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EVALUATION WELL COMPLETION TEST ON WELLS


GEOTHERMAL WELLS X Z FIELD

PROPOSAL FINAL TASK


By :
RENNY SARI GIRSANG
12010233

ENGINEERING
PROGRAM OIL

STUDY

ACADEMY OIL AND GAS BALONGAN


INDRAMAYU

2015EVALUATION WELL COMPLETION TEST ON WELLS


GEOTHERMAL WELLS X Z FIELD
PROPOSAL FINAL TASK

Submitted for Comply Requirement to Achieve Diploma


On Study Program Petroleum Engineering
Balongan Oil and Gas Academy

By :
RENNY SARI GIRSANG
12010233

ENGINEERING STUDY PROGRAM OIL


ACADEMY OIL AND GAS BALONGAN
INDRAMAYU
2015

EVALUASI UJI PENYELESAIAN SUMUR PANAS BUMI


(WELL COMPLETION TEST) PADA SUMUR X
LAPANGAN Z
PROPOSAL TUGAS AKHIR

oleh
RENNY SARI GIRSANG
12010233

Disetujui untuk Program Studi Teknik Perminyakan


Akademi Minyak Dan Gas Balongan Indramayu

Pembimbing I

I; Ismanu Yudiantoro, S.T., M.T

Pembimbing II

Agustina Prihantini, S.TTitle

EVALUATION

WELL

COMPLETION

TEST

ON

WELLS

GEOTHERMAL WELLS X Z FIELD


II; The Background
Entered the era of globalization, changes in several sector is very
significant. Changes in the life patterns of the also life problems. Energy sector
for main basic also experienced the fuel crisis. Fossil fuel into fuel main for
many years, predicted be discharged in the next few years. Exploitation a lot
of money the fossil fuels because needs that improve are one of the main
factors behind scarcity of fossil fuels.
Alternative energy into topic around the world. Geothermal to become
an alternative energy on developed with biofuel,solar cells and nuclear. Fossil
fuel in the production land for millions cannot in renew again, hence
alternative fuel sunstainable is an appropriate solutions. In addition to renew
can be in alternative energy also more efficient and effective of energy from
fossils fuels. Alternative energy more environmentally friendly and assist in
reducing the effects of global warming.
Geothermal is alternative energy that benefits also renewable.wh is in
geothermal ended up coming with by the earth not can be discharged. Becuse
the heat produced by the earth consistent, it was reflected from his continuous.
Indonesia was one of the richest geothermal energy . until now has 265
identified location earth heat sources of indonesia with the potential reach
about 28.112 MWe or equivalent to about 12 billion barrels of oil. With the
potential geothermal power adequate indonesia trying to position geothermal
energy as a substitute for fossil-fuel an alternative.
Geothermal in have predicted suiteble to address the problem in
indonesia. Renewable energy needs could be potential geothermal adequate,
while the effect in stirred can help indonesia reduce pollution air be general
the problem indonesia. The effect of globalization also can be reduced by the
use of geothermal as a substitute for coal. Based on the background above

writer take on titles to a piece of writing this with geothermal as alternative


energy generator listrik
By getting parameter parameters in need can be in the regions
permeable set early, permeability a whole as preliminary data to know
producing large well they are early and the characteristics of well. Hence, in
this writing writer interested to discuss about evaluation well compltion test
well geothermal in well x the field z.
III; Purpose
III.1;

General Purpose :

1. Apply and Compare the science which has been in be in the college
into the world of work.
2. Know futher practice in the field where hopefully from experience
pratice of the industry has also gives descriptions of the world of work
indeed.
3. Training and a growing attitudes and thinking that professional to enter
the world of work later.
4. Know the operating system and system organization in industry.
5. In preparation for the being in labor educated and skilled in the use the
knowledge gained.
6. Knows the kind of most of the problem that happening in the world of
work and the solution.
III.2;

Special Purpose :

1; To know the depth of zone has elevated temperatures, production zone


and feeds point.
2; To know local permeable
3; To know pressure and temperature in wells and in a reservoir.
4; To know production capacity well.

