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Work-In-Progress Poster

Proceedings of the
23rd International Conference
on Computers in Education
ICCE 2015

November 30 - December 4, 2015


Hangzhou, China

Copyright 2015 Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education


All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
transmitted, in any forms or any means, without the prior permission of the Asia-Pacific
Society for Computers in Education.
ISBN 978-4-9908014-8-9
Publisher
ICCE 2014 Organizing Committee
ICT Unit, Center for Graduate Education Initiative, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
1-1, Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa, 923-1292, Japan

Editors
Tatsunori MATSUI
Ahmad Fauzi Mohd AYUB
Bo JIANG
Hiroaki OGATA
Weiqin Chen
Siu Cheung KONG
Feiyue QIU

TABLE OF CONTENTS
#
Paper title and authors
Pages
C1: Artificial Intelligence in Education/Intelligent Tutoring System (AIED/ITS) and Adaptive
Learning
1
Avatar as Open Student Model to Enhance Student Learning
1
Zhi-Hong CHEN, Chih-Hao CHIEN & Chih-Yueh CHOU
2

Cognitive Conflict in Forum Discussions on Scientific Topics


Jrgen BUDER, Brett BUTTLIERE & Anne BALLMANN

C2: Computer-supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) and Learning Sciences


3
Developing the Collaborative Problem Solving Scale
Che-Li LIN & Sing-Jung TSAI

Need For Cognitive Closure as Determinant for Guidance in Wiki-Based


Learning
Sven HEIMBUCH & Daniel BODEMER

10

Experimental Use of Error-Based Simulation for Dynamics Problems in


National Institutes of Technology
Tomoya SHINOHARA, Takahito TOMOTO, Tomoya HORIGUCHI,
Atsushi YAMADA, Sho YAMAMOTO, Yusuke HAYASHI & Tsukasa
HIRASHIMA

13

C4: Classroom, Ubiquitous, and Mobile Technologies Enhanced Learning (CUMTEL)


6
Making Electronic Textbook for College Chemistry-experiment
Akira IKUO, Yusuke YOSHINAGA & Haruo OGAWA
C5: Digital Game and Digital Toy Enhanced Learning and Society (GTEL&S)
7
The Game-based Learning Activity Integrating Board Game and Mobile
Online Searching Tasks for History Learning
Huei-Tse HOU & Yi-Hui Lin
C6:Technology Enhanced Language Learning (TELL)
8
Learning Design in Combination of Mobile Application for Summary
Speaking Task by Self-study and Pair Work in a Class
Kae NAKAYA & Masao MUROTA
C7: Practice-driven Research, Teacher Professional Development and Policy of ICT in
Education (PTP)
9
Opportunities and Challenges in Implementing Digital Equity Initiatives
in Remote Areas in Taiwan
Chientzu Candace CHOU

16

19

22

25

10

Influence Of Learning On Realistic Mathematics Ict-Assisted


Mathematical Problem Solving Skills Students
Veny SEPTIANY, Sigid Edy PURWANTO & Khoerul UMAM

29

11

An Investigation into Students Writing Process Using Digital Pens in


Exercises During Lessons
Yuki MORI, Takayuki AMIOKA, Hironori EGI & Shigeto OZAWA

32

Ogata, H. et al. (Eds.) (2015). Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computers in
Education. China: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

Avatar as Open Student Model


to Enhance Student Learning
Zhi-Hong CHENac*, Chih-Hao CHIENa, Chih-Yueh CHOUbc
Department of Information Communication, Yuan Ze University, Taiwan
b
Department of Computer Engineering and Science, Yuan Ze University, Taiwan
c
Innovation Center for Big Data and Digital Convergence, Yuan Ze University, Taiwan
*zhchen@saturn.yzu.edu.tw
a

Abstract: In this paper, we describe My-Hero system that is an open student model system
developed to enhance student learning, including promoting their awareness, improving, and
interaction. Since awareness is a key element for triggering behavior change (e.g., improving
and interaction), enhancing students learning awareness is the first step to change their
behaviors. Thus, the learning process of the My-Hero system is initiated by enhancing
learning awareness via open student model. In this way, students effort can be guided in
improving their current status and peer interaction.
Keywords: Avatar, open student model, learning awareness

