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INTRODUCTION

LABVIEW is a program development application, much like


C or FORTRAN.LABVIEW is however, different from those
applications in one important respect. Other programming systems use
text based languages to create lines of code, while LABVIEW uses a
graphical programming language, to create programs in block diagram
and its controlling and indicating unit as front panel.

LABVIEW, like C or FORTRAN, is a general-purpose programming


system with extensive libraries of functions for many programming
tasks. LABVIEW includes libraries for data acquisition, data analysis,
data presentation and data storage.
A LABVIEW program is called a virtual instrument (VI) because its
appearance and operation can imitate an actual instrument.
VIRTUAL INSTRUMENTS

Virtual instrument (VI) is a program in graphical programming


language. It models the appearance and function of a physical
instrument. The distinction between traditional and virtual instrument
is illustrated in fig.1.

Fig. 2 shows two LabVIEW windows: front panel (containing controls


and indicators) and block diagram (containing terminals, connections
and graphical code). The front panel is the user interface of the virtual
instrument. It consists of controls and indicators, which are the
iterative input and output terminals of the VI, respectively.

Controls
Controls are knobs, push buttons, dial, and output input devices.
Indicators are graphs, LEDs, and other displays.
FIGURE: FRONT PANNEL

FIGURE: BLOCK DIAGRAM.


Controls simulate instrument input devices and supply data to the
block diagram of the VI. Indicators simulate instrument output
devices and display data the block diagram acquires or generates. The
code is built using graphical representations of functions to control the
front panel objects. The block diagram contains this graphical source
code. Front panel objects appear as terminals on the block diagram.
Additionally, the block diagram contains functions and structures
from built-in LabVIEW VI libraries. Wires connect each of the nodes
on the block diagram, including control and indicator terminals,
functions, and structures.

From the aspect of distance learning, the most important issue of


virtual instruments is the fact that they can be used to simulate
physical phenomena – to generate signal that appears as it would
appear if it had been acquired by real transducers. The same software
is being used for real and virtual phenomena. That way virtual
instrument becomes the part of virtual laboratory.

FIGURE 3:

Virtual instrument

Transducer Signal data


conditioning acquisition

VirtualPhysical
Laboratory Data
Phenomenon Analysis

Measurement
Control Results

Fig: Virtual Laboratory


Some Palettes Used In LABVIEW:
Some features of LabVIEW:
• Graphical programming

• Data-flow-controlled execution, as compared to sequential


execution of text-line based languages.

• Real time visual debugging features

• Built in drivers and function libraries for the serial, parallel and
network computer ports.

• Simple file input-output operations.

• “Plug-and-play” interface devices for most types of external


equipment.

• Direct program portability (binary files) between different


platforms: PCs, Macintosh, Sun, HP-UX and operating systems.

• A wealth of visual debugging tools.

• Add-on software packages for specific extension of the


program features, for instance image processing.

• Built-in interactive graphic control and display

• Database (SQL) interfacing, libraries for industrial PLCs

• Ready to use analysis functions including:

• Signal generation (sine wave, triangular wave, square wave,


saw tooth, uniform, Gaussian white and periodic white noise
etc.)

• Digital signal processing (FFT, power spectrum, Hilbert


transform, convolution, derivative, integral etc.)
• Measurement (power spectrum, time domain windowing,
transfer function, harmonic analyzer, pulse parameters, peak
detection etc.)

• Filtering (Butterworth, IIR, Chebyshev, Bessel filter, median


filter etc.)

• Windows (Hanning, hamming, triangle, flat top, force window,


exponential window etc.)

• Curve fitting (Linear, exp., poly. nonlinear Lev-Mar. fit,


interpolation etc.)

• Probability and statistics functions (mean, standard deviation,


RMS, histogram, distributions(chi square,F,t, inverse
distributions, erfc(x), erf(x), contingency table etc),
ANOVA(1D,2D,3D) etc)

• Array operations (numerical methods, root, etc.)

• Code interface function to use DLL’s written any other


language. This feature gives the opportunity to use the codes
written in conventional languages (C/C++, Visual Basic, etc.) to
be used in a LabVIEW program.

• Add-on software packages for specific extension of the


program features, for instance image processing.
ADVANTAGES OF VIRTUAL INSTRUMENTS
Flexibility
Except for the specialized components and circuitry found in
traditional instruments, the general architecture of stand-alone
instruments is very similar to the PC-based virtual instrument. Both
require one or more microprocessors, communication ports (for
example, serial and GPIB), and display capabilities, as well as data
acquisition modules. What makes one different from other are their
flexibility and the fact that you can modify and adapt the instrument to
your particular needs. A traditional instrument might contain an
integrated circuit to perform a particular set of data processing
functions; in a virtual instrument, these functions would be performed
by software running on the PC processor.