IV; Benefits
4.1 Benefits for The Company
1; Companies can use power students whose duties the end in resolving
tasks to the needsof on a unit of work which is relevant.
2; Created cooperation mutually beneficial and useful between the
company place duty an end by students etroleum engineering academy
oil and gas balongan.
4.2 Benefits for Akamigas Balongan
1; A network exemplary coorperation with the institution of work in
efforts to improve interconnectedness and congruity between academic
substance with the activities of management and operational
institutions duty the end of the place.
2; Increase the capacity and the quality of education by involving exertion
skilled activities of duty in the end.
4.3 Benefits for Student
1; Can know be closely and real condition in the workplace.
2; Can apply science of petroleum engineering obtained was college in
practice and working conditions the truth, particularly on evaluation
well completion test geothermal well.
3; Can contribute positive of the company place students undertaking the
task of the end.
V; Theory
V.1;

Geothermal energy
Geothermal originates from greece language which is geo is the

earth, and thermal is hot. And geothermal energy is energy heat stored in
rocks below the surface of the earth and fluid contained on its inside. Heat
is derived from inside the earth can be in the benefits right as steam or hot
water in the result that right for heating a building or for a power plant.
V.2;

The geothermal system

Geothermal energy is stored energy in the hot water or steam on


condition particular geologic at the depth of few miles in the earth crust
(Santoso, 2004)
Geothermal system is the terminology that is used for various things
about water system rocks in high temperatures in a laboratory or the field
(Santoso, 2004) .
A major component in the form of a system geothermal
(Dwikorianto, 2006) :
1.
heat source
2.
permeable rock
3.
cap rock
4.
fluida circulation
Is mainly earth made up of three layers the main crust, the earth ,
and the core mantle. Crust outermost is part of the earth. The thickness of
the earth crust varied, but generally crust under a land thicker than there
are under a solution. Under a land thickness crust generall about 35 miles
while under solution only about 5 miles . rock is in the it is hard rock have
density about 2,7 3 gr/ cm3.
Several the plate plate move decompose while several other
places plate plate pushing and one of which will toward under other
plates. Because hot in astenosfere and heat from friction, end of the was
crushed melted and have high temperatures (magmatisasi process)
Heat the material at a depth of several thousand kilometres under
the surface of the earth causing the occurrence of the flow of heat from the
source of heat until to the surface. It is causing the occurrence of
temperature change from the bottom up to the surface, with a gradient
temperature on average of 300c/km.
So geothermal system formed as a result displacement heat from a
source of heat around occurring in conduction and in convection occurred
because of contact between water with a source heat. Displacement heat to
convection basically occurred because the buoyancy. Because the water
have the gravitational always have a tendency to move downward, but if
the water contact with a source heat there will be displacement heat so as
water temperatures to higher and water lighter.
The state of this will cause water more heat move upstirs and water
more cold move down to the bottom, so there the circulation of water or
current convection.
Gambar 5.1 Displacement heat below the surface

V.3;

The types of geothermal system

Based on the type of fluid production and types of the womb fluid
main, system divided into two, namely a system of one in phase, or system
two the phase..
5.3.1. The system one in phase
This system in generally contain water temperature 90 180C and have not even happened boil during exploitation. An
exaample of this system is the field in tianjin (china) and waiwera
(new zealand).

5.3.2. The system two in phase


5.3.2.1. Vapour Dominated System
Vapour dominated system where a reservoir has and
geothermal the phase of steam are more dominant compared
with the phase of the water, or system where wells
geothermal produce steam dry or steam wet with cavities
rocks a reservoir most contains hot vapor. In the system
domination of steam, it is estimated that steam fill cavities,
the open or of feeds, whereas water fill pores relatively
little, then saturation water probably the same or only
slightly larger than saturation water konat (Swc) and water
trapped in rocks and cannot move.
5.3.2.2. Water Dominated System
Water dominated system is geothermal system
common world where there is a reservoir has and water a
dominant, or system where wells geothermal produce fluid
two the phase a blend of water vapor, in the system
domination of water, it is estimated that water fill cavities,
the open or feeds.
V.4;

The geothermal rocks

Most a reservoir geothermal there are to rocks volcanic rocks with


the main stream through feeds. As is the case in oil, of the nature of rocks
important make clear of the nature of rocks a reservoir geotherml is
porosity, permeability and the density of rocks. Some parameters another
very critical to make clear of the nature of rocks a reservoir geothermal are
hot specific and conductivity heat ( Saptadji, 2002)

5.4.1

Porosity ()

