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HISTOLOGY REVIEWER: CIRCULATORY SYSTEM:

Mammalian circulatory system comprises of 2 major systems:

1 CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
-

Consists of the heart, arteries, arterioles, capillaries, veins and venules that form a closed system of
blood vessels that carry blood.
2 Major circuits (both depends on the pumping action of heart to distribute blood through the body;
o Systemic Circulation
Carries blood from heart to all other organs, tissues vessels via arterial vessels and back
via venous vessels
o Pulmonary Circulation
Pulmonary system carries blood from the heart to the lungs for gaseous exchange and
oxygenated blood back for distribution via systemic circulation.
Main functions:
o Gaseous exchange
o Temperature control
o Transport of O2, CO2, nutrients, hormones, metabolic products, immune cells and many more
C O M P O N E N T S
BLOOD
o Unique form of CT in which its cells are suspended in a fluid called plasma.
o 3 Major cell types (AKA formed elements):
Erythrocytes
Leukocytes
Thrombocytes
o Transports gases, nutrients, wastes, hormones, antibodies, chemicals, ions and many more to
and from different cells, tissue and organs.
o Cells have limited life span, hence, replaced through hemopoiesis.
o Sites of Hemopoiesis
Embryo: at yolk sac and later on in liver, spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow
Newborn: red marrow (contains stem cells and blood cell precursors)
Adult: red marrow is confined in flat bones and in the large bones they become fat.
o Hemopoiesis (red marrow)
Pluripotential hemopoietic stem cell: can produce all blood cell types & produce 2
major cell lineages:
Pluripotential myeloid stem cell
o Gives rise to:
Erythrocytes
Eosinophils
Neutrophils
Basophils
Monocytes
Megakaryocytes
Pluripotential lymphoid stem cell
o Some remains in bone marrow and becomes B lymphocytes
o Other leave via bloodstream to lymph nodes and spleen and becomes
B lymphocytes
After, pumupunta naman sila sa peripheral lymph tissues (CT,
Lymphoid tissues and organs)
o Other undifferentiated migrate to thymus gland and becomes
immunocompetent T lymphocytes
After, it migrates to CT and other peripheral lymphoid organs
o B & T lymphocytes are morphologically indistinguishable (via
immunohistochemical means lang)

***^ bago irelease sa bloodstream mag undergo sila ng divisions and


intermediate stages ng differentiation
Worn out cells are destroyed by macrophages in different lymphoid organs
kagaya ng spleen.
Formed elements (Major Blood Cell types)
Erythrocytes (RBCs)
Biconcave shape (specialized for transport)
Mature RBCs lacks nuclei (nonnucleated) and cytoplasmic organelles
Remains at blood stream
120 days lifespan in circulation
7.5 um (can be used as size reference for other cell types)
FUNCTIONAL CORRELATION:
o Mature RBC: Transports O & CO2
Achieved by hemoglobin in cytoplasm
Fe molecules bind w/ O2 (Oxyhemoglobin) = bright red color of
arterial blood
CO2 diffuses into BV and carried to lungs partly dissolved and
partly combined w/ hemoglobin (Carbaminohemoglobin) =
Venous blood bluish color
o During differentiation & maturation in bone marrow it synthesizes large
amounts of hemoglobin
o Bago marelease sa BV, natatanggal yung nucleus =biconcave shape
=surface area for respiratory gases
o Worn out cells are removed from blood and phagocytose by
macrophages in spleen, liver and bone marrow
Leukocyte (WBCs)
Nucleated, larger than RBC
Variation of nuclear morphology, absence/ presence of granules and staining
affinities of granules
Functions outside ng blood vessels (via capillaries into CT)
W/ 2 types of granules
o Specific granules
Occur in granulocytes
o Azurophilic granules
Occur in both agranulocytes and granulocytes
GRANULOCYTES (PMNLs)
o Basophils
Least numerous 1% of WBCs (hard to find)
Size:
10-12 um diameter
Usually smaller the neutrophils
Nucleus:
Basophilic
Highly condensed
Usually 3-lobes twisted into S shape
Cytoplasm:
Specific granules, metachromatically stained (reddish
violet)
FUNCTIONAL CORRELATION:
Short life span
Similar function to mast cells
Contains histamine and heparin granules