Lower Cost
By employing virtual instrumentation solutions, you can lower capital
costs, system development costs, and system maintenance costs, while
improving time to market and the quality of your own products.

Plug-In and Networked Hardware


There is a wide variety of an available hardware that you can either
plug into the computer o access through a network. These devices
offer a wide range of data acquisition capabilities at a significantly
lower cost than that of dedicated devices. As integrated circuit
technology advances, and off-the –self components become cheaper
and more powerful, so do the boards that use them. With these
advances in technology comes an increase in data acquisition rates,
measurement accuracy, precision and better signal isolation.
Depending on the particular application, the hardware you choose
might include analog input or output, digital input or output counters,
timers, filters, simultaneous sampling, and waveform generation
capabilities. The wide gamut of boards and hardware could include
any one of thee features or a combination of them.
Distributed Applications
A virtual instrument is not limited or confined to a stand-alone PC. In
fact, with recent developments in networking technologies and the
internet, it is more common for instruments to use the power of
connectivity for the purpose of task sharing. Typical examples include
supercomputers, distributed monitoring and control devices, as well as
data or result visualization from multiple locations.

Reduces Cost and Preserves Investments


Because you can use a single computer equipped wit LabVIEW for
countless application and purpose, it is a versatile product. It is not
only versatile but also extremely cost-effective. Virtual
instrumentation with LabVIEW proves to be economical, not only in
the reduced development costs but also in its preservation of capital
investment over along the period of time. As your needs change, you
can modify systems easily without the need to buy new equipment.
You can create complete instrumentation libraries for less than the
cost of a single traditional, commercial instrument.

Flexibility and Scalability


Engineers and scientists have needs and requirements that can change
rapidly. They also need to have maintainable, extensible solutions that
can used for a long time. By creating virtual instruments based on
powerful development software such as LabVIEW, you inherently
design an open framework that seamlessly integrates software and
hardware. This ensures that your applications not only work well
today but that you can easily integrate new technologies in the future
as they become available, or extend your solutions beyond the original
scope, as new requirements that require a broad range of solutions.

Other Advantages:-
• The users are able to define instruments inside the software.

• Lower costs of instrumentation

• Portability between various computer platforms


• Easy-to-use graphical user interface.

• Graphical representation of program structures

• Code can be compiled to standalone.EXE or .DLL file.

• TCP/IP connectivity (Web server integrated into virtual


instrument)

• Virtual instruments are easily adaptable to changing demands.

• The user interface can be adapted to the needs of different


users.

COMPONENTS IN A VI
A VI consists of two panels: one is the front panel, and other is the
block diagram. These are defined below:

The interactive user interface of a VI is called the front panel,


because it simulates the panel of a physical instrument. The front
panel can contain knobs, push buttons, graphs, and other controls and
indicators. You enter data using a mouse and keyboard, and then view
the results on the computer screen.

The VI receives instructions from a block diagram, which you


construct in G. the block diagram a pictorial solution to a
programming problem. The block diagram is also the source code for
the VI.
Indicators:
Indicators are used to output numeric (integer or floating point),
character, and Boolean data in LabVIEW. On the block diagram,
indicators are represented with a thin border.

Controls:
Controls are used to input numeric (integer or floating point),
character, and Boolean data in LabVIEW. On the block diagram,
controls are represented with a thick border.

For Loop Structure:

A For Loop executes its sub-diagram N times, where the count


equals the value contained in the terminal.
You set the count explicitly by writing a value from outside the loop
to the left of the count terminal. The iteration terminal, I, contains the
current number of completed iterations; 0 during the first iteration, 1
during the second, and so on up to N-1. If you write 0 to the count
terminal, the loop does not execute.

While Loop Structure:

A While Loop executes its sub- diagram until a Boolean value you
write to the conditional, terminal is FALSE. LABVIEW checks the
conditional terminal value at the end of each iteration, and if the value
is TRUE, iteration occurs, so the loop always executes at least once.
The default value of conditional terminal is FALSE, so if it s unwired,
the loop iterates only once.
The iteration terminal behaves exactly as it does in the For Loop. In
the LABVIEW, there is also a “stop” termination for the while loop;
i.e., the loop will continue to execute until the stop condition is
TRUE.

Shift Register:

Both loop structures can have terminals called shift registers that you
use for passing data from the current iteration to the next iteration.

