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# Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
Operations on Graphs
References

Graph Theory

## Pushpendra Kumar Pateriya

School of Computing & Information Technology
Lovely Faculty of Technology & Sciences
Lovely Professional University
E-mail: pushpendra.14623@lpu.co.in

Pushpendra Pateriya

Graph Theory

## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
Operations on Graphs
References

Outline I
1 Graphs & their representation
2 Definitions
3 Isomorphisms & Automorphisms

Identical Graphs
Isomorphisms
Automorphism
4 Distance in Graphs
5 Operations on Graphs
6 References
Pushpendra Pateriya

Graph Theory

## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
Operations on Graphs
References

## A graph is an ordered pair (V (G ), E (G )) consisting of a set V (G )

of vertices and a set E (G ), disjoint form V (G ), of edges, together
with an incidence function G that associates with each edge of G
an unordered pair of(not necessarily distinct) vertices of G .
If e is an edge and u and v are vertices such that G (e) = {u, v },
then e is said to join u and v , and the vertices u and v are called
the ends of e.
Order of G : v (G ) means number of vertices in G .
Size of G : e(G ) means number of edges in G .
Examples:
G = (V (G ), E (G ))
where
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Graph Theory

## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
Operations on Graphs
References

## Graphs & their representation II

V (G ) = {u, v , w , x, y }
E (G ) = {a, b, c, d, e, f , g , h}
and G is defined by
G (a) = uv G (b) = uu G (c) = vw G (d) = wx
G (e) = vx G (f ) = wx G (g ) = ux G (h) = xy

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## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
Operations on Graphs
References

Definitions I

edge

## Link: an edge with distinct ends

Parallel edges: two or more links with the same pair of ends

Finite Graph: both its vertax set and edge set are finite.

## Trivial Graph: one vertax

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## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
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References

Definitions II

10

11

12

## Complete Graph: any two vertices are adjacent.

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## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
Operations on Graphs
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Definitions III

13

14

## Path: a simple graph whose vertices can be arranged in a

linear sequence in such a way that two vertices are adjacent if
they are consecutive in the sequence and are nonadjacent
otherwise.

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## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
Operations on Graphs
References

Definitions IV

15

## Cycle on three or more vertices: a simple graph whose

vertices can be arranged in cyclic sequence in such a way that
two vertices are adjacent if they are consecutive in the

16

## Length of a path or cycle: number of its edges.

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## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
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Definitions V

17

## k-path or k-cycle: A path or cycle of length k is called a

k-path or k-cycle, respectively; the path or cycle is odd or
even according to the parity of k.
A 3-cycle is often called a triangle, a 4-cycle a quadrilateral, a
5-cycle a pentagon, a 6-cycle a hexagon, and so on.

18

## Connected graph: for every partition of its vertex set into

two nonempty sets X and Y , there is an edge with on end in
X and one end in Y ; otherwise the graph is disconnected.

19

## Planar graph: A graph which can be drawn in a plane in

such a way that edges meet only at points corresponding to
their common ends.
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## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
Operations on Graphs
References

Definitions VI

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## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
Operations on Graphs
References

Definitions VII

20

## Bipartite Graph: If its vertax set can be partitioned into two

subsets X and Y so that every edge has one end in X and one
end in Y; such a partition (X, Y) is called a bipartition of the
graph, and X and Y its parts.
a bipertite graph G with pipartition (X,Y) represented by
G[X,Y].

Corollary
Let G [X , Y ] be a bipartite graph without isolated vertices such
that
d(x)
d(y ) for all xy E , where x X and y Y . Then
X Y , with equality if and only if d(x) = d(x) for all xy E .

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## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
Operations on Graphs
References

Definitions VIII

21

## Complete bipartite graph: If G[X,Y] is simple and every

vertex in X is joined to every vertex in Y, then G is called a
complete bipertite graph.

22

## k-partite graph: vertex set can be partitioned into k subsets,

or parts, in such a way that no edge has both ends in the
same part.

23

Tur
an Graph: A k-partite graph is complete if any two
vertices in different parts are adjacent. A simple complete
k-partite graph on n vertices whose parts are of equal or
almost equal sizes(that is, bn/kc or dn/ke) is called Turan
graph and denoted by Tk,n .
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## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
Operations on Graphs
References

Definitions IX

24

## Incidence & Adjacency Matrices: the incidence matrix of

G is the n m matrix MG := (Mve ), where mve is the number
of times (0, 1, 2) that vertex v and edge e are incident.
The adjacency matrix of G is the n m matrix AG := (auv ),
where auv is the number of edges joining vertices u and v ,
each loop counting as two edges.