Volume cavities or pores the rocks have generally expressed


as a fraction of total rocks and defined as porosity().
Mathematically is a follows.
=Vp/Vb..............................................................(5.1)
Where the Vp is volume pores an Vb is the volume of the
rocks (Saptadji, 2002).
Porosity rocks a reservoir geothermal usually divide into
two, namely porosity feed and porosity between grains or porosity
matrix rocks. Until now only porosity matrix can be measured in the
laboratory.
5.4.2

Permeability (k)
Permeability a rock is rock the size of ability to drain off
fluid. Usually in the permeability proclaim in unid md ( mili darcy)
in the field often in geothermal proclaim in m, darcy where 1 of the
same amount with 10 12 m2. Rocks the size of the permeability
not the same in all directions ( anisotropy), generally the
permeability in a horizontal direction of much greater permeability
on vertical direction ( Saptadji, 2002)

5.4.3

Density ()
The density of rocks are coparisons between heavy igneous
rocks to the volume of the rocks. (Saptadji, 2002).

5.4.4

Konduktifitas Heat (K)


Konduktifitas heat is a rock parameters said those rocks the
ability to conduct heat by means of conduction if those rocks there
is a difference in temperature ( gradient ) temperature.
Mathematically conductivity expressed as follows.
K = Q/(dT/dz)...........................................................(5.2)
Where Q has the rate of flow of heat per unit area and dT/dz
is gradient temperature. The unit of conductivity to rocks are
W/m.K, simplification of a unit of ( energy/ time/ broad)
(temperature/ distance)(Saptadji, 2002).
One example is granitic rocks; its conductivity is the range
of 2,5 until 4 W/m.K , if those rocks containing quartz as many as
20 35%. The mineral plagioclase will reduce conductivity rocks
because they have conductivity heat (Saptadji, 2002)

5.4.5

Heat Specific Rocks (Cp)


Of spesific heat rocks is a parameter said many the heat
necessary to raise the temperature a unit mass of those rocks 1C
(Saptadji, 2002).

The unit of specific heat rocks are J/Kg.K. Specific heat


rocks generally has price as follows:

In low temperature
0,75 0,85 kJ/kgC

V.5;

In medium temperature

0,85 0,95 kJ/kgC

In high temperature

0,95 1,10 kJ/kgC

Testing Well Geothermal

Measurement and testing well can should be conducted in the gas


drilling reaches a depth of desirable or after well in the production. One of
them is on gas drilling well geothermal used cooling tower to cool fluid
gas drilling before in circulation back.
When gas drilling geothermal well in its invisibility zone with high
temperature accompanied or followed by occurrence of loss of circulation
is expected, because it is an indication of his has broken feeds zone
expected is production zone. When loss of circulation usually mud directly
replaced with water.
Measurement and testing wells acitivity is very important to get
data or information about :
1 The depth of zone has elevated temperatures, production zone adn
feeds point.
2 A kind of fluid production.
3 A kind of reservoir.
4 Pressure and temperature in wells and in a reservoir.
5 Production capacity well, namely the production rate and elthalpy fluid
at various pressure the wellhead.
6 Characteristic of fluid and the gas.
7 Characteristic of a reservoir around well.
8 The condition of the pit , casing a liner.
Measurement made in the gas drilling generally measurement
pressure and temperature. It is also usually temperature mud in and out
always in measure. Similarly composition. The temperature mud is an
indication that mud contact with zone with temperatures were higher.
Increased chlorida content is an indication of feeds zone.
V.6;Well Completion Test
Well completion test is testing the wells that are conducted to
determine the depth of production zone and the depth of feeds point as well
as its production.
Well completion test done after gas drilling reach the target
( corresponding to desired depth and a liner mounted in well, but this test
could also be done before a liner derived or at the time of gas drilling was
halted for a while. A manner mentioned last this will slowing of activity

