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19/08/2015

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Elementos Essenciais
e! Benfico
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Nquel e a tolerncia das plantas s
doenas

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Prof. Dr. Tiago Tezotto

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Unifeob

@2$25*9*#"&3 *$2/#"&>"2? 2$%)

tiagotezotto@gmail.com
PIRACICABA 2015

White & Brown (2010) Ann. Bot. 105: 1073-1080

White & Brown (2010) Ann. Bot. 105: 1073-1080

Solo

Solo
Teores mdios mundiais de Ni em rochas e solos
Rocha e Solo
Ni (mg kg-1)
Crosta terrestre
20
Rochas gneas
Ultramficas
1.400 - 2.000
Mficas
130 - 160
cidas
5 - 20
Rochas sedimentares
Argiloso
40 - 90
Arenito
5 - 20
Calcrio
5 - 20
Solos(1)
29
Neossolos (textura arenosa)
7 - 33
Espodossolos (textura mdia)
11 - 25
Cambissolos (textura muito argilosa)
23 - 50
Calcisols(2) (calcrio)
18 - 92
Organossolos (orgnico)
4 - 12

Rochas
Ultramrficas
Serpentina

(1) Correspondncia

aproximada no SiBCS com sistema WRB/FAO


Sem correspondncia no SiBCS
Kabata-Pendias, Trace elements in soils and plants, 2011
(2)

Brooks, Serpentine and its vegetation: a multidisciplinary approach, 1987


Massoura et al., Geoderma, 136, 2006

Prof.
(cm)

ES
GO(1)

0 - 20
0 - 10

MG

PR
PR(2)
PE
RO/MT
SP(3)
SP

Horiz. B

0 - 20
13,55
At horiz. B ou C
6
8,6
At 30
1,3
0 - 20
6,4
At horiz. C
40

(1) Niquelndia,
(2) Plancie

Teores Ni
Variao
Mnimo Mximo
6,7
618
14.390
26,06 < 0,014 417,96
51,4 < 0,014 1.167,52
31,46
0,72
463,33

Mdio

Extrator
HF + HNO3 + HClO4
HCl
EPA 3051
EPA 3052
gua rgia

87

HF + HNO3 + HClO4 + gua rgia

0,2
0,0
< 10

24,3
5,6
127

gua rgia
HCl + HNO3
gua rgia
EPA 3051
HCl + HNO3 - H2O2
HCl + HClO4

Fonte
Paye et al. (2010)
Reeves et al. (2007)
Caires (2009)
Licht et al. (2006);
MINEROPAR (2005a; 2005b)
Buschle (2013)
Biondi (2010)

Melo et al. (2007)


Rovers et al. (1983)

Alto

Muito Alto

Teor
no
solo

mg dm -3
B

0,20

0,60

Cu

0,20

0,80

Fe

4,00

12,00

Mn

1,40

5,00

Zn

0,50

1,20

Santos (2011)

Americano do Brasil, Barro Alto, Crominia, Macedo e Morro Feio


litornea

(3) Jaboticabal

Mdio

Localizao

Baixo

Compilao de teores totais de Ni (mg kg-1) em solos naturais e


agrcolas do Brasil

Produtividade relativa (%)

Micronutriente no solo

Solo

B
(gua quente)

0 20 cm

Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn
(Extrator DTPA)

19/08/2015

Solo

Solo

Disponibilidade

Compilao de teores disponveis de Ni (mg dm-3) em solos naturais e agrcolas do


Brasil

0,001% teores totais


1 mg dm-3
3 a 150 g L-1

Teores Ni
Variao
Mnimo Mximo
< 0,013
BA (Luiz Eduardo Magalhes)
0 - 20
< 0,1
0,11
GO (Rio Verde)
0 - 20
0,27
< 0,013
MA (Balsas)
0 - 20
< 0,1
0,09
MT (Primavera do Leste)
0 -20
0,14
0,07
0,08
RS (Campo Novo e Coxilha)
0 - 20
0,13
0,16
SP
At horiz. C
< 0,5
1,4
SP (Jaboticabal)
0 - 20
0,35
Localizao

Ctions

nions

Ni+2
NiOH+
NiHCO3+

HNiO2Ni(OH)3-

Ni(OH)20
NiSO40

Uren, Advances in Agronomy, 48, 1992


Vanselow, Diagnostic criteria for plants and soils, 1966
Kabata-Pendias, Trace elements in soils and plants, 2011

Prof.
(cm)

Mdio

Extrator
DTPA
Mehlich-1
DTPA
Mehlich-1
DTPA
Mehlich-1
DTPA
Mehlich-1
DTPA
Mehlich-1
DTPA
Mehlich-3