Neutrophils
Most abundant, 60-70% of WBC
Active phagocytes
Size:
12 um in diameter in blood, 20 um in tissues
Nucleus:
Condensed chromatin
3 lobed but can be 5 (band neutrophils)
Polymorphonuclear granulocyte
Immature contains fewer lobes
Cytoplasm:
Abundant w/ specific granules (salmon pink)
W/ azurophilic granules (reddish purple)
FUNCTIONAL CORRELATION:
Short life span (10hrs in blood and enter CT for 2-3 days)
Active phagocytes & concentrates at site of infection
Attracted by chemotactic factors released by
damaged/dead cells, tissues or microorganisms which the
phagocytose and destroyed by their lysozymes
o Eosinophils
Constitute 1-4% of WBCs
Number increases during allergic reactions
Size:
Smaller than neutrophils, 9-14 um
Nucleus:
Condensed chromatin,
Bilobed connected by chromatin bridge
Small 3rd lobe may be present
Eosinophilic granules (bright pink)
Cytoplasm:
W/ large numerous specific granules (red-pink)
FUNCTIONAL CORRELATION:
Short life span (10hrs in blood and enters CT for 10days)
Phagocytes attracted to antigen-antibody complexes that
are formed in tissues after allergic responses
Release chemicals that neutralize histamine & other
mediators to inflammatory allergic reactions
Increase in number during parasitic infestation and defend
body against helminthes by destroying them
AGRANULOCYTES (MNLs)
o Lymphocytes
Constitute diverse class of cells
Account for 20-25%/30% (sa book) of WBCs
Respond to invasion of foreign bodies but not phagocytic
2 types:
B lymphocytes
o Differentiate into plasma cells
o

Exposure to antigens release histamine and other


chemicals = intensify inflammatory responses
Cause severe allergic reactions, vascular changes (can
causes tissue edema, fluid leakage) and hypersensitivity
responses and anaphylaxis

Secrete antibodies/ immunoglobulins (component


of humoral immunity)
T lymphocytes
o Produce variety of cytokines
o Involved in immune response
o

Size:
Small, 6-8 um but can be 2x large as RBC
Nucleus:
Spheric and flattened on one side
Densely heterochromatic (purplish blue-black)
Round-horse shoe shaped
Cytoplasm:
Thin rim around nucleus
Pale basophilic
No specific granules
W/ few azurophilic granules
Bluish
FUNCTIONAL CORRELATION:
Variable lifespan (days-months) and size
Difference between large and small has functional sig.
Large: represent the cells that were activated by specific
antigens
Essential for immunologic defense
Some B lymphocytes when stimulated by antigen
differentiate into plasma cells in CT and produce
antibodies to counteract or destroy invading organisms.
Monocytes
Constitute 3-8% of blood
Outside bloodstream, becomes phagocytic
Members of the MPC (mononuclear phagocyte system)
Size:
Largest agranular WBC, 12-15 um in blood 20 um in
tissues
Nucleus:
Usually kidney or horseshoe shaped
Eccentric
Less dense chromatin w/ 2-3 nucleoli
Cytoplasm:
Abundant blue azurophilic granules
No specific granules
FUNCTIONAL CORRELATION:
Can live in blood 2-3 days then move to CT (few months or
longer)
Blood monocytes are precursors of mononuclear
phagocyte system
In CT= powerful phagocytes
Site of infection = tissue macrophages