1. Introduction
In the research filed of technology-enhanced learning, students data (e.g.., profiles and portfolios)
collected by educational systems to know what, how, and why the students learn is a critical element
(Self, 1988). This is because students data can enable educational systems to understand students,
and further care them in some ways, such as providing students with more adaptive instructions
according to their learning progress, or offering students different learning strategies based on their
various learning styles. In addition, students data not only can enable educational systems to
understand students, but also promote their self-awareness and self-control through presenting these
data to the students themselvesthe concept of Open learner model, OLM (Bull, Gardner, Ahmad,
Ting, & Clarke, 2009; Vlez, Fabregat, Bull, & Hueva, 2009).
Open student model refers to making students learning data collected by educational
systems visible to the students themselves. With open student model, students can know what they
have learned and have not mastered by interacting with the open student model. In other word, open
student model can be regarded as an external representation of students profiles or portfolios.
Students have more opportunities to observe, control, edit, or negotiate their learning status with
educational systems. Thus, such visible and open features can benefit students in several
aspects, including a planning basis for learning goals, better communication between systems and
students and more self-assessment and reflection about learning (Bull & Nghiem, 2002; Mitrovic &
Martin, 2002; Zapata-Rivera & Greer, 2002).
Because of the significances, different technologies have been explored to promote the use
of open student model. One of technologies is virtual characters in different visual forms, such as
virtual characters, virtual pets, and avatars. Based on the learning by teaching, virtual characters are
used to enhance students self-regulatory skills (Kinnebrew et al., 2015). Based on the psychology of
emotional attachment to pets, virtual pets are used as open student model to promote students selfreflection (Chen, 2012). Based on the game technology for engaged learning, avatars are applied to
educational settings (Dickey, 2007). More specifically, students can project themselves into the
game world. With the representation of avatars, students not only could see what they do, but also
observe the results from a first-person viewpoint, which could enhance students feelings of
engagement, tele-presence, and even serve as their second-self or alter-ego (Qiu & Benbasat, 2005).
In addition, avatars can be further related to narrative or storytelling that can foster system
communication and students participation in learning activities (Alexander, 2011). From the
historical perspective, narrative and story are one of useful approaches to accumulating experience,
knowledge and culture (Lebowitz, & Klug, 2011; Crawford, 2012). Additionally, from the
perspective of brain science, narrative and story are also a critical structure of remember and process

Ogata, H. et al. (Eds.) (2015). Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computers in
Education. China: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

(Gottschall, 2012). When information is conveyed in the form of story, human can remember it
effectively and efficiently. In other words, narrative and story can be regarded as a potential means
to transmit, communicate, and share ideas and knowledge.
Although avatars have been applied to game-based learning, few studies investigate their
possible application in the use of open student model, and further examine their influences. Thus,
this study proposes an educational system named My-Hero as open student models to promote
students efforts in improving their learning status and peer interaction. By developing this system,
the influences of such learning systems can be further examined in the future.

2. My-Hero system
In My-Hero system, every student owns a hero to represent their learning status. On one hand, the
student can be more aware of their current learning status, such as what has learned and what have
not learned, and not attempted. On the other hand, the student can make efforts to improve their
current status by leveling the hero. In addition, students heroes can be used in peer competition,
where the results are determined by the strength of heroes. Through hero competition, students
motivation to improve their heroes can be also enhanced. The My-Hero system contains three
components: leveling, OLM, and competition components. The details are described as follows:
Regarding leveling component (see Figure 1a), the goal of this component is to promote
students awareness through the technique of leveling avatars, where students need to correctly
answer a set of questions to level their heroes. In other words, to level their heroes, students are
guided to learn materials, and then answer related questions. In particular, each question is related to
core concept of materials. Thus, during this process, students learning status can be diagnosed by
analyzing the results of answering these questions. In this way, students have more opportunities to
further remedy their problems through the following component.

(a) Leveling component


(b) OLM component: macro view
Figure 1. Snapshots of My-Hero system
Regarding OLM component, the goal of this component is to point out the directions in
improving learning status through the technique of open student model, which can indicate which
concepts students have mastered or which concepts student do not master according to the results of
answering questions. In particular, the representation of OLM is implemented in the graphic format
with two views: macro view (see Figure 1b) and micro views (see Figure 2a). Taking the subject
domain of programing language as an example, the former reveals the five core concepts: variable,
flow control, application, array, and function. Students not only can observe their learning status in
terms of the five concepts, but also the comparison with the peers in terms of the five concepts. The
latter shows the detailed correct ratio of each question for a specific concept by 4-color-coded
approach: white means not attempted; green implies excellent; yellow denotes moderate; red
means poor. In this way, the students can quickly get the idea of what the learning status for this
concept.
Regarding competition component (see Figure 2b), the goal of this component is to foster
students social interaction via the technique of surrogate competition (Chen & Chen, 2014), which
makes students compete against each other via their avatars in the games. In the My-Hero system,

Ogata, H. et al. (Eds.) (2015). Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computers in
Education. China: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

this component is implemented by a peer-based arena mechanism, where students can find another
peer to have a surrogate competition based on the comparison of the data in the open student model.