Shift Registers are local variables that feed forward or transfer values
from the completion of one iteration to the beginning of the next. A
shift Register has a pair of terminals directly opposite each other on
the vertical sides of the loop border. The right terminal, the rectangle
with the up arrow, stores the data at the completion of the iteration.
LABVIEW shifts that data at the end of the iteration, and it appears in
the left terminal, the rectangle with the down arrow, in time for the
next iteration. You can use shift registers for any type of data, but the
data you write to each register terminals must be of the same type.
Case Structure:

The Case Structure has two or more sub-diagrams, or cases, of which


only one will execute when the structure executes. This depends in the
value of the Boolean or numeric scalar you wire to the external side of
the selection terminal. If a Boolean is wired to the selector, the case
structure must have two cases, FALSE and TRUE. If a numeric is
wired to the selector, the structure can have from 0 to N cases.

Arrays And Graphs in LABVIEW:

Initialize Array:

Returns an N-dimensional array in which every element is initialized


to the specified value. This function is resizable, so we typically
define an array of one element. The element cannot be an array.
Build Array:

Concatenate inputs in a top to bottom order. Pop-up on an input node


and select change to Array to change it in to an array input. For an N-
dimensional array, element inputs must have N-1 dimension and array
inputs must have N dimensions.

Index Array:

Returns an element of the array at the index input. If the array is


multi-dimensional you must add additional index by resizing or
popping up and adding terminals. You can also slice out sub- arrays
(e.g. rows or coloums) by disabling the index terminals from the
popup.
XY GRAPH

A graph indicator is a two dimensional display of one or more plots.


The graph receives and plots data as a block. The XY graph is a
general-purpose, Cartesian graphing object that you can use to plot
multi-valued functions.

Use this arrangement to bundle two 1D arrays into a cluster, to be


plotted.

The input into an XY graph indicator for a single plot is a cluster a X


array and a Y array. You can also display multiple plots on a XY
graph.
Sample Simulation Of Few Programs Using LABVIEW.

1: Square Wave Generation:

Figure: Block Diagram Of Square Wave Generation.


Output Waveforms Obtained After Simulation.
2: Amplitude Modulation:

Figure: Block Diagram Of Amplitude Modulation.


Output Waveform After Simulation
INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT
HARDWARE REQUIREMNT

The following hardware is required to implement PC Based


Automatic Car Parking System:

• Personal Computer with Pentium Processor


• PCI CB68LP DAQ Card & I/O Connector
• Proximity Sensors & Signal Conditioners
• Wooden Base
• DC Stepper Motor
AUTOMATIC CAR PARKING SYSTEM

The diagram shows the layout of a simple car park. It has an entry
barrier and an exit barrier. The car park itself has six spaces and series
of displays to indicate whether it is full, has spaces or is empty, with a
numerical indicator to determine the exact amount. Designing need to
be done that will allow cars into the parking zone when it is empty or
has spaces and to exit the car park through the correct barrier.
Designing must also do to control the display boxes in the center of
the screen.
1 System Planning:
The system planning begins with the understanding of what to do and
what we are going to develop is feasible or not from the user’s
perspective. Here we mainly thinks about to provide the user better
facilities then the earlier one so that his efficiency and performance is
improved. So first of all we perform the feasibility study to understand
the project’s feasibility under mainy areas then we think about the
main characteristics that are must for the projecty. All the description
is as below.

Feasibility Study:

a) Technical Feasibility

• There is work going on electrical components with the


help of assembly language.
• The proposed equipment has the technical capability to
make a decision required to use the system.
• This system will be upgraded later.
• Using this technology there are technical guarantees of
accuracy, reliability ease of access and security.

b) Economical Feasibility:
• This system that can be developed technically and that
will be used must still be profitable for the users.
• Its financial benefits must exceed then costs when we
investigate the full system.

c) Operational Feasibility:

• This system is beneficial because that will meet the


operating requirements of the organization if it is
developed and installed.
• There is sufficient for the project from the user.
• The people are involved and give suggestion time to time
when the project is planned and developed.
• This proposed system has no harm. It increase the
performance of the user.

