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Novita Tri Anggraenie

21040115120052
B

Demographic and Spatial Patterns of Indonesias


Recent Urbanisation
Urbanization in Indonesia is still characterised by the high
concentration of urban population in a few large cities, especially in
Jakarta Metropolitan Area (Jabodetabek). That shows the difference
between Jabodetabek city with other cities. Urbanization in
developing countries are different from those in developed countries
caused by lower per capita income when compared with developed
countries. Urbanization in developing countries are very rapid
because in the global economy increasing is made by scholars.
Global cities, which that they function related to maintaining a
global network of cities that control transboundary strategic places in
the global economic system. The fact that there is a traditional
perspective still considers that the urban system as a location
relative. How can we change the traditional ideas that could reduce
urbanization. The authors will describe about the issues that have
been analyzed by Tommy Firman, which is, Indonesia's recent urban
development, demographic dimensions, and spatial patterns.
Urbanization in developing countries involves the big cities into
the global economy. Urbanization involves different spatial
polarization between large urban formation around the center with
the hinterland. Urbanization also cause the cities do rearrange cities,
especially in some urban centers. In 2000, Indonesia was the fourth
country in the world which had the largest population. For the
distribution of the population in Indonesia is extremely uneven, with
the highest population concentrations exist in Java. Otherwise, that
urbanization and development that occurred in Indonesia have not
been evenly distributed to make the investors invest in large cities.
Economic development in some sectors can be seen from the
development itself. Such as the development in the financial services
can be seen by the growth of foreign banks and other financial
institutions that located in the city center. In the property sector led to
the construction of new hotels and shopping centers. Economic
activity in the end concentrated in city centers. Indonesia has
experienced economic downturn. It can be seen from the economic
crisis resulted in a rapid increase in the number of unemployed so as
the economic turmoil affecting the countryside to migrate to urban.
Although the state drastically reduced employment opportunities are
forced to seek additional sources of income.

Novita Tri Anggraenie


21040115120052
B
The urban population in Indonesia's population continues to
grow in other words, today almost half of Indonesia's population live
in cities. Although urbanization was rapid, Indonesia proportion of the
population living in cities is still considered relatively low (population
bureau, 2002). more or less adjusted to the proportion of the
population in China (shen, 2002). Large cities in Indonesia
experienced in because of population growth by natural increase,
migration and reclassification administrative region (UN-ESCAP, 1993:
11 -16). In the years 1980-1990 the major cities in Indonesia occurred
due to the reclassification of population growth from rural to urban
zones. This incident reflects the administrative changes so that in
1990 showed an increase in the city's role as a source of employment.
The spatial pattern of major cities Indonesia is more complex
compared to the economic pattern. The spatial pattern that indicates
an increasing number of people cities. Results of research that has
been done by Tommy Firman stated that the high level of growth in
the region around big cities can not be entirely attributed to migration
and the part relating to the reclassification of previously rural areas
and into cities in the 2000 Census.
Growth around large cities in Indonesia to give effect to the
small towns around major cities that can affect the appearance of
migration coming because they do not get land or jobs in the
metropolis. This growth form implies that the present process of mega
urbanization around the major cities in Indonesia. Some the other
small cities in of Indonesian did not depend on big cities have rapid
population growth. Population growth in the small cities Indonesian
other parts much faster than Java, it is suggested to further optimize
role as centers of economic activity, with agriculture and exploitation
of natural resources than in Java. In the small cities compare relatively
stagnant and more dominant cities center.
The conclusion from the above explanation is the small towns
outside Java has been proven that these cities can act as a local
center of socio-economic development. In 1980 until the mid-1990s
the government made national economic development policy that is
focused on the export of non-oil products and greatly influence
urbanization and urban development in Indonesia. Urbanization in
Indonesia is marked by a heavy concentration of urban population in
some big cities such as Jakarta. Residents do urbanization to major
cities in Jakarta because of the economy increasingly sensitive to the
decision making of transnational corporations and the situation is
reflected in mega-urban areas of Jakarta-Bandung. Therefore, because

Novita Tri Anggraenie


21040115120052
B
the economy of this town can give rise to all kinds of life resulting
urbanization patterns that occur.