(a) OLM component: micro view


(b) Competition component
Figure 2. Snapshots of My-Hero system

References
Alexander, B. (2011). The New Digital Storytelling: Creating Narratives with New Media: Creating Narratives
with New Media. ABC-CLIO.
Bull, S., Gardner, P., Ahmad, N., Ting, J., & Clarke, B. (2009). Use and trust of simple independent open
learner models to support learning within and across courses. In User Modeling, Adaptation, and
Personalization (pp. 42-53). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Bull, S. & Nghiem, T. (2002). Helping Learners to Understand Themselves with a Learner Model Open to
Students, Peers and Instructors, in P. Brna & V. Dimitrova (eds), Proceedings of Workshop on Individual
and Group Modelling Methods that Help Learners Understand Themselves, International Conference on
Intelligent Tutoring Systems 2002, 5-13.
Chen, Z. H. (2012). We care about you: Incorporating pet characteristics with educational agents through
reciprocal caring approach. Computers and Education, 59(4), 1081-1088.
Chen, Z. H., & Chen, Y. S. (2014). When educational agents meet surrogate competition: Impacts of
competitive educational agents on students motivation and performance. Computers and Education, 75,
274-281
Crawford, C. (2012). Chris Crawford on interactive storytelling. New Riders.
Dickey, M. D. (2007). Game design and learning: A conjectural analysis of how massively multiple online
role-playing games (MMORPGs) foster intrinsic motivation. Educational Technology Research and
Development, 55(3), 253-273.
Gottschall, J. (2012). The storytelling animal: How stories make us human. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Kinnebrew, J.S., Gauch, B., Segedy, J.R., & Biswas, G. (2015). Studying Student use of Self-Regulated
Learning Tools in an Open-Ended Learning Environment. In Proceedings of the 17th International
Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education. Madrid, Spain. Lecture Notes in Computer Science,
9112, 185-194.
Lebowitz, J., & Klug, C. (2011). Interactive storytelling for video games: A player-centered approach to
creating memorable characters and stories. Taylor & Francis.
Mitrovic, A. & Martin, B. (2002). Evaluating the Effects of Open Student Models on Learning, in P. De Bra,
P. Brusilovsky & R. Conejo (eds), Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems, Proceedings
of Second International Conference, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 296-305.
Qiu, L. & Benbasat, I. (2005). An investigation into the effects of Text-To-Speech voice and 3D avatars on the
perception of presence and flow of live help in electronic commerce, ACM Transactions on ComputerHuman Interaction, 12(4), 329 355.
Self, J. A. (1988). Bypassing the intractable problem of student modeling. Proceedings of Intelligent Tutoring
Systems, 88, Montreal, Canada.
Vlez, J., Fabregat, R., Bull, S., & Hueva, D. (2009). The Potential for Open Learner Models in Adaptive
Virtual Learning Environments. In AIED 2009: 14 th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence
in Education Workshops Proceedings (p. 11).
Zapata-Rivera, J. D. & Greer, J. E. (2002). Exploring Various Guidance Mechanisms to Support Interaction
with Inspectable Learner Models, Intelligent Tutoring Systems: 6th In-ternational Conference, SpringerVerlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 442-452.

Ogata, H. et al. (Eds.) (2015). Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computers in
Education. China: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

Cognitive Conflict in Forum Discussions on


Scientific Topics
Jrgen BUDER*, Brett BUTTLIERE & Anne BALLMANN
Leibniz-Institut fr Wissensmedien, Tbingen, Germany
*j.buder@iwm-tuebingen.de
Abstract: An online experiment (N = 96) explored which factors encourage readers to
respond in an online forum discussion about the pros and cons of alternative medicine. After
indicating their attitude on this issue, participants read an online discussion containing 24 pro
and con posts about alternative medicine. Thus, cognitive conflict could be computed as the
distance between person and post. Furthermore, participants had the opportunity to respond
to whichever post(s) they liked. Results indicated that greater cognitive conflict was
associated with higher likelihood of responding. This effect was attenuated in posts with
high emotionality. Finally, greater conflict was associated with longer responses.
Implications for research in CSCL and social psychology are discussed.
Keywords: Cognitive conflict, attitudes, online forum discussions