2 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF THE SYSTEM


The performance requirements of the system mainly encompass
processing and response time requirements. The system developed
must follow certain performance criteria namely.

a)Functional
The system should satisfy stated needs. It should be suitable, accurate,
interoperable, compliant and secure.

b)Reliable

The system should be mature, fault tolerant and recoverable.

c)Usable

The system should be easy to use i.e. it should be understandable,


learnable and operable.

d)Efficient

The system should make optimal use of system resources.

f)Maintainable

Repairing of the system should be easy, it should be analyzable,


changeable, stable and testable.

g)Portable

The system should be easy to transpose from one environment to


other. It should be adaptable, installable and replaceable.
3.Cost Benefit Analysis

Cost incurred:-

1.Personnel Cost
These include staff salaries and benefits as well as pay for those who
are involved in developing the system. These cost are one time costs
and are labeled as developmental costs. In time was consumed.
Hence, it can be said that a there was a little personnel cost involved.

2.Supply Costs
These costs are variable and basically include cost of components
used ( resisters, capacitors, transistors, transformer, relays etc.), cost
of tools which are used ( electric iron, punching device, programmer,
screw drivers etc.) and thee like. These costs are high and generally
dominate other cost.

3.Operational and Maintenance Cost:-

These costs are associated with the running cost of the project. These
include replacement of component as the component become faulty,
cost of personnel involved in running the project or the other cost that
are necessary for the maintenance of the maintenance of the project.
Generally these costs are very low and are variable. These are not the
regular periodic cost but occur very occasionally.

Benefits Achieved

1.Cost-Savings Benefits
This system leads to reduction in administrative and required than
earlier method. Also now the same work requires less time. So this
project reduces the running cost by a large factor, this is a beneficial
one.
2. Improved- Service-Level Benefits
This system improves the performance of handling the power supply
and also controlling the generator functioning. It reduces time gap
between different stages of work, earlier the user go to the generator
and manually start or stop the generator. This communication took
time. With earlier systems the user faces the difficulty when one of
the phases is gone then only one phase output is provided but by this
we get the two phase output at the time. This is a major enhancement
in the performance of the system.

So by using this new system there are some more development cost
then earlier one but the running cost and the maintenance cost are
reduces by this. So by this project there are always an overall benefit
achieved.
SENSORS:
A sensor is a type of transducer. Direct-indicating sensors, for
example, a mercury thermometer, are human-readable. Other sensors
must be paired with an indicator or display, for instance a
thermocouple. Most sensors are electrical or electronic, although other
types exist.

Sensors are used in everyday life. Applications include automobiles,


machines, aerospace, medicine, industry and robotics.

Technological progress allows more and more sensors to be


manufactured on the microscopic scale as microsensors using
MEMS technology. In most cases a microsensor reaches a
significantly higher speed and sensitivity compared with
macroscopic approachesTypes

Since a significant change involves an exchange of energy, sensors


can be classified according to the type of energy transfer that they
detect.

Thermal:
• temperature sensors: thermometers, thermocouples, temperature
sensitive resistors (thermistors and resistance temperature
detectors), bi-metal thermometers and thermostats
• heat sensors: bolometer, calorimeter

Electromagnetic:
• electrical resistance sensors: ohmmeter, multimeter
• electrical current sensors: galvanometer, ammeter
• electrical voltage sensors: leaf electroscope, voltmeter
• electrical power sensors: watt-hour meters
• magnetism sensors: magnetic compass, fluxgate compass,
magnetometer, Hall effect device
• metal detectors
• RADAR
Mechanical:
• pressure sensors: altimeter, barometer, barograph, pressure
gauge, air speed indicator, rate of climb indicator, variometer
• gas and liquid flow sensors: flow sensor, anemometer, flow
meter, gas meter, water meter, mass flow sensor
• mechanical sensors: acceleration sensor, position sensor, selsyn,
switch, strain gauge

Chemical:
Chemical sensors detect the presence of specific chemicals or classes
of chemicals. Examples include oxygen sensors, also known as
lambda sensors, ion-selective electrodes, pH glass electrodes, and
redox electrodes.

A carbon monoxide detector is a chemical sensor often used in the


home. These detectors continually sample air and will sound an alarm
if the amount of invisible, odorless, and potentially deadly carbon
monoxide levels in our home and/or workplace rises above 400 PPM.

In manufacturing, chemical sensors are used to manage process


controls, quality assurance, and safety.

The engine management systems of automobiles take information


from sensors and adjust engine parameters to achieve the best mix of
fuel economy, performance and emissions. Oxygen sensors have been
used in automobiles since the late 70’s. Many areas require
automobiles to pass an emissions test annually. The test equipment
also uses chemical sensors to check the exhaust emissions.

Chemical sensors have been developed to detect threats from


explosives and biological weapons. Monitoring for these threats
includes border crossings, major transportation systems, and large
public spaces.[1] For example, airport security utilizes chemical
sensors used to sniff out explosives and even drugs. Chemical sensors
are also being developed to sniff out illnesses in people.
In supramolecular analytical chemistry novel molecular sensors are
developed for a wide range of such applications.