Plasma
Composition
90% water by volume
10% solute by volume

Plasma proteins
Albumin
Globulins
Fibrinogen
o Other organic compounds
Amino acids, glucose, vitamins, peptides, hormones
o Inorganic salts
Electrolytes (Na, K, Ca)
o Thrombocytes (Platelets)
Not blood cells
Smallest nonnucleated formed elements
Remnants of megakaryocytes (largest cells in BM)
Produced kapag fragments sa periphery ng megakaryocyte ay natatanggal
Functions within the blood vessels (monitor if may damaged sa endothelial lining ng BV,
if may sira nag adhere sila dun)
Disk-like fragments with diameter from2-5 um
150,000-300,000/ul blood
Approximately 8 days lifespan
Appear in clumps
Function in adhesion/coagulation
Blue staining
FUNCTIONAL CORRELATION:
Main function: repair minor tears in BV endothelium and promote blood clotting
They aggregate and adhere to damaged wall
Forms a plug and release adhesive glycoproteins to increase plug size via
adhesions of other platelets
Reinforced by polymer fibrin (from plasma proteins), forms a mesh around the
plug to trap other platelets = blood clot
After blood clot, aggregated platelets = clot retraction (pinagdidikit yung
nasirang BV)
After repair, clot is removed vua plasmin (proteolytic enzyme from plasminogen)
BLOOD VESSELS (Arteries, veins, capillaries & sinusoids)
o FUNCTIONAL CORRELATION
Elastic arteries transports the ejected blood from the heart to systemic vascular path
Increased elastic fibers = greatly expand in diameter during systole (heart contraction)
Decrease in diameter= blood moves forward during diastole (heart relaxation)
Muscular arteries controls blood flow and pressure via vasoconstriction or
vasodilation
Plenty of smooth muscle fibers = controlled by sympathetic division of ANS
Terminal arterioles give rise to capillaries
Capillaries cos of very thin walls =major sites of exchange
o Fundamental Plan of Blood Vessels
Tunica intima/ interna
Sublayers:
o Endothelium (simple squamous epithelium)
o Subendothelium (areolar CT)
o Internal elastic membrane (arteries)
Wavy and scalloped layer
FUNCTIONAL CORRELATION (ENDOTHELIUM)
o Performs important physiologic, metabolic and secretory functions.
o Endothelial cells form semipermeable barrier between blood and
interstitium.
o

o
o
o
o
o

Anchored to basement membrane via adhesion junctions


Presence of pinocytotic vesicles =bidirectional movement of molecules
Has smooth lining and anticoagulants for smooth flow
Lined also with glycocalyx
Endothelial cells secrete prostacyclin (antithrombotic substance) = para
hindi mag bind yung platelets sa walls at mag clot
Produces vasoactive chemicals:
Nitrous oxide: induce vasodilation (increase blood flow)
Endothelin proteins: counteracts nitrous oxide (vasoconstriction)
Converts angiotensin Iangiotensin II(powerful vasoconstrictor)
Endothelium also converts such compounds as prostaglandins,
bradykinin, serotonin and other substances to biologically inactive
compounds; degrades lipoproteins and produces growth factors
for fibroblasts, blood cell colonies, platelets and many more.
Cytoplasm contains membrane bound, electron dense structure
called Weibel-Palade bodies.
Stores glycoprotein von Willebrand factor that is
synthesized by arterial endothelial cells
When wall is damaged, glycoprotein is released to induce
platelets adhesion

Tunica media
Components
o Vascular smooth muscle fibers
o Elastic and collagenous fibers
o External elastic membrane
Tunica adventitia
Components
o Nervi; nerves
o Vaso vasorum
o Collagen and elastic fibers
Comparison of arteries and veins
ARTERIES
Lumen
Smaller, round
Thickest layer
Tunica media
Wall
Thicker, regular form
Valves (extension of endothelium)
Absent

VEINS
Larger w/ blood, irregular
Tunica externa
Thinner, collapsed
Present (except in venules)

ARTERIES
Leaves heart to distribute oxygenated blood
Gradually decreases in diameter due to extensive branching and becomes capillaries
Types:
Elastic arteries
o Largest BV in body
o Includes pulmonary trunk and aorta
W/ major branches, brachiocephalic, common carotid, subclavian,
vertebral, pulmonary and common iliac arteries
o Wall composed of elastic CT fibers with smooth muscle cells
Provides great resilience and flexibility during blood flow
o Thickest tunica intima
Muscular arteries
o Distributing arteries
o Small-medium sized

o Most numerous in body


o Greater amount of smooth muscle fibers
o Prominent internal and external elastic membrane
o 25 layers or more layers of smooth muscle fibers
Arterioles
o Smallest
o Lacks subendothelial CT
o 1-5 layers of smooth muscle fibers
o Delivers blood to capillaries
o Lack internal and external elastic membrane
Structural Plan of Arteries
3 tunics
Tunica intima: simple squamous epithelium (endothelium) & subendothelial CT
o In between intima and media = internal elastic lamina (IEL)
2 thin wavy band of elastic fibers
Layers of elastic sheets w/ fenestrations (openings) for rapid
diffusion of nutrients to cells
Not seen in smaller arteries
Tunica media: smooth muscle fibers w/ elastic and reticular fibers
o In muscular & elastic arteries, smooth muscle produce the elastic fibers,
some collagen fibers and other extracellular components
o Collagen fiber provide tensile strength
o Elastic fiber provide distension and recoil
o In between media and adventitia= external elastic lamina (EEL)
Periphery of media
In large muscular arteries
Layer of elastin that separated media from adventitia
Tunica adventitia: longitudinally oriented collagen (type 1) and elastic CT fibers
o W/ nerves and blood vessels