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## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
Operations on Graphs
References

Definitions X

u
v
w
x
y

a
1
1
0
0
0

b
2
0
0
0
0

c
0
1
1
0
0

d
0
0
1
1
0

e
0
1
0
1
0

f
0
0
1
1
0

## Table: Incident Matrix

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g
1
0
0
1
0

h
0
0
0
1
1

## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
Operations on Graphs
References

Definitions XI

u
v
w
x
y

u
2
1
0
1
0

v
1
0
1
1
0

w
0
1
0
2
0

x
1
1
2
0
1

y
0
0
0
1
0

## The adjacency matrix of a graph is generally much smaller

than its incidence matrix and thus requires less storage space.

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## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
Operations on Graphs
References

Definitions XII

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## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
Operations on Graphs
References

Definitions XIII

25

26

## Adjacency List: In a simple graph for each vertex v , the

neighbours of v are listed in some order. A list (N(v ) : v V )
of these lists is called an adjacency list of the graph. Simple
graphs are usually stored in computers as adjacency lists.
Vertex degree: denoted by dG (v ), is the number of edges of
G incident with v . each loop counting as two edges.
The minimum degree of G, denoted by (G ), is the
minimum degree among all the vertices of G.
The maximum degree of G, denoted by (G ), is the
maximum degree among all the vertices of G.

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## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
Operations on Graphs
References

Definitions XIV

Theorem
For any graph G ,

v V

## d(v ) = 2m, here m: number of edges

Proof.
Consider the incidence matrix M of G . The sum of the entiries in
the row corresponding to vertex v is precisely d(v ). Therefore
P
v V d(v ) is just the sum of all the entries in M. But this sum is
also 2m, because each of the m column sums of M is 2, each edge
having two ends.
In any graph, the number of vertices of odd degree is even.
27

## Isolated vertex: A vertex of degree zero.

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## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
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Operations on Graphs
References

Definitions XV

28

29

## Degree Sequence: If G has vertices v1 , v2 , ...,vn , the

sequence (d(v1 ), d(v2 ), ..., d(vn )) is called a degree sequence
of G .

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## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
Operations on Graphs
References

Definitions XVI

30

## Graphic Sequence: A sequence d = (d1 , d2 , ..., dn ) is graphic

if there is a simple graph with degree sequence d.

Corollary
If d = (d1 , d2 , ..., dn ) is graphic and d1 d2 ... dn , then

n
P
i=1

is even and

k
P

di k(k 1) +

i=1

n
P

min{k, di }, 1 k n

i=k+1

## Question: Here we have to check whether the sequence

(5, 5, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2) is graphic.

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di

## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
Operations on Graphs
References

Definitions XVII

## So we conclude that (5, 5, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2) is graphic.

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Graph Theory

## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
Operations on Graphs
References

Definitions XVIII

31

32

## Regular graph: a regular graph is a graph where each vertex

has the same number of neighbors; i.e. every vertex has the
same degree or valency.
Strongly regular graph: A simple graph G which is neither
empty nor complete is said to be strongly regular with
parameters (v , k, , ) if:
v(G) = v,
G is k-regular,
any two adjacent vertices of G have common neighbours,
any two nonadjacent vertices of G have common neighbours.

33

## Vertex cover: a vertex cover of a graph is a set of vertices

such that each edge of the graph is incident to at least one
vertex of the set.
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## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
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Definitions XIX

34

## Edge cover: an edge cover of a graph is a set of edges such

that every vertex of the graph is incident to at least one edge
of the set.

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## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
Operations on Graphs
References

## Isomorphisms & Automorphisms I

Identical Graphs:
Two graphs G and H are identical, written G = H, if
V (G ) = V (H), E (G ) = E (H), and G = H .
If two graphs are identical, they can clearly be represented by
identical diagrams.
It is also possible for graphs that are not identical to have
essentially the same diagram. For example, the graph G and
H in Figure 1 can be represented by diagrams which look
exactly the same, as the second drawing of H shows; the sole
difference lies in the labels of their vertices and edges.
Although the graphs G and H are not identical, they do have
identical structures, and are said to be isomorphic.
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## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
Operations on Graphs
References

## Figure: Isomorphic Graphs

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## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
Operations on Graphs
References

## Isomorphisms: Two graphs G and H are isomorphic, written

G
= H, if there are bijections : V (G ) V (H) and
: E (G ) E (H) such that G (e) = uv if and only if
H ((e)) = (u)(v ); such a pair mapping called an isomorphism
between G and H.
The pair
 of mappings (,
 ) defined by
a b c d
:=
w z y x


e1 e2 e3 e4 e5 e6
:=
f3 f4 f1 f6 f5 f2

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## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
Operations on Graphs
References

## Automorphism: An automorphism of a graph is an isomorphism

of the graph to itself. In the case of a simple graph, an
automorphism is just a permutaion of its vertex set which
preserves adjacency: if uv is an edge then so is (u)(v ). Find out
isomorphism between G1 , G2 and G3 .
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## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
Operations on Graphs
References

## Question: Find that G1

= G2 and G1  G3 .