Optical radiation:
• light time-of-flight. Used in modern surveying equipment, a
short pulse of light is emitted and returned by a retroreflector.
The return time of the pulse is proportional to the distance and
is related to atmospheric density in a predictable way.

• LIGHT SENSORS: OR (PHOTODETECTORS), including


semiconductor devices such as photocells, photodiodes,
phototransistors, CCDs, and Image sensors; vacuum tube
devices like photo-electric tubes, photomultiplier tubes; and
mechanical instruments such as the Nichols radiometer.

• INFRA-RED SENSOR: especially used as occupancy sensor


for lighting and environmental controls.

• SCANNING LASER:- A narrow beam of laser light is scanned


over the scene by a mirror. A photocell sensor located at an
offset responds when the beam is reflected from an object to the
sensor, whence the distance is calculated by triangulation.

Ionizing Radiation:
• radiation sensors: Geiger counter, dosimeter, Scintillation
counter, Neutron detection

• subatomic particle sensors: Particle detector, scintillator, Wire


chamber, cloud chamber, bubble chamber. See
Category:Particle detectors

Acoustic:
• Acoustic : uses ultrasound time-of-flight echo return. Used in
mid 20th century polaroid cameras and applied also to robotics.
Even older systems like Fathometers (and fish finders) and
other 'Tactical Active' Sonar (Sound Navigation And Ranging)
systems in naval applications which mostly use audible sound
frequencies.
• Sound sensors : microphones, hydrophones, seismometers.

Other Types:
• MOTION SENSORS: radar gun, speedometer, tachometer,
odometer, occupancy sensor, turn coordinator.
• ORIENTATION SENSORS: gyroscope, artificial horizon, ring
laser gyroscope
• DISTANCE SENSOR (NONCONTACTING): Several technologies
can be applied to sense distance: magnetostriction

Non Initialized Systems:


• Gray code strip or wheel- a number of photodetectors can sense
a pattern, creating a binary number. The gray code is a mutated
pattern that ensures that only one bit of information changes
with each measured step, thus avoiding ambiguities.

Initialized Systems:
These require starting from a known distance and accumulate
incremental changes in measurements.

• Quadrature Wheel- A disk-shaped optical mask is driven by a


gear train. Two photocells detecting light passing through the
mask can determine a partial revolution of the mask and the
direction of that rotation.
• Whisker Sensor- A type of touch sensor and proximity sensor

Biological sensors:
All living organisms contain biological sensors with functions similar
to those of the mechanical devices described. Most of these are
specialized cells that are sensitive to:

• Light, motion, temperature, magnetic fields, gravity, humidity,


vibration, pressure, electrical fields, sound, and other physical
aspects of the external environment;
• Physical aspects of the internal environment, such as stretch,
motion of the organism, and position of appendages
(proprioception);
• An enormous array of environmental molecules, including
toxins, nutrients, and pheromones;
• Many aspects of the internal metabolic milieu, such as glucose
level, oxygen level, or osmolality;
• An equally varied range of internal signal molecules, such as
hormones, neurotransmitters, and cytokines;
• And even the differences between proteins of the organism
itself and of the environment or alien creatures.

Artificial sensors that mimic biological sensors by using a biological


sensitive component, are called biosensors.

The human senses are examples of specialized neuronal sensors. See


Sense.
INTRODUCTION TO PROXIMITY SENSORS
PROXIMITY SENSOR:
The Inductive Proximity Sensor (IPS) is a solid state device that
generates an output signal when metal objects are either inside or
entering into its sensing area from any direction. No physical contact
is required nor desired. IPS's work best with ferrous metals, however,
they also work well with non-ferrous metals (aluminum, brass, copper
etc.) at reduced sensing distances.
First introduced in the mid 60's, Inductive Proximity Sensors
were designed as an alternative to mechanical limit switches for many
applications. Initially, IPS's were made with housing similar in size
and dimension to the limit switch, but had short sensing distances.
Following very good results with these new devices, market pressure
led to the development of larger sensors with increased sensing
distances. Inductive Proximity Sensors have no moving parts, operate
very fast, are extremely reliable, require no maintenance, and operate
under extreme environmental conditions. They typically interface with
Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), process and personal
computers with appropriate hardware and software. They also can
control relays, solenoids, valves, etc., up to their maximum output
current.
Wiring Diagram:

Connection:

Operation:
An Inductive Proximity Sensor consists of an oscillator, a ferrite core
with coil, a detector circuit, and output circuit, housing, and a cable or
connector. The oscillator generates a sine wave of a fixed frequency.
This signal is used to drive the coil. The coil in conjunction with
ferrite core induces a electromagnetic field. When the field lines are
interrupted by a metal object, the oscillator voltage from the coil. The
reduction in the oscillator voltage is caused by eddy currents induced
in the oscillator voltage is caused by eddy currents induced in the
metal interrupting the field lines. This reduction in voltage of the
oscillator is detected by the detecting circuit. In standard sensors,
when the ouptput signal is generated. In an Analog Proximity Sensor,
a pre-set level is not used. The Analog sensor circuitry utilizes the
change of the oscillator output voltage to generate a DC output
voltage proportional to the distance the metal object is from the
sensing head.

Sensor Configuration:

Operation configuration:
Output may be Normally Open (NO) or Normally Closed (NC). Some
models feature both a normally open (NO) and normally closed (NC)
output which is called a complementary output.

Fig: Electronic Output Circuits


DC Inductive Proximity Sensor may be 2-wire, or 4-wire, A3-
wire or 4-wire DC sensor can be an NPN or PNP output transistor. If
the output load is connected to the negative power source than a
sensor with a PNP output transistor is required. A PNP sensor is also
known as a source sensor. If the output load is connected to the
positive power source, then a sensor with an NPN output transistor is
required. An NPN sensor is also known as a sink sensor.
Flush Mount sensors are sometimes called Shielded or
Embeddable. A metal band surrounds the sensing head which contains
a coil wound around a ferrite core.

Fig. Sensor Electromagnetic Field


The resulting electromagnetic field is directed in front of the
sensor face. Flush sensors have a narrow sensing field which may be
desirable in certain applications.
In a Non-Flush (Non-shielded or Non-embeddable) sensor, (Figure 4),
there is no metal band and the resulting electromagnetic field lines
larger sensing distance than Flush sensor.

Sensing Distance:
There are several sensing distance definitions used in industry.
The nominal sensing distance (Sn), is the conventional quantity to
designate the operational distance, it is specified in the ordering pages,
and does not include variations in production tolerances, supply
voltage tolerances, and ambient temperature tolerances.
A standard target used to specify sensing distance is a square
piece of mild steel having a thickness of 1mm (0.04 in.) The sides of
the square are equal to the diameter of the circle inscribed on the
sensor face or three times the rated operating distance Sn, whichever
is greater. The assured operation distance (Sa) is the smallest useful
sesing distance which guarantees operation under variations in
temperature, voltage and manufacture. It is given as 81 % of Sn. See
Figure % 0<Sa>.81 Sn. The effective sensing distance (Sr), is
measured at nominal supply voltage and nominal ambient temperature
and takes into account manufacturing tolerances:
0.9 Sn�Su�1.21 Sn
FIG. 5 SENSING DISTANCE DEFINITIONS
Sr.-MNFG. TOLERANCES

Hysteresis:
Hysteresis is the switch-on point when the object approaches
the sensor’s active surface, and switch off point, when the object is
moving away from the sensor’s active surface. Without sufficient
Hysteresis, an Inductive Proximity Sensor would chatter
(continuously switching on and off), so it is designed into the sensor
circuitry. The differential travel (Hysteresis) is given as a percent of
the expected rated operating distance sr.
Fig 6: Hysteresis
Maximum switching frequency:
The switching frequency indicates the maximum number of
switching operations of a sensor per second. The value listed in the
product specifications is achieved with the conditions shown in
Figure7. the value is always dependent on target size, distance from
sensing face and speed of target. Using a smaller target or space may
result in a reduction of a specific sensor maximum switching
frequency.

Fig: Switching Frequency


LINEAR STEPPER MOTORS
Overview:

The linear stepper motor has been made flat instead of round so
its motion will be along a straight line instead of rotary. A picture of a
linear motor and its amplifier is shown in Fig. 11-69, and the basic
parts of the linear motor are shown in Fig. 11-70. In this diagram you
can see the motor consists of a platen and aforcer. The platen is the
fixed part of the motor and its length will determine the distance the
motor will travel. It has a number of teeth that are like the rotor in a
traditional stepper motor except it is passive and is not a permanent
magnet. The forcer consists of four pole pieces that each have three
teeth. The pitch of each tooth is staggered with respect to the teeth of
the platen. It uses mechanical roller bearings or air bearings to ride
above the platen on an air gap so that the two never physically come
into contact with each other. The magnetic field in the forcer is
changed by passing current through its coils. This action causes the
next set of teeth to align with the teeth on the platen and causes the
forcer to move from tooth to tooth over the platen in linear travel.
When the current pattern is reversed, the forcer will reverse its
direction of travel. A complete switching cycle consists of four full
steps, which moves the forcer the distance of one tooth pitch over the
platen. The typical resolution of a linear motor is 12,500 steps per
inch, which provides a high degree of resolution. The typical load for
a linear motor is low mass that requires high-speed movements.
Fig: A linear motor and its amplifier.(Courtesy of Parker
Compumotor Division).