1. Introduction
Communication lies at the heart of any computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) activity,
as without communication there is no collaboration. Moreover, since Cohens (1994) seminal paper
it is held that there is a positive relationship between communication and learning: individuals learn
in cooperative or collaborative settings inasmuch as they discuss within their group.
It has long been held that some types of discussions might be more beneficial for groups
than others. Based on Piagetian notions, Doise and Mugny (1984) posited in their socio-cognitivist
approach that group discussions are particularly fruitful if group members have different viewpoints
on an issue. This should give rise to cognitive conflicts in an individual, expressed by the Piagetian
learning mechanisms of disequilibration and equilibration through assimilation or accommodation
(Piaget & Inhelder, 1969). Consequently, some collaborative learning methods are explicitly geared
at creating cognitive conflict in a group (e.g. Johnson & Johnson, 1979).
Large parts of CSCL research investigate discussion patterns among learners and try to
unravel how cognitive conflicts among learners can be negotiated to create joint meaning and better
understanding (e.g. Stahl, 2005). However, most of these studies examine patterns of discussion in
individual case studies. The present study tries to uncover some factors that explain patterns of group
discussions on a more general (and potentially generalizable) level. It partially replicates and builds
on an earlier study which used the think-aloud approach on a much smaller sample (Buder & Rudat,
2014).

2.

The Present Study

While previous research has provided ample evidence that cognitive conflict leads to learning
(Johnson & Johnson, 1979), and that participation leads to learning (Cohen, 1994), the present study
explores the missing link, i.e. the relationship between cognitive conflict and participation
(without looking at learning results). In order to test for this relationship, cognitive conflict was
defined as the absolute distance between an individuals attitude and the attitude expressed through
an utterance that the individual processes. In order to keep the external part of cognitive conflict
constant, it was decided to investigate our research questions in an online experiment. In the context
of a controversial online forum discussion about a scientific topic (alternative medicine), all
participants of our study were confronted with the same discussion posts. The posts were constructed
and pretested such that they varied in their expressed attitude as well as their emotionality.
Participants were given the opportunity to respond to whichever post they wanted to. It was
expected that greater cognitive conflict (distance between a readers attitude and a posts attitude)

Ogata, H. et al. (Eds.) (2015). Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computers in
Education. China: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

would lead to a higher likelihood of responding. Following inconclusive results in our previous
think-aloud study (Buder & Rudat, 2014), we did not hypothesize about the influence of post
emotionality.

3.

Method

96 German-speaking participants, recruited through a university portal for psychological


experiments, finished the online study (29 male, 67 male, average age 25.8 years). The material
consisted of a fictitious online discussion about the advantages and disadvantages of alternative
medicine. An initial discussion entry was followed by 24 actual discussion posts (12 providing
arguments in favor, and 12 providing arguments against the use of alternative medicine). Moreover,
half of the discussion posts were composed in an emotional style, using emotionally laden words.
Exact attitude ratings and emotionality ratings of each post (on Likert scales) were yielded through
prior testing.
In the main study, participants first had to rate their attitude with regard to the topic (for vs.
against the use of alternative medicine) on a 6-point Likert scale. After that, the alternative medicine
discussion was displayed on a computer screen. By clicking on a box adjacent to each discussion
post, participants could indicate that they would like to respond to this message. Participants were
then given the opportunity to write their reply in a text box that opened upon clicking on the box.
Participants were not requested or required to respond at all.
In order to test our assumptions, we computed a set of multiple regressions. First, we looked
at the relationship of reader attitude and post attitude on the likelihood of responding. Then we
added post emotionality into the regression equation. Finally, we explored the impact of these
variables on response length of messages.

4.

Results

The first regression model tested the likelihood of responding to a discussion post based on reader
attitude and post attitude. As expected, neither reader attitude alone (z = -.354, p = .72) nor post
attitude alone (z = 1.755, p = .08) predicted response likelihood. However, the reader attitude by
post attitude interaction was significant (z = -3.381, p < .01). The relationship between cognitive
conflict (reader attitude post attitude) and response rate is depicted in Figure 1. The larger the
cognitive conflict, the more likely it is that a participant responded on the controversial issue of
alternative medicine.

Figure 1. Relationship between cognitive conflict and likelihood of responding

A second analysis added post emotionality into the regression equation. Once again, neither reader
attitude (z = -1.367, p = .17) nor post attitude (z = 1.127, p = .26) predicted participation rate.