Fator manejo

Solo
pH

Fonte
Rodak (2014)
Rodak (2014)
Rodak (2014)
Rodak (2014)
Rodak (2014)
Rovers et al. (1983)
Melo et al. (2007)

Fatores climticos

Cu

Disponibilidade de Ni, mg kg-1

Efeito do pH do solo na
disponibilidade de Ni em dois
solos contaminados de Ontario
(extrao com 0,01 M Sr-nitrato)

Fator planta
Relao Raiz:PA

CALAGEM / GESSO
pH solo

Raiz

Fator SOLO

P2O5
COMPACTAO
MICRONUTRIENTE

M.O

O2

Siebielec e Chaney, Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 37, 2006

Plantas

Plantas

Sintomas de toxidez

De txico a essencial

Canola (Brassica napus)

Amarelecimento entre as nervuras


Mn e Fe
Crescimento reduzido
Raiz
Parte aerea
Deformacao
Manchas nas folhas

Stearns et al., Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 43, 2005


Chen et al., Clean, 37, 2009

19/08/2015
117

Ni disponvel
mg dm-3

MDA
mmol g-1 MF

H2O2
mol g-1

Etileno
nL g-1 MF h-1

Suficiente

0,3
14
30
45
60
Mdia

444
407
516
582

2.282
2.109
2.058
2.438

0,12
0,05
0,05
0,04

443
478

2.433
2.264

0,03
0,06

0,3
14
30
45
60
Mdia

429
408
639
636
451
512

2.095
1.939
2.654
2.524
1.941
2.231

0,4308ns

Polacco et al., 2013


0,8189ns

0,16
0,06
0,05
0,04
0,04
0,07

0,0158*

0,3385ns

<0,0001**

0,8488ns

0,2032ns

0,5789ns

27,3

20,3

19,6

espontneo

NH3

NH3

Pr> F

N
Ni
N x Ni
CV %

ns * **

, ,

700
MDA (mmol g-1)

0.18

Metabolismo
da biossntese
do etileno

MDA = -0.1372x2 + 9.7703x + 388.13 R = 0.54135

800

Etileno = 5E-05x2 - 0.0042x + 0.1278 R = 0.88333

0.16

600
500
400
300
200

H2O2
mol g-

0,3
14
30
45
60
Mdia

444
407
516
582
443
478

2.282
2.109
2.058
2.438
2.433
2.264

0,3
14
30
45
60 Doena
Mdia

429
408
639
636
451
512

2.095
1.939
2.654
2.524
1.941
2.231

N
Senescncia
Ni
N x Ni
CV %

0,4308ns

0,8189ns

0,0158*

0,3385ns

0,8488ns

0,2032ns

27,3

20,3

0.14
0.12
0.10
0.08
0.06
0.04

100

ns * **

0.02

, ,

Desfolha

= No significativo, Significativo a 5% e 1% pelo teste F

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Ni disponvel (mg dm-3)

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Ni disponvel (mg dm-3)

900

Figura 4 - Concentrao de MDA (mmol g-1 MF) e etileno (nL g-1 MF h-1) em folhas
de cafeeiro na pr-antese em funo da disponibilidade de Ni

MDA (mmol g-1)

Zhang et al., 2004

0,3972ns

= No significativo, Significativo a 5% e 1% pelo teste F respectivamente

900

MDA
mmol g-1 MF

Ni2+ inibe a atividade da ACC oxidase, possivelmente pela


substituio do Fe2+ (McGarvey & Christoffersen, 1992)

0.18
MDA = -0.1372x2 + 9.7703x + 388.13 R = 0.54135

800

Etileno = 5E-05

0.16

700

Etileno (nL g-1 MF h-1)

CO2(NH3)

CO(NH2)2

CO2

Ni disponvel
mg dm-3

Pr> F

urease

Tabela 5 - Concentrao de MDA (mmol g-1 MF), H2O2 (mo


1
MF h-1) em folhas de cafeeiro na pr-antese em
disponvel de Ni (mg dm-3 DTPA) e manejo de n
deficiente) (n=4)

Suficiente

Metabolismo
do N

Deficiente

Metaloenzima urease e Ni

Etileno (nL g-1 MF h-1)

Como Nutriente

Deficiente

Tabela 5 - Concentrao de MDA (mmol g-1 MF), H2O2 (mol g-1 MF) e etileno (nL g1
MF h-1) em folhas de cafeeiro na pr-antese em razo do teor
disponvel de Ni (mg dm-3 DTPA) e manejo de nitrognio (suficiente e
deficiente) (n=4)

600
500
400
300
200
100

0.14
0.12
0.10
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

10

Ni disponvel (mg dm-3)

20

Tezotto, Favarin,Polacco, Mazzafera, 2015

Figura 4 - Concentrao de MDA (mmol g-1 MF) e etileno (nL


de cafeeiro na pr-antese em funo da disponib
!