VEINS
Large veins (vena cavae, portal veins)
Largest diameter
Tunica intima well developed
Tunica media poorly developed
Smooth muscle reduced/ absent
Small-medium sized veins
Veins in extremities and those that convey blood against gravity have valves
o Valves prevents back flow
o Opens via pressure of veins, closes when flow is backwards
o Absent in veins of CNS, inferior & superior vena cava and viscera
Venules
Capillaries unite to form venules
Accompany arterioles
Venous blood initially flows into smaller postcapillary venules then to veins
Intima w/ endothelium only
W/out valves
W/ outer sheath of collagenous fibers
Structural Plan of Veins
Compared to arteries; more numerous, thinner walls, larger diameter and greater
structure variation
Blood that enters veins is under low pressure (blood flow to the heart is slow and
can even back up)

Blood flow is facilitated by muscle and organ contraction


Structure of venous walls allows flexibility and accommodation of large blood
volume, hence, veins contain most of the blood in body
3 tunics
Tunica intima:
o w/ endothelium and subendothelial CT
Tunica media:
o Thin and less prominent
o Smooth muscle intermix w/ CT fibers
o Thinner than arteries
Tunica adventitia:
o Thickest and best developed among the 3 tunics
o Longitudinal bundle of smooth muscle fibers are common
CAPILLARIES AND SINUSOIDS
Endothelial junctions between arteries and veins
Capillaries
Smallest blood vessels, 8um about the size of RBC
W/ thin endothelium and reticular fibers (underlying CT)
W/ a neural meshwork called neuropil
Pericytes/ adventitial cells:
o Small mesenchymal cells scattered along capillaries
o Covers the outer surface of the capillary
o Can contract and aid in the blood flow
o Help in injury, pluripotent and can replace damaged tissues
Types (allow different types of metabolic exchange between blood and
surrounding tissues)
o Continuous
Most common
Smooth, non-porous endothelium (solid)
Found in muscle, skin, respiratory organ, exocrine glands, brain
and peripheral nerves
W/ tight junctions, desmosomes & gap junctions
o Fenestrated
Perforated endothelium (fenestrae), found in cytoplasm of
endothelial cells, for rapid exchange
Some w/ pores covered by diaphragms
Kidneys, intestines, choroid plexus and certain endocrine organ
Makikita kung saan kailangan ng enhanced exchange
o Sinusoidal (discontinuous)
W/ discontinuous basal lamina
W/ wide lumen
W/ gaps in between endothelial lining
Incomplete/ absent basement membrane = direct exchange
Liver, spleen and red bone marrow
Sinusoids
Winding path and enlarged diameter
Walls w/ discontinuous endothelial cells
Present in liver, spleen and bone marrow
Arteriovenous Anastomoses
Direct connection between A&V that regulate blood flow by smooth muscle
contraction