gas drilling but the way the is the way proper and easiest way to get a on
the condition of a reservoir.
Well completion test done with inject cold water at the rate of fixed
and measure the magnitude of pressure and temperature in well to
investigate profile ( sloping) pressure and temperature in the done
injection. Well completion test is generally carried out several times with
the rate different pump. By analyzing sloping pressure and temperature, the
location of production zone, feeds point, and its productivity can be
determined.
5.6.1. The Purpose of Well Completion Test
1. To know major feeds zone, permeability a whole as preliminary
data to know producing large well in early and the
characteristics of well.
2. To know major feeds zone and the regions loss.
3. To know characteristics of the well.
5.6.2. Water Lost Test
Water lost test aims to know the permeable by means of
pumping cold water over in the well hot enough then detected a
decrease in the temperature by measuring repeatedly at the same
depth before and after is pumped water .
Areas where there are missing water largest is feeds point
and at this region a measuring instrument pressure placed for the
implementation of the permeability a whole . calculation missing
water done with equation the following:
V = dd/dt (meter/menit).......................................................(5.3)
5.6.3. Gross Permeability Test
The purpose of gross permeability test is to know how
much permeability a reservoir will estimate producing large the
well, of the injektivitas, specific capacity, transmissivitas and skin
factor,. The measurement of gross permeability test done with
placed the device in the major feeds zone by pumping water the
speed gradual( to determine injectivitas and capacity specific ) and
stop a pump to count fall of test ( transmissivitas and skin factor).
5.6.3.1. The injectivity
The injectivity determined using assistance charts
the relationship between pressure has stable for injectivity.
From these graphs it to be obtained slope charts ( slope)
thats injectivity (lpm/ksc) and can be expressed with
equation as follows :
I = dW / dP (lpm/ksc)............................................(5.7)
4.6.3.2. Specific Capacity (Ks)

The specific capacity is that voters demonstrating


ability to accommodate fluid a reservoir, indicated by the
relationship between pressure ( pump the pump) and
change the surface of a liquid. The less influence the pump
changes to the surface liquid more specific capacity wells
and vice versa. The equation be used for determining the
specific capacity is :
Ks = Q / (Wli-Wiq) (lpm/meter)...........................(5.8)
4.6.3.3. Transmisivitas (kh)
The transmissivitas (Kh) calculated by a method of
horner and system analysis pressure transient with
equation below:
Kh = (2.303 Q)/(4m).....................................(5.9)
4.6.3.4. Skin Factor (S)
Skin factor or skin effect is a the not infinite
dimensional that is the size of changes in the condition
formation around the pit. The this for pressure the bottom
of the well to reckon damage formation around the pit
because of the influence of mud or (filtrar), invasion pr
improvements the flow of around the pit as a result of
inflammability the well, of acidizing or inner lining). The
price of skin factor positive points to the skin damage in
contrast if factors block water flow fluid a small reservoir
then the price skin factor is negative. From the data
pressure fall of test, skin factor can be calculated in
equation as follows:
S = 1.15 {

............(5.10)

VI; Research Methodology


In implementing the task the end of students are expected to make a
case study, namely raised an issue that wew found in the late was an
assessment according to the existing expertise, or do observation of work one
process or instrument for then eximined according to the expertise owned. The
method done to the fulfillment of data in testing well geothermal among others:
Step 1.
Prepare data supporting covering:
; Pressure (P) dan Temperature (T) Well.
; Pressure Formation.
; Inflow Rate.
; Productivity Index.
Step 2. The determination of Water Lost Test

Determined based on sloping pressure, temperature and flow on


time water is pumped by the rate of constant . calculating missing
water done with equation the following :
V = dd/dt (meter/menit)....................................................(6.1)
Step 3. The determination of Gross Permeability Test
Conducted after the rate of flow of converted change which will
estimate large production well is, from magnitudes injektivitas,
specific capacity , transmissivitas and skin factor.
Step 4. Counting the injektivitas
Can be expressed with the equation as follows:
I = dW / dP (lpm/ksc)...........................................................(6.2)
Step 5.
Counting capacity specific
The equation be used for determining the specific capacity is :
Ks = Q / (Wli-Wiq) (lpm/meter)...........................................(6.3)
Step 6.
Counting Transmissivitas
Analysis of the transient pressure with the equation in the
following:
Kh = (2.303 Q)/(4m)..................................................(6.4)
Step 7.
Calculating the cost skin factor.
Can be calculated by equation as follows:
S = 1.15 {

VII; FLOWCHART

........................(6.5)

WELL COMPLETION
TEST
DATA COLLECTION

DATA PRODUKSI:
Well Depth
Inflow Rate
Productivity
Index
Skin Factor
Q (Laju
Pemompaan)
Viskositas
Dinamik

DATA
RESERVOIR:

Porositas
Permeabilitas
(k)
Densitas
Konduktivitas
panas (K)
Panas
spesifik (Cp)

DATA SUMUR:
Selisih
kedalaman (dd)
Selisih waktu
(dt)
Selisih laju
pemompaan
(dW)
Selisih tekanan
(dP)

