point or [Multiple points]: <SELECT ANY POINT>
Distance = 12.5107, Angle in XY Plane = 25, Angle from XY Plane
=0
Delta X = 11.3228, Delta Y = 5.3208, Delta Z = 0.0000
MEASUREGEOM is used to for a few options, among them Radius which
will measure the radius of a circle or arc. Enter the command and then
choose radius from the list on the screen.

With Radius selected, just pick on any arc or circle to have the radius
displayed

AutoCAD is kind enough to give you both the radius and the diameter on
the screen - and on the command line:

Command: measuregeom
Enter an option [Distance/Radius/Angle/Area/Volume]
<Distance>: R
Select arc or circle: <SELECT THE OBJECT>
Radius = 3.3780
Diameter = 6.7559
You are left in the command and can select another option like Angle. Now
you're asked to select 2 lines and the screen will display the angle
between them

Volume measurements can be used on 3D objects or 2D objects (if you


enter a height). You can either select and object or pick points.

AREA is a command that can be very useful. This can used to calculate
square footage for floors, property lots, or even something like sheet
metal parts. To use this command, you can type in AREA and see this on
your command line:
Command: AREA
<First point>/Object/Add/Subtract: O
Select objects:<SELECT AN OBJECT>
Area = 56.7498, Perimeter = 30.6775
LIST is an inquiry that gives you some basic information about a
command. This is usually the information that AutoCAD needs to know
about it to keep track of it in its database. Here is a listing of a line:
Select objects: 1 found
Select objects:
LINE Layer: "0"
Space: Model space
Color: 1 (red) Linetype: "BYLAYER"
Handle = 2fd
from point, X= 9.2042 Y= 13.5272 Z= 0.0000
to point, X= -2.1187 Y= 8.2064 Z= 0.0000
Length = 12.5107, Angle in XY Plane = 205
Delta X = -11.3228, Delta Y = -5.3208, Delta Z = 0.0000
Here are the properties (CTRL+1) for the same line:

Notice that you can get the same information, but also have the option of
changing anything that you need to.
After List, the next option is ID POINT. This allows you to select anywhere
on the screen and have AutoCAD return the X,Y&Z coordinates for that
point. Here is a listing of ID POINT:

Command: ID Specify point: <SELECT POINT>


X = 155'-2 1/2" Y = 48'-9 3/16" Z = 0'-0"
After List, the next option is ID POINT. This allows you to select anywhere
on the screen and have AutoCAD return the X, Y&Z coordinates for that
point. Here is a listing of ID POINT:
Command: TIME
Current time: Wednesday, November 07, 2007 6:00:11:671 PM
Times for this drawing:
Created: Sunday, April 28, 1996 10:11:02:620 AM
Last updated: Tuesday, August 10, 2004 1:24:52:328 AM
Total editing time: 0 days 12:00:49:244
Elapsed timer (on): 0 days 12:00:49:244
Next automatic save in: <no modifications yet>
You can see the current date, when you last saved and when AutoCAD will
do its next automatic save. And yes, that file has been with me for 8
years.

Command: STATUS
120 objects in Drawing1.dwg
Model space limits are X: 0.0000 Y: 0.0000 (Off)
X: 12.0000 Y: 9.0000
Model space uses X: -4.1963 Y: -0.2930 **Over
X: 52.2702 Y: 34.7170 **Over
Display shows X: -9.5333 Y: -7.2543
X: 68.2812 Y: 37.6074
Insertion base is X: 0.0000 Y: 0.0000 Z: 0.0000
Snap resolution is X: 0.5000 Y: 0.5000
Grid spacing is X: 0.5000 Y: 0.5000
Current space: Model space
Current layout: Model
Current layer: "TEXT"
Current color: BYLAYER -- 3 (green)
Current linetype: BYLAYER -- "Continuous"
Current lineweight: BYLAYER
Current elevation: 0.0000 thickness: 0.0000
Fill on Grid off Ortho off Qtext off Snap off Tablet off
Object snap modes: Center, Endpoint, Intersection, Midpoint,
Quadrant,
Extension
Free dwg disk (C:) space: 2797.3 MBytes
Free temp disk (C:) space: 2797.3 MBytes
Free physical memory: 13.6 Mbytes (out of 509.8M).
Free swap file space: 752.0 Mbytes (out of 1246.3M).
PART B
Exercises on Mining Drawings
1. Mine process flow chart
2. Mine exploration flow diagram
3. Mine organization structure
4. Mine Open pit design
5. Mine Underground design
6. Geological Cross Sections
7. Contouring
8. Mine Truck model 2D
9. Mine Excavator model 2D
10.
Equipment models 2D

11.
12.

Magazine design model


Infrastructure model drawing