When open, blood flow passes from A to V circulation by-passing the capillary
bed
Glomera
o Complex anastomoses between arterioles and venules in the finger pads,
nail bed and ears
Importance
o Allow efficient management of blood distribution during stress, heavy
exertion and temp changes
o Important in regulating blood pressure during other physiologic processes
such as erection and menstruation
o VASA VASORUM
Walls of medium & large arteries & veins are too thick to provide nourishment by direct
diffusion from lumina, hence supplied by their own blood vessels from adjacent small
arteries called vasa vasorum.
Blood vessels of the larger blood vessels
Allows for nutrient and metabolites exchanges w/ cells in adventitia and media.
More extensive in veins than arteries because of poor O2 content ng venous blood
HEART
o FUNCTIONAL CORRELATION
PACEMAKER OF THE HEART
Cardiac muscle is involuntary and contracts rhythmically & automatically
Impulse generating and conducting portions of the heart are specialized/modified
cardiac muscle fibers located in the sinoatrial (SA) node & AV node in wall of right
atrium
o It exhibit spontaneous rhythmic depolarization/ impulse conduction which
sends a wave of stimulation throughout the myocardium of heart.
o SA node (pacemaker) sets the pace for heartbeat kasi mas mabilis siya
magdepolarize and repolarize kaysa sa AV node
Intercalated disks bind all cardiac muscle fibers
Stimulatory impulses from SA node are conducted via gap junctions to atrial
musculature (rapid spreading)
Impulses from SA node travel through heart musculature via intermodal
pathways to stimulate AV node that lies in the interatrial septum
From AV node, impulses spread along bundle of specialized conducting cardiac
fibers called AV bundle (of His) located in interventricular septum
o Divides into right/ left bundle branches
o Halfway down the interventricular septum, AV bundle branches and
become Purkinje fibers
Pacemaker activities are influenced by the axons from ANS and hormones
Axons from both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervates the heart
o Doesnt affect the nodes
o Affects heart rate
o Sympathetic =increase, Parasympathetic =decrease
PURKINJE FIBERS
Thicker and larger than cardiac muscles
Contain greater amount of glycogen
Fewer contractile filaments
Part of conduction system
Beneath the endocardium on either side of interventricular septum (separate
tracts)
Branch throughout myocardium = delivers continuous waves of stimulation from
nodes to the rest of musculature via gap junctions
o Produces systole (ventricular contraction)

ATRIAL NATRIURETIC HORMONE


Muscle fibers in atria exhibit dense granule is cytoplasm
Granules contain atrial natriuretic hormone
o Chemical released in response to atrial distention/stretching
o Functions for decrease blood pressure by blood flow regulation
o Inhibits the release of renin (by kidney) and aldosterone (by adrenal
gland)
Inhibition = induce kidney to lose more Na & H2O (diuresis)
Results =blood volume and pressure is reduced
Distention is relieved, which prevents further release of hormone
o Chambers
Atria
Thinner walled chamber
Ventricle
Thicker walled chamber
ARTERIAL MYOCARDIUM
VENTRICULAR MYOCARDIUM
Arranged in overlapping networks (woven bundles
Forms complex layer wound in helical pattern
appearance)
Smaller fibers
Bigger
Cellular granules (atrial diuretic factor)
None
Less extensive T tubule system
More extensive T tubule system

More gap junction, more collagen & elastic fibers

Lesser gap junction; less abundant elastic fibers

Conduct impulses at higher rate, contract more


rhythmically

Conduct impulses at slower rate

Valves
Folds of endocardium enclosing a platelike core of dense CT
Tricuspid valve (3 cusps)
Free edge of each cusps anchored to papillary muscles in the floor of each
ventricle by Chordae tendinae
Bicuspid valve/ mitral (2 cusps)
Separates atrium from ventricle
Formed by a double membrane of the endocardium
W/ dense CT core
Semilunar valves (3 cusps)
Cusps not attached by chordae tendinae
W/ thickened nodule at the centre of the free edge
Cardiac skeleton
Dense CT rings that form
Insertion of cardiac muscles
From which cardiac valves extend
Annuli fibrosae
Surround & reinforce AV valves and origins of PA and aorta
Layer of dense CT
Between atrium and ventricle
Trigona fibrosae
Containing some cartilage; lie in btwn annuli fibrosae
Septum membranaceum
Interventricular septum
Cardiac tunics

Endocardium
Inner layer
Similar to tunica intima of blood vessels
Sublayers:
o Endothelium: simple squamous
o Subendothelial CT (elastic fibers and smooth muscle)
o Subendocardium (areolar tissue)
Bundle of His and Purkinje fibers
Adheres to endomysium of cardiac muscle fibers
Myocardium (middle layer)
Cardiac muscle fibers
Similar to tunica media of BV
Contains the impulse-conducting system
Epicardium
Outermost layer
Similar to tunica adventitia of BV
With smooth mesothelial surface
Simple squamous mesothelium and underlying subepicardial layer (w/ coronary
BV, nerves and adipose)
Conducting fibers/ system
SA node
AV node
Bundle of His
Purkinje fibers
Ventricular cardiac muscle