Fig: The forcer is shown on top of the platen of a linear motor.


The electromagnets are identified on the forcer. (Courtesy of
Parker Compumotor Division.)

Theory of Operation:
The forcer consists of two electromagnets that are identified in
Fig. 11-70 as magnet A and magnet B and one permanent magnet.
The permanent magnet is a strong rare-earth permanent magnet. The
electromagnets are formed in the shape of teeth so that their magnetic
flux can be concentrated. In the diagram you can see that the forcer
has four sets of teeth and these teeth are spaced in quadrature so that
only one set of teeth is aligned with the teeth on the platen at any time.

When current is applied to the coil (field winding) of the


electromagnets, their magnetic flux passes through the air gap
between the forcer and the platen, causing a strong attraction between
the two. The magnetic flux from the electromagnets also tends to
reinforce the flux lines of one of the permanent magnets and cancels
the flux lines of the other permanent magnet. The attraction of the
forces at the time when peak current is flowing is up to ten times the
holding force.

When a pattern of energizing one coil and then another is


established, the resulting magnetic field will pull the motor in one
direction from one tooth to the next. When current flow to the coil is
stopped, the forcer will align itself to the appropriate tooth set and
create a holding force that tends to keep the forcer from moving left or
right to another tooth. The linear stepper motor controller sets the
pattern for energizing and de-energizing the field coils so that the
motor moves smoothly in either direction. By reversing the pattern,
the direction the motor travels is reversed.
Figure shows a block diagram of the linear stepper motor
controller. From this diagram you can see that it has a microprocessor
that interfaces with a digital-to-analog converter, a force angle
modifier, and a power amplifier. It also has a power supply for the
amplifiers and it may have an accelerometer amplifier as an option.
The microprocessor has ROM and EPROM memory to store
programs.

Fig: A block diagram of a linear motor controller. (Courtesy of


Parker Compumotor Division.)

Applications:
The applications for a linear motor tend to be straight-line
motion. These types of applications are slightly different from
traditional stepper motor applications where the rotary motion is
converted to linear motion with a ball and screw, rack and pinion, or
other method. Figure 11-72 shows the linear motor used in a coil
winding positioner application. The linear motor in this application is
teamed with a servomotor that controls the speed of the coil winding
mechanism. The linear motor determines the exact location of the next
coil that is added to the spool. The speed of the linear motor can be
increased or decreased when the machine is spooling larger-diameter
or smaller-diameter wire. The ability of the linear motor to provide
small incremental steps makes it a good match for this application.

Figure 11-73 shows a second application where the linear motor is


used to transport a semiconductor wafer through a precision laser
inspection station. The linear motor provides excellent locating ability
for this application.

A Compumotor L-L20-P96 system acts as the traverse element


to guide the wire, while a Z Series servo motor rotates the spindle.
Both axes are coordinated by a Compumotor 4000 indexer
preprogrammed to produce a number of different coil types. Precise
position control and mechanical simplicity over a long length of travel
are provided by the linear motor.
Fig: A linear stepper motor used in a coil winding application.
The linear motor is used to control the position of the coil winder.
(Courtesy of Parker Compumotor Division.)

In this application, the linear motor acts as a transport for


semiconductor wafers. The L20 linear motor system offers increased
throughput and gentle handling of the wafer.

Fig: A linear stepper motor used to transport a silicon


semiconductor wafer through a laser inspection station. (Courtesy
of Parker Compumotor Division.)

Motor Fundamentals:

Overview:

Motors come in many different types, shapes, and sizes. Most of the
motors used in motion control can be divided into two categories:
stepper motors and servo motors. This document describes these two
types of motors.