EVALUATION OF
WELL COMPLETION TEST

Gross Permeability Test

Water Lost Test

RESULTS

VIII;

CONCLUSION WHILE

1; Well completion test is testing the wells that are conducted to determine
the depth of production zone and the depth of feeds point as well as its
production.
2; To know the depth of zone has elevated temperatures by conducting
temperatures rises mud is an indication of that mud contact with zone
temperate regions higher. An increase in the womb chlorida is an
indication of the feed.
3; To know the permeable done water lost test aims to know the permeable
by means of pumping cold water into a hot enough then detected a
decrease in the temperature by measuring in a recurrent manner repeated
at the same depth before and after is pumped water
4; To know producing large done gross permeability test, the goal is to know
how much permeability a reservoir to estimate producing large the well,
from injektivitas, specific capacity, transmissivitas and skin factor..
5; Skin Factor or Skin Effect is a the not infinite dimensional that is the
size of changes in the condition formation around the pit.

IX; PLAN TABLE OF CONTENTS


TITLE PAGE
THE RATIFICATION
PREAMBLE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
IMAGE LIST
THE TABLE
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER II.

THE FIELD REVIEWS

CHAPTER III.

LITERATURE REVIEWS

31; Defenition of Energy Geothermal


32; The Geothermal system
33; The types of geothermal system

3.3.1 The system one in phase


3.3.2 The system two in phase
3.3.2.1 Vapour Dominated System
3.3.2.2 Water Dominated System
34; Testing well geothermal
35; Well Completion Test

3.5.1 The purpose of Well Completion Test


3.5.2 Water Lost Test
3.5.3 Gross Permeability Test
3.5.3.1 The injectivity
3.5.3.2 The specific capacity (Ks)
3.5.3.3 Transmisivitas (kh)
3.5.3.4 Skin Factor (S)
BAB IV. CASE STUDY
4.1 Equipment in Well Completion Test
4.2 The implementation of the work
4.31;
4.32;
4.33;
4.34;
4.35;

The measurement of depths well


The measurement of sloping well
The measurement of sloping pressure
Water Lost Test
Gross Permeability Test
4.3.51;
Calculated of The injectivity (I) and The specific
capacity (Ks)
4.3.52; Calculated of Transmisivitas (kh) and Skin Factor (S)

4.3 Discussion
4.31;
4.32;
4.33;
4.34;

Guard the depth of the measurement of sloping temperature and


pressure
Water Lost Test
Gross Permeability Test
Monitoring temperature and pressure during warming

CHAPTER V. DISCUSSION
CHAPTER VI. CONCLUSION
BIBLIOGRAPHY
ATTACHMENT

2 3 4 5

MARET

IX. PLAN OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

Flowchart

Proposal

Pengajuan Proposal

Pengambilan Data
Lapangan
Analisa Data

Evaluasi Data

Penyusunan Draft

Pembuatan Slide Untuk


Presentasi

Judul
1

1 2 34 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1

FEBRUARI
NOVEMB DESEMBE JANUARI
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2
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KEGIATAN
NO.

PLAN OF LIBRARY LIST


1; SAPTADJI, NENNY MIRYANI : TM-4261, Teknik Panas Bumi/ITB
2; Sofyan, Y., Daud, Y., Kamah, Y., Nishijima, J.,Fujimitsu, Y. and Ehara, S. (2009),
Sustainable production plan in the geothermal energy development a case study
of Kamojang Geothermal Field, Indonesia

3; Guritno, Sigit. 1999. Evaluasi Formasi sumur-Sumur Produksi PL-401 dengan


Metode PBU Test pada Lapangan Panas Bumi Kamojang. Yogyakarta: UPN.
4; Karim, Achyar. 2001. Analisa Uji Produksi pada Sumur KMJ-X dan KMJ-Y.
Bandung. PGE.
5; Miryani Saptadji, Neny. 2009. Karakteristik Reservoir Panas Bumi. Bandung: ITB.
6; Miryani Saptadji, Neny. 2009. Reservoir Panas Bumi. Bandung: ITB.
7; Miryani Saptadji, Neny.Teknik Panas Bumi. Bandung:ITB.
8; Umasugi, Fatniasi. 2010. Uji Penyelesaian Sumur (Well Completion Test) Pada
Sumur-XY Lapangan Kamojang PT. Pertamina Geothermal Energy Area
Kamojang. Indramayu: Akamigas Balongan