2 LYMPHATIC VASCULAR SYSTEM (Lymphatic organs) & IMMUNE SYSTEM


-

LYMPHATIC VASCULAR SYSTEM


o Composed of vascular channels that drain lymph (extracellular fluid) from tissues
o Consists of lymph capillaries and vessels that originate as blind-ending tubes
o Close to blood capillaries and collect excess interstitial fluid (lymph) from tissues
o Collected lymph is returned to venous blood via lymph vessels (thoracic duct and right lymphatic
duct) after filtration via lymph nodes
o More permeability, extremely thin endothelium
o Contraction of skeletal muscle provides movement
o Contains more valves
o Found in all tissues except CNS, cartilage, bone and marrow, thymus, placenta and teeth
o Also takes up and deliver absorbed lipids from intestines into the bloodstream
o FUNCTIONAL CORRELATION
Main function is to passively collect excess lymph from interstitium and return it to the
venous system of BVS.
Lymph is a clear fluid and an ultrafiltrate of blood plasma
Numerous lymph nodes are located along the route of lymph vessels = filters
Lymph nodes also have macrophages
Lymph vessels also brings lymphocytes, fatty acids from the small intestine lacteals and
immunoglobulins (antibodies) from lymph nodes to blood stream.
Hence, important component of immune system.
IMMUNE SYSTEM
o Main function is to protect organism against invading pathogens/antigens.
o Immune response occurs as soon as pathogen is detected
o Distributed throughout the body for fast action
o Constantly challenged by foreign substances

TYPES OF IMMUNE RESPONSE


2 main types of responses
Innate immune response
o First line of defense that limits the spread of infection
o Phagocytic functions
o Rapid response w/ mobilization of neutrophils, mast cells, macrophages
and NK cells
o Nonspecific and no memory cells
Adaptive immune response
o Targets specific invading foreign organisms and provides specific/
adaptive defenses
o Slower but produces & retains memory cells
Can respond to second encounter as rapid, stronger and long
lasting
o 2 types:
Stimulated by antigens
Humoral mediated immune response
Exposure of B cells to antigens = transformation to plasma
cells
Activation and proliferation of B cells requires cooperation
of helper T cells (cytokines)
Presence of B cells, plasma cells and antibodies in blood
and lymph is the basis of humoral immune response
Cell mediated immune response
Specific T cells are stimulated by presence of antigens on
surface of APCs
T cells proliferate and secrete cytokines that activates
other T, B, and cytotoxic T cells
Induces apoptosis by lytic granules w/ perforin
Indirect response of T cells= activates B cells and
macrophages
Provides specific immune protection w/out secreting
antibodies, instead, they have surface receptors for
antigens
Components
o CIRCULATING CELLS
B lymphocytes
T lymphocytes
o LYMPHATIC AGGREGATES
Encapsulated lymphoid organs
Partly encapsulated lymphoids
Unencapsulated lymphoid organs
o RETICULAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE STROMA COMPONENT
Cells of Immune System
o 3 Major types of lymphocytes
Present in various organs in body
Appear very similar but functionally different
B & T cells are distinguished via:
Where they differentiate and mature as immunocompetent cells
Type of surface receptors
Originated from hemapoietic stem cells
T LYMPHOCYTES (T cells)
o