Table of Contents:

1. Stepper Motors
2. Advantages of Stepper Motors
3. Disadvantages of Stepper Motors
4. Servo Motors
5. Advantages of Servo Motors
6. Disadvantages of Servo Motors

Stepper Motors:

Stepper motors are less expensive and typically easier to use than a
servo motor of a similar size. They are called stepper motors because
they move in discrete steps. Controlling a stepper motor requires a
stepper drive and a controller (For more information about stepper
drives, see the related link, Stepper Motor Drives below). You control
a stepper motor by providing the drive with a step and direction
signal. The drive then interprets these signals and drives the motor.
Stepper motors can be run in an open loop configuration (no
feedback) and are good for low-cost applications. In general, a stepper
motor will have high torque at low speeds, but low torque at high
speeds. Movement at low speeds is also choppy unless the drive has
microstepping capability (for more information on microstepping see
the microstep section of the Stepper Motor Switching Sequence link
below). At higher speeds, the stepper motor is not as choppy, but it
does not have as much torque. When idle, a stepper motor has a
higher holding torque than a servo motor of similar size, since current
is continuously flowing in the stepper motor windings.

Advantages of Stepper Motors:

Some of the advantages of stepper motors over servo motors


are as follows:

• Low cost
• Can work in an open loop (no feedback required)
• Excellent holding torque (eliminated brakes/clutches)
• Excellent torque at low speeds
• Low maintenance (brushless)
• Very rugged - any environment
• Excellent for precise positioning control
• No tuning required
Disadvantages of Stepper Motors:

Some of the disadvantages of stepper motors in comparison


with servo motors are as follows:

• Rough performance at low speeds unless you use microstepping


Consume current regardless of load.
• Limited sizes available .
• Noisy .
• Torque decreases with speed (you need an oversized motor for
higher torque at higher speeds) .
• Stepper motors can stall or lose position running without a
control loop .
COCLUSIONS:

Development of PC based automated systems is very popular for its


easy monitoring and controlling from remote place or near the plant
itself. There are various ways to develop these automated systems. A
PC based automatic car parking is a typical system based on the
National Instruments DAQ product and Lab View Software. Using NI
DAQ and Lab View, it is very easy to develop any automated system.
It faced a problem in receiving to and sending signals fro DAQ Card
when the system was in operation. This was because of loading effect
on DAQ Card when all lines of DAQ Card are activated, which
caused voltage drop.

However, this problem overcomes by isolating all inputs and outputs


by Optoisolator and also designing all external circuits to give low
output impedance and high input impedance. This automatic car
parking system may be further improved by introducing the latest
image sensors for identifying the car and also payment of car parking
charge.
FUTURE PROSPECT:

The system can also be used to make car parking completely


automatic. Pressure sensors have been installed at the entry and exit
gate to sense the car waiting for entry or exit and give input signals to
the computer to count the number of vehicles entering and leaving the
park respectively.

The number of cars available in the park will be the difference of the
number of vehicles entering and the number of vehicles leaving.
When a car approaches top entry gate, the computer will decide
whether any space available or not. If no space is available, the
computer will then send signal to entry gate to keep the gate closed
and also to the monitor to display the message” Car Park Full”. If
there is space in the park, the user will enter his car number in the
keyboard located at entry gate and the entry gate will open to allow
the care to enter the park. The computer will then store the number of
the car and the time of entering in to the park in the data base.
Similarly, at the time of exit, as soon as the car approaches the exit
gate, the user has to enter his car number. The computer will then
calculate the parking charge multiplying the rate fixed by the authority
and the total period spent in the park and this amount will be
displayed to draw attention opf the car owner to pay. As soon as the
amount paid, the computer will send signal to the exit gate to open
and allow the car to leave the park.
BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR AUTOMATIC CAR
PARKING:
1 Personal Computer:

The PC must be compatible with Pentium processor of minimum 800


MHz, speed and minimum 64 MB RAM and PCI slot.

2DAQ Card And Other Accessories:

PCI card of the National Instruments Inc. has been used for data
acquisition. PCI has 40 channels out of which 32 I/O (4 ports of 8
lines), 4 dedicated output and control & 4 dedicated input and status.

3Keypads With LCD Display:

Standard alphanumeric keypad with LCD display have been used for
keying in car number at the time of entry or exit.

4 Visual Display Unit(VDU):

In order to display the status of the car park before entering in to car
park, either CRT or LCD can be used.

5Cash Counter (Coin Separator) With Display:

At the time of leaving the car park, the parking charge is required to
display. A cash counter is required to place in the convenient place to
pay the parking charge by the users. LCD with coin separator has
been placed at the exit gate to count number of coins of different
denominations.

6 Linear Stepper Motor:

12V DC, 0.6 A motor with an arm mounted on the shaft of the motor
has been chosen for closing and opening the gate.