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Q: Design X-Shaped Dipole Antenna with following specification:

Center Frequency (fc) = 1.5 GHz


Bandwidth >= 300 MHz
Gain >= -5 dB
Then find and plot
S11 parameter as a function of frequency
Radiation Pattern.

The best strategy to design such antenna is to start with planer dipole design from antenna
design Kit With specific operating (Center) Frequency then duplicate the antenna with
specific angle to get an X-shaped antenna.

After Duplicating you need to Assign Boundaries to the parts of the antenna which are
combined to form the X-shaped antenna.

After that check validity of the design then analyze it and see the results, the results may not
have the same specifications that you want, so you need to change the parameters (Dipole
length, Dipole width, Feed Gap length, The angle between the dipoles,.

We have to keep in mind that the bandwidth is defined as the frequency range where S11 is
to be less than -10 dB.

It is preferred to change one parameter or factor at a time to notice the change and the effect
of it so you can guess what should your next adjustment to get the required results.

Let us start with 1.5 GHz Dipole with following parameters then change parameters gradually
The following table contains different trials and adjustments that were performed to get best
results.

Original Parameters (Before Scaling)


Operating

Dipole

Dipole

Feed Gap

Angle

Bandwidth

Center

Frequency

Length

Width

length

Between

(MHz)

Frequency

(Antenna

without feed

(Scaled

(Scaled

Dipoles

Design Kit)

(Scaled by)

by)

by)

(degrees)

(GHz)
1.5

0.95

1.5

1.14

45

260

1.5

1.5

0.9

0.9

45

280

1.6

1.5

1.1

1.2

1.32

45

295

1.48

1.5

0.95

0.95

45

295

1.55

1.5

1.05

1.155

45

295

1.49

1.5

0.98

0.98

45

280

1.52

1.5

0.98

1.2

1.176

45

320

1.53

1.5

0.99

0.99

45

310

1.53

1.5

0.98

45

310

1.54

1.5

1.1

45

300

1.46

1.5

0.975

45

300

1.49

1.5

0.975

45

300

1.51

1.5

40

300

1.5

(GHz)

The last trial seems to give the best characteristics and properties; the total scale for each parameter
is the following:
Operating

Dipole

Dipole

Feed Gap

Angle

Bandwidt

Center

Frequency

Length

Width

length

Between

h (MHz)

Frequency

(Antenna

without

(Scaled by)

(Scaled by)

Dipoles

Design Kit)

feed

(GHz)
1.5

(scaled by)
0.914

(GHz)

(degrees)
2.16

1.7

40

Parameters after Scaling:


Dipole Length without feed gap = 0.914 * 8.05 = 7.36 cm
Dipole Width = 2.16 * 0.21 = 0.454 cm
Feed Gap length = 1.7 * 0.21 = 0.356 cm
Total Dipole Length = 7.716 cm

X-dipole shaped antenna after scaling (40)

300

1.5

Closer View (X-dipole Antenna)

ff_2D_GainTotal

4.00

Dipole_Antenna_ADKv1

ANSOFT

Curve Info
dB(GainTotal)
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='1.5GHz' Phi='0deg'
dB(GainTotal)_1
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='1.5GHz' Phi='90deg'

2.00

Y1

0.00

-2.00

-4.00

-6.00

-8.00
-200.00

-150.00

-100.00

-50.00

0.00
Theta [deg]

50.00

100.00

Gain = 2.3
dB Red
Radiation
Pattern

150.00

200.00

Radiation
Pattern
(Another

Input Impedance
110

100

90
1.00

80

Dipole_Antenna_ADKv1
70

120
130

ANSOFT

Curve Info
S11
Setup1 : Sw eep1

60

0.50

2.00

50

140

40

150

30

160 0.20

5.00 20

170

10

0.00
180 0.00

0.20

0.50

1.00

2.00

5.00

-170

-10

-160 -0.20

-5.00 -20

-150

-30

-140

-40
-130

-0.50

-2.00

-120

-50

-60
-110

-100

-1.00
-90

-80

-70

Return Loss

0.00

Dipole_Antenna_ADKv1

ANSOFT

Curve Info
dB(S(1,1))
Setup1 : Sw eep1

300
MHz

dB(S(1,1))

-12.50

-25.00

Center Frequency
-37.50
0.75

1.00

1.25

1.50
Freq [GHz]

1.75

2.00

2.25

Return Loss

-5.28

Dipole_Antenna_ADKv1

ANSOFT

Curve Info
dB(S(1,1))
Setup1 : Sw eep1

15 digits * 20 MHz /digit =

-7.50

300MHz
-10.00

dB(S(1,1))

-12.50

-15.00

-17.50

-20.00

-22.50
-23.92
1.15

1.25

1.35

1.45

1.55
Freq [GHz]

Zoom

1.65

1.75

1.85

1.90