o
o

Arise from lymphocytes from thymus gland


Migrates to peripheral lymphoid tissues and organs via blood
Destroys antigen by cytotoxic action/ by activating B cells
Subtypes:
o Helper T cells
Assists by secreting cytokines/interleukins
Protein hormones that stimulate proliferation, secretion,
differentiation and maturation of B cells into plasma cells (which
produce antibodies/immunoglobulins
Activates macrophages to become phagocytic
Activates cytotoxic T cells
o Cytotoxic cells
Specifically recognize antigenically different cells (virus-infected
cells, foreign cells, malignant cells) and destroys them
Activated when combined with antigens
Release lysosomes w/ lytic granules that contains perforin (pore
forming proteins)
Creates channels in membrane =apoptosis
o Regulatory (suppressor) T cells
Decrease/inhibit functions of helper and cytotoxic T cells
Suppress immune response by influencing activities od other cells
in immune system
o Memory T cells
Long living progeny of T cells
Rapidly responds to same antigens in the body
Stimulate immediate production of cytotoxic T cells
Counterpart of memory B cells
B LYMPHOCYTES (B cells)
Becomes immunocompetent in bone marrow
After maturation, blood carries it to nonthymic lymphoid tissues (lymph nodes,
spleen and CT)
Recognize particular type of antigen via presence of receptors
More intense response when antigen is presented by antigen presenting cells
Induced proliferation and differentiation by cytokine (interleukin 2) of Helper T
cells
Differentiate as plasma cells
Dependent to T cells =strong immune response, increases antibody secretion,
production of macrophages and memory B cells
Yung ibang B cells hindi nagiging plasma kundu memory B cells
o Narerecognize nila yung antigen if mag reappear, longer-lasting
immunologic response
NATURAL KILLER (NK) cells
Same precursor cell
Genetically programmed to recognize and kill certain altered cells
Attack virally infected and cancer cells
Same killing activity as for cytotoxic T cells
Supporting cells ay yung cells na naginteract sa lymphocytes at nagdadala nung antigens sa
kanya
APC (antigen presenting cells)
Phagocytose and process antigens and present it to T cells
Most from mononuclear phagocytic system

CT macrophages, perisinusoidal macrophages (Kupffer cells in liver), Langerhans cells


(dendritic cells in skin), and macrophages in lymphoids
Classification of lymphoid organs and tissues
o Peripheral lymphoid organs
Lymph nodes (Encapsulated)
FUNCTIONAL CORRELATION
o Have a strategic distribution
o Main function is for filtration of blood and phagocytosis of foreign matter
o Prevents spread of infection
o Produce, store, recirculate and activate B & T cells
o Efferent vessels have increased amount of antibodies
o B cells congregate in lymphatic nodules
o T cells congregate in paracortex
o Sites of antigenic recognition and activation of B cells = Plasma and
memory cells
o Lymphocytes proliferate in germinal center
o Postcapillary venules are lined w/ tall cuboidal/columnar endothelium w/
lymphocyte-homing receptors, line w/ tall cuboidal = high endothelial
venules
o Homing: movement of B and T cells into the lymph node via high
endothelial venules
o High endothelial venules are only absent from the spleen
Smallest but most numerous
Scattered in group along lymphatic vessels (in neck, axilla, groin, thorax &
abdomen/ inguinal & axillary regions of the body)
CT tissue capsule surrounds it and sends its trabeculae into its interior
Contains: outer cortex & inner medulla
Has lymphoid nodules in cortex
o A network of reticular fibers
o Spherical
o Nonencapsulated
o Aggregations of lymphocytes
o Contains germinal centers
Medulla consists of:
o Medullary cords
Networks of reticular fibers filled w/ plasma cells, macrophages
and lymphocytes separated medullary sinuses
o Medullary sinuses
Capillary like channels
Collected lymph enters lymph node via afferent lymphatic vessels
o Penetrates the capsule on convex surface
Lymph is filtered via cortex and medullary sinuses
Lymph exits via efferent lymphatic vessels
Functions:
o Lymph filtration
o Lymphocyte & immunoglobulin production
Spleen (Encapsulated)
FUNCTIONAL CORRELATION
o Largest lymphoid organ
o Has a rich blood supply
o No cortex and medulla

CT capsules surrounds it and divides its interior into incomplete


compartments called splenic pulp
o Its macrophages break downs hemoglobin from worn out RBC
o Fe is recycled and returned to bone marrow for synthesis of new
hemoglobin
o Heme is further degraded into bile by liver cells
o During fetal life, spleen is a hemopoietic organ
Ceases after birth
o Reservoir for blood= sponge like microstructure
o NOT ESSENTIAL ORGAN FOR LIFE
o White pulp
Immune component of spleen
W/ lymphatic nodules that surrounds the central artery (eccentric
talaga siya, misnomer lang yung central)
T cells surrounds central artery, forms periarteriolar lymphatic
sheaths (PALS)
Lymphatic nodule contains mainly B cells
APCs and macrophages resides within the white pulp
Dark staining lymphoid aggregations
Located within the red pulp
o Red pulp
Dense network of reticular fibers
W/ numerous RBC and WBC
Blood-rich
Where arterial system ends
Consists of:
Splenic cords
o Networks of reticular fibers
o W/ macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells and
different blood cells
Splenic (blood) sinusoids AKA Cords of Billroth
o Interconnected blood channels that drain splenic
blood into larger sinuses that leaves spleen via
splenic vein
Main function is to filter blood
Removes antigens, microorganisms, platelets and aged/abnormal
RBC from blood
Components:
o Red pulp components:
Spleenic cords (billroths cords)
Spleenic sinusoids
o White pulp components:
Central arteriole surrounded by PALS (periarterial lymphatic
sheath)
Peripheral white pulp
Tonsils
Comparison of the tonsils
Palatine
Pharyngeal
Number/indiv.
2
1
No. of crypts/ tonsil
10-20
Surface pleated but no
crypts
Epithelial covering
Non-keratinized
Ciliated pseudostratified
squamous
columnar
o