3!

51!

(GSH) that forms hemithioacetal, which is then converted into S-D-lactoylglutathione in a

52!

reaction catalyzed by GLY-I (Figure 1). GLY-II releases D-lactate from S-D-

53!

lactoylglutathione and regenerates GSH.

54!
55!
56!
57!
58!
59!
60!
61!
62!

Figure 1. Under normal physiological conditions,! methylglyoxal (MG) is formed in plants


during glycolysis and photosynthesis from dihydroxyacetone phosphate, which is catalyzed
by triose phosphate isomerase to form glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate 12. The intermediate
enediolate-P is formed in this reaction, which, after losing a phosphoryl group by betaelimination, forms enol, which in turn is converted into MG. The reactions between the
intermediate enediol and MG are non-enzymatic (blue arrows). The MG formed is eliminated
by the sequential actions of glyoxalase I and II, in which the consumption and regeneration of
reduced glutathione occurs.

63!
64!

Eleven genes encode GLY-I, and three encode GLY-II in rice

17

. The isoform

65!

Fabiano,depending
Tezotto, Favarin,
Mazzafera,
2015
submitted and
to Frontiers in Plant Science
expression patterns change
on thePolacco
plant and
tissue,
stage of
development,

66!

environmental conditions applied. However, all expression patterns seem to have similar

67!

functions in MG degradation

68!

expressed only in seeds, while other isoforms are only present during specific stages of the

69!

embryo or endosperm. Each isoform may exhibit modified expression (induced or repressed)

70!

during stressful conditions. Experiments on two varieties of rice, one resistant to salt stress

17

. The genes OsGLYI-3 and OsGLYI10, for example, are

19/08/2015
!

5!
20

95!

chloroplast

96!

apoplast and phloem, indicating its ability to easily move within the intra- and extracellular

97!

environments

98!

most of the GSH in A. thaliana leaves, 50% and 30%, respectively 21.
Processo de infeco

. Nevertheless, GSH is found in several cellular compartments, including the

18

. The cytoplasm and chloroplasts are the cellular compartments that store

Urease

99!
100!
101!

Figure 2. Biosynthesis of GSH. Glu = glutamine; Cys = cysteine; Gly = glycine; -ECS =
gamma-EC synthase; GSH-S = glutathione synthetase; GR = glutathione reductase.

102!
103!
104!

Ni, a key factor for plant survival and GSH homeostasis


Among the GLY-I isoforms studied in rice, OsGLY11.2 uses Ni as an activator 8.

105!

Favarin, therefore,
Polacco and determining
Mazzafera, 2015the
submitted
to Frontiers
Various stress types Fabiano,
induce Tezotto,
this isoform;
importance
of Ni in
forPlant
theScience

106!

redox balance of the cells during oxidative stress is possible. Other genes encoding GLY-I

107!

including OsGLYI2, OsGLYI8, OsGLYI9.1, OsGLYI9.2, and OsGLYI12 do not exhibit altered

108!

expression in stressful situations. Among the three GLY-II genes, OsGLYII-1 showed

109!

increased expression during the application of salt stress; OsGLYII-2 showed high expression

110!

levels in all plant tissues (except seeds), and OsGLYII-3 may provide tolerance during abiotic

111!

stress such as salt stress, heavy metals 22-24, and MG accumulation13.

500 g urease
112!

The gene expression levels and the activity of GLY-I may be increased by biotic and

113!

abiotic stresses, many of which have been related in the literature to increasing ROS

114!

production and, consequently, stimulation of the antioxidant metabolism for cellular

fungo Penicillium herquei

Levy, C. (2013)

http://www.ufrgs.br/laprotox/o-que-fazemos/linhas-de-pesquisa/ureases-propriedades-nao-enzimaticas/atividadeantifungica

Consideraes finais
- Solo fonte MICRO amostragem e interpretao do nvel crtico Ni ???

- Faltam informaes para teor foliar Ni


- Aplicaes de Ni com resposta fisiolgica
- Metabolismo do Etileno + Metilglioxal + Glutationa + Metabolismo do N (urease)

Prof. Menten - CCAS

19/08/2015

Obrigado ...
Prof. Dr. Tiago Tezotto
tiago.tezotto@unifeob.edu.br
Unifeob