Ogata, H. et al. (Eds.) (2015). Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computers in
Education. China: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

Moreover, emotionality of a post did not have a direct effect (z = 1.585, p = .11). However, apart
from the expected 2-way interaction between reader attitude and post attitude (z = -3.894, p < .01)
we also yielded a significant 3-way interaction between reader attitude, post attitude, and post
emotionality (z = 2.705, p < .01). Further analyses showed that post emotionality had a moderating
effect on cognitive conflict. Participants were less likely to respond to a highly conflicting post
when that post was emotionally laden rather than neutral. In contrast, participants were more likely
to respond to a non-conflicting post when it was emotionally laden rather than neutral.
Finally we examined the impact of reader attitude, post attitude, and post emotionality on the
length of response (number of characters). The only significant term of the regression equation
(again) was a 2-way interaction between reader attitude and post attitude (z = -3.534, p < .01). This
finding indicates that greater conflict (person attitude x post attitude interaction) is related to longer
responses. However, the absence of main effects or interactions involving post emotionality suggests
that the emotionality of a message does not have an influence on message length.

5.

Discussion

An online study with 96 participants showed clear evidence that readers of online discussion forums
on controversial scientific issues are more likely to respond to a discussion post the more this post
deviates from their attitude. They did not only respond more when a post was conflicting, their
responses also tended to become longer conflict breeds online productivity.
This study was conducted in an informal learning setting. However, we are confident that
some of the findings also apply to typical CSCL fields (institutionalized, formal learning
scenarios): practitioners are well advised to frame scientific issues in terms of controversies. This
will increase cognitive conflicts in learners, and generate more discussion. As active participation in
a discussion requires deep elaboration of ones thoughts, conditions conducive to learning might be
the result.
The current study also has interesting implications for social psychology as its results are in
contradiction to the well-established tendency of people to attend to non-conflicting information
(confirmation bias; Hart, Albarracin, Eagly, Brechan, Lindberg, & Merrill, 2009). The fact that we
have essentially found a kind of disconfirmation bias with regard to online discussion forum
behavior raises a couple of interesting theoretical questions: Is there an underlying mechanism
behind these two conflicting findings? Under what conditions does a confirmation bias turn into a
disconfirmation bias? We are currently exploring these questions in a series of further experiments,
ultimately hoping to uncover some of the mechanisms that explain how people deal with and learn
from conflicting pieces of information.

Acknowledgements
This study was funded by the Leibniz ScienceCampus Tbingen Informational Environments.

References
Buder, J. & Rudat, A. (2014). Antecedents of replies and non-replies in online discussion forums: Evidence
from a think-aloud study. In Liu, C.-C. et al. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on
Computers in Education. Japan: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education (pp. 19-21).
Cohen, E. G. (1994). Restructuring the classroom: Conditions for productive small groups. Review of
Educational Research, 64, 1-35.
Doise, W., & Mugny, G. (1984). The social development of the intellect. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press.
Hart, W., Albarracin, D., Eagly, A. H., Brechan, I., Lindberg, M. J., & Merrill, L. (2009). Feeling validated
versus being correct: A meta-analysis of selective exposure to information. Psychological Bulletin, 135,
555-588.
Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T. (1979). Conflict in the classroom: Controversy and learning. Review of
Educational Research. 49, 5169.
Piaget, J. & Inhelder, B. (1969). The psychology of the child. NY: Basic Books.
Stahl, G. (2005). Group cognition: Computer support for collaborative knowledge building. Cambridge, MA:
MIT Press.

Ogata, H. et al. (Eds.) (2015). Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computers in
Education. China: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

Developing the Collaborative Problem Solving


Scale
a

Che-Li LIN a* & Sing-Jung TSAIb


Research Center for Curriculum and instruction, National Academy for Educational Research,
Taiwan
b
Language Center, SooChow University, Taiwan
*jerlih@mail.naer.edu.twr
Abstract: The present study aims to develop the Collaborative problem solving scale,
which is able to reveal the collaborative problem solving competency. The participants of
this study were 76 high school students (tenth graders) who received a collaborative problem
task for 70-80minutes. After completing the collaborative problem solving task, the
participants filled out the preliminary version of Collaborative problem solving scale.
Exploratory factor analysis was conducted and four major subscales yielded: Reflect,
Propose, Passive, and Role. Based on the results, the scale will be subjected to further
analysis such as correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis with other scales so as
to further examine the criterion-related validity of this Collaborative problem solving

scale (CPSS).
Keywords: Collaborative problem solving, Educational technology

1. Introduction
Collaborative problem solving has been recognized as a critical ability for modern citizens in such
situations as international collaboration across countries (Sere et al., 2011; Veerman, 2001).
Developing the scale of collaborative problem solving is able to reveal the features of the
collaborative problem solving competency.