Lin
Nu
Fe

Lig
sq

Capsule
o

Thick partial capsule of


dense CT

Thin partial capsule of CT

Central lymphoid organs


Bone marrow
Produces lymphocytes
Thymus gland
FUNCTIONAL CORRELATION
o Performs an important role in childhood immune system development
o Main function is to produce a diverse group of T cells
o Undifferentiated cells are carried bone marrow to thymus via blood
o Epithelial reticular cell/ thymic nurse cells surrounds lymphocytes to
promote differentiation, proliferation and maturation
Where different subtypes of T lympho are created
Where they acquire their receptors
Developing lympho are protected by blood-thymus barrier
(formed by endothelial cells, epithelial reticular cells and
macrophages)
Macrophages ensures substances transported to thymus do not
interact with w/ developing lympho
Also functions for autoimmune responses (sa mga sirang
body cells)
Maturation and selection of T cells is very complicated process,
only a small fraction matures (they are presented with self and
foreign antigens by APCs)
Positive selection:
o Lymphocytes that recognizes antigens and matures
o Leaves thymus via bloodstream and distributed
Negative selection:
o Lymphocytes that are unable to recognize self
antigens
o Some do recognize but dies and destroyed by
macrophages
o 95% of total cells
Epithelial reticular cells secrete hormones for proliferation,
differentiation and maturation and for expression of surface
markers
Thymulin, thymopoietin, thymosin, thymic humoral factor,
interleukins and interferons
Forms distinct whorls (Thymic (Hassal) corpuscles)
Involutes at puberty, becomes filled w/ adipose, production of T
cells decrease
But, dahil meron ng establishment ng T lymphocyte progeny,
immunity is maintained without the new T cell production
When thymus gland is cut from a newborn = death
Only discrete central lymphoid organ
Soft, lobulated lymphoepithelial organ
Location: upper mediastinum and lower part of neck
Most active during childhood, after, undergoes involution, in adults lymphoid
region is filled with fat
Surround by CT capsule
Cortex w/ extensive network of interconnecting spaces

No

Spaces become colonized by immature lymphocytes from hematopoietic tissues


and matures here
Epithelial cells provide structural support for increasing number of lymphocytes
In medulla, epithelial cells form a coarser framework
o Contains fewer lymphocytes and whorls of epithelial cells
o Combines to form thymic (Hassall) corpuscles
o Unencapsulated lymphoid organs/Diffused
Lymphatic aggregates/nodules (MALT, GALT, BALT)
Primary nodules:
o Contain only small lymphocytes
o Lack germinal centers
o Present prenatally in the absences of antigens
Secondary nodules:
o Appear after birth
o Size and number approximate to degree of stimulation
o W/ lighter-staining germinal centers that contains mainly lymphoblasts
Lymphatic vessels and ducts
o Walls resemble those of veins
o Beaded appearance (due to presence of valves)
o Adventitia thin and lacks smooth muscle
o T. media with both longitudinal and circular smooth muscle (longitudinal predominates)
Lymphatic capillaries
o Resemble b.v. capillaries
o Larger diameter than b.v. capillaries
o Lack fenestrations; fewer tight junctions than b.v. capillaries
Distinguishing features of lymphoid organs
Key features
Thymus
Lymph nodes
Spleen
Tonsils
Cortex & medulla
+
+
Lymphoid nodules +
+
+
Cords & sinuses
+
+
Unique structures Hassals
Cortical nodules
Central arteries
Epithelial covering
corpuscles
subscapsulars sinus