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Leadership is both a research area and a practical skill encompassing the

ability of an individual or organization to "lead" or guide other

individuals, teams, or entire organizations. The literature debates various
viewpoints: contrasting Eastern and Western approaches to leadership and
also (within the West) US vs. European approaches. US academic
environments define leadership as "a process of social influence in which a
person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a
common task". Leadership seen from a European and non-academic
perspective encompasses a view of a leader who can be moved not only by
communitarian goals but also by the search for personal power.
Autocratic or authoritarian
Under the autocratic leadership style, all decision-making powers are
centralized in the leader, as with dictators.
Leaders do not entertain any suggestions or initiatives from subordinates.
The autocratic management has been successful as it provides strong
motivation to the manager. It permits quick decision-making, as only one
person decides for the whole group and keeps each decision to him/herself
until he/she feels it needs to be shared with the rest of the group.
Participative or democratic
The democratic leadership style consists of the leader sharing the decisionmaking abilities with group members by promoting the interests of the group
members and by practicing social equality. This has also been called shared
Laissez-faire or Free-rein
In Laissez-faire or free-rein leadership, decision-making is passed on to the
sub-ordinates. The sub-ordinates are given complete right and power to
make decisions to establish goals and work out the problems or hurdles.

refers to a role held by certain individuals in an organization, team, or group.
Specifically, it is the capacity of an individual to actively follow a leader.
Followership is the reciprocal social process of leadership. The study of
followership (part of the emerging study of Leadership psychology) is integral
to a better understanding of leadership, as the success and failure of groups,
organizations, and teams is not only dependent on how well a leader can
lead, but also on how well the followers can follow. Specifically, followers play
an active role in organization, group, and team successes and
failures. Effective followers are individuals who are considered to be
enthusiastic, intelligent, ambitious, and self-reliant.The emergence of the
field of followership has been attributed to the scholar Robert Kelley.

Kelley described four main qualities of effective followers, which include:

1. Self-Management: This refers to the ability to think critically, to be in
control of ones actions, and work independently. It is important that
followers manage themselves well as leaders are able to delegate
tasks to these individuals.
2. Commitment: This refers to an individual being committed to the
goal, vision, or cause of a group, team, or organization. This is an
important quality of followers as it help keep ones (and other
members) morale and energy levels high.
3. Competence: It is essential that individuals possess the skills and
aptitudes necessary to complete the goal or task for the group, team,
or organization. Individuals high on this quality often hold skills higher
than their average co-worker (or team member). Further, these
individuals continue their pursuit of knowledge by upgrading their
skills through classes and seminars.
4. Courage: Effective followers hold true to their beliefs and maintain
and uphold ethical standards, even in the face of dishonest or corrupt
superiors (leaders). These individuals are loyal, honest, and
importantly, candid with their superiors.
Followership Patterns
Kelley identified two underlying behavioral dimensions that help identify the
difference between followers and non-followers. The first behavioral
dimension is whether or not the individual is an independent, critical thinker.
The second dimension is whether or not the individual is active or passive.
From these dimensions, Kelley has identified five followership patterns, or
types of followers:
1. The Sheep: These individuals are passive and require external
motivation from the leader. These individuals lack commitment and
require constant supervision from the leader.
2. The Yes-People: These individuals are committed to the leader and
the goal (or task) of the organization (or group/team). These
conformist individuals do not question the decisions or actions of the
leader. Further, yes-people will defend adamantly their leader when
faced with opposition from others.

3. The Pragmatics: These individuals are not trail-blazers; they will not
stand behind controversial or unique ideas until the majority of the
group has expressed their support. These individuals often remain in
the background of the group.
4. The Alienated: These individuals are negative and often attempt to
stall or bring the group down by constantly questioning the decisions
and actions of the leader. These individuals often view themselves as
the rightful leader of the organization and are critical of the leader and
fellow group members.
5. The Star Followers: These exemplary individuals are positive, active,

and independent thinkers. Star followers will not blindly accept the
decisions or actions of a leader until they have evaluated them
completely. Furthermore, these types of followers can succeed without
the presence of a leader.