## Figure: (G1 ), (G2 ), (G3 )

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## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
Operations on Graphs
References

## Isomorphisms & Automorphisms VI

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## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
Operations on Graphs
References

Distance in Graphs I

## The distance between two vertices in a graph is the number of

edges in a shortest path connecting them. If there is no path
connecting the two vertices then the distance between them is
defined as infinite().
The distance matrix D = [dij ] of a connected graph G of order p
with V (G ) = {v1 , v2 , . . . ., vp } that p by p matrix for which dij
is the distance between vi and vj .

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Graph Theory

## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
Operations on Graphs
References

Distance in Graphs II

Figure: G

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## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
Operations on Graphs
References

d(x,y)
a
b
c
d
e

a
0
1
2
1
3

b
1
0
1
2
2

c
2
1
0
1
1

d
1
2
1
0
2

e
3
2
1
2
0

## Table: Distance Matrix of G

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## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
Operations on Graphs
References

Distance in Graphs IV

## The distance matrix is a symmetric matrix with non-negative

integer entries having zero diagonal.
Theorem
A p by p matrix D = [dij ] is the distance matrix of a graph of order
p if and only if D has the following properties:
(i) dij is non-negative integer for all i, j
(ii) dij = 0 if and only if i = j
(iii) D is symmetric
(iv) dij dik + dkj for all i, j, k and
(v) For dij > 1, there exists k 6= i, j, such that dij = dik + dkj .
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## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
Operations on Graphs
References

Distance in Graphs V

Power of G:
The nth power G n of G is that graph with V (G n ) = V (G ) for
which uv E (G n ) if and only if 1 d(u, v ) n in G.
Theorem
If A is the adjacency matrix of a graph G with
V (G ) = {v1 , v2 , ..., vp }, then (i, j) entry of An , n 1 is the
number of different vi vj walks of length n in G.

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## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
Operations on Graphs
References

Operations on Graphs I

## Complement: The complement G c of a simple graph G has

vertex set V (G ) and two vertices u, v are adjacent in G c if
and only if they are non-adjacent in G.
A simple graph G is called a self-complementary graph if
G
= Gc.

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## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
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References

Operations on Graphs II

## Union: The union of G1 and G2 is the graph with vertex set

V1 V 2 and edge set E1 E2 . It is denoted by G1 G2 . So,
G1 G2 has n1 + n2 vertices and m1 + m2 edges.

## Sum: The sum or join of G1 and G2 is the graph obtained

from G1 G2 by joining every vertex of G1 with every vertex
of G2 . It is denoted by G1 + G2 . So, G1 + G2 has n1 + n2
vertices and m1 + m2 + n1 n2 edges.
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## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
Operations on Graphs
References

## Operations on Graphs III

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## Graphs & their representation

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Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
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Operations on Graphs IV

## Cartesian Product: The Cartesian product of simple graphs

G1 and G2 is the simple graph with vertex set V (G1 ) V (G2 )
in which any two vertices (u1 , v1 ) and (u2 , v2 ) are adjacent if
and only if (i) u1 = u2 , and (v1 , v2 ) E (G2 ) or (ii)
(u1 , u2 ) E (G1 ) and v1 = v2 . It is denoted by G1 G2 or
G1 G2 . So, G1 G2 has n1 n2 vertices and n1 m2 + m1 n2
edges.

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Graph Theory

## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
Operations on Graphs
References

Operations on Graphs V

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## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
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References

References I

## J. A. Bondy and U. S. R. Murty, Graph Theory, Edition 1st ,

2008, Springer
V. K. Balakrishnan,Graph Theory, Edition 1st , 2004,
Schaum Series McGraw Hill
E-learning Courses by IITs & IISC(Web):
http://www.nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/111106050/
E-learning Courses by IITs & IISC(Video):
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Graph Theory

## Graphs & their representation

Definitions
Isomorphisms & Automorphisms
Distance in Graphs
Operations on Graphs
References

References II

## Distance in graphs: http://uni-mysore.ac.in/Asc/2011/

RC%202011/2%20RC%20in%20Mathematical%20Science%
20(9-1-12%20to%2029-1-12)/Information%20by%
20Resource%20Person/Prof.%20Basavana%20Gowda/
Graphs%20and%20Matrices.ppt

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Graph Theory