2.

Method

Participants
With the consensus and the help of school administrators and home room teachers, a total of 76 high
school students participated the present study. The participants were in their first year of high
schools (tenth grade), and were from two classes and two separate schools, both of which located in
suburban Taipei in Taiwan. After these 76 participants completed a collaborative problem task for
70-80 minutes, the collaborative problem solving scale were filled out by these participants in about
15 minutes.
The development of the collaborative problem solving scale
The design of the Collaborative problem solving scale was based on both the CSCL literature and
the framework of collaborative problem solving literacy proposed by PISA 2015, from which the
major categories of the Collaborative problem solving scale were elicited. The development of the
items was conducted by two researchers, both of whom major in educational psychology and
educational technology. The preliminary version of the collaborative problem solving scale was
reviewed by professors who specialized in computer science education.
The Collaborative problem solving scale was subjected to exploratory factor analysis.
Having an eigenvalue above 1 was the criterion for determining the number of factors. Items with
factor loadings lower than 0.60 were ruled out in order to satisfy the validity of the scale for
conducting further analysis.

Ogata, H. et al. (Eds.) (2015). Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computers in
Education. China: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

3.

Results

Exploratory factor analysis for the Collaborative problem solving scale


A total of four major categories (subscales) were elicited. Each subscale was examined with Mean
(S.D.), factor loading, variance explained, and Cronbachs alpha (see Table 1).
3.1.1 Reflection (6 items) measures the degree to which an individual reflect on his or her
behavior during collaborative problem solving task (e.g., RE1: I think of the role I play in the team;
RE2: I think of whether I complete the task I am assigned to do; RE3; I think of the appropriateness
of the assigned-task).
3.1.2 Propose (7 items) measures the degree to which an individual propose his/her own
ideas during collaborative problem solving task (e.g., PR1: I discuss the weakness and strength of
the possible solutions; PR2: I propose my own ideas for the questions; PR3: I discuss the feasibility
of the possible solutions with my teammates).
3.1.3 Passive (5 items) measures the degree to which an individual disengage in the
collaborative problem solving task (e.g., PA1: I do not response to my teammates; PA2: When I
encounter difficulties, I do not propose for further discussion; PA3: Usually I do not propose the
possible solutions that I think of).
3.1.4 Role (3 items) measures the degree to which an individual assign their roles during
collaborative problem solving task (e.g., RO1: I discuss with teammates about how we can assign
the task; RO2: I understand the role that the team have given to me; RO3: I complete the task that I
have been assigned).
Table 1: Exploratory factor analysis of the Collaborative problem solving scale (CPSS)
Scale(items )
Reflection
RE1
RE2
RE3
RE4
RE5
RE6
Propose
PR1
PR2
PR3
PR4
PR5
PR6
PR7
Passive
PA1
PA2
PA3
PA4
PA5
Role
RO1
RO2
RO3

Mean (S.D.)

EFA
loading

4.66(0.86)

Variance
explained
22.96

alpha

22.60

0.93

14.93

0.86

12.86

0.79

0.91

0.81
0.80
0.79
0.74
0.74
0.71
4.87(0.78)
0.84
0.81
0.73
0.70
0.67
0.67
0.66
4.64(1.33)
0.88
0.81
0.78
0.73
4.47(0.93)
0.80
0.75
0.71

Ogata, H. et al. (Eds.) (2015). Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computers in
Education. China: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

4.

The development this collaborative problem solving scale

In order to understand the criterion-related validity of this scale, the Collaborative problem
solving scale will be further examined by probing the correlations between the Collaborative
problem solving scale (CPSS), Online Information Searching Strategy Inventory (OISSI), and
Online Discussion Strategies Scale (ODSS) so as to unveil the criterion-related validity for the
Collaborative problem solving scale (CPSS).
Acknowledgements
The funding of this study is supported by Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan, under grant
contract numbers MOST 104-2511-S-656-001.

References
Sere, F. C., Swigger, K., Alpaslan, F. N., Brazile, R., Dafoulas, G., & Lopez, V. (2011). Online collaboration:
Collaborative behavior patterns and factors affecting globally distributed team performance.
Computers in Human Behavior, 27(1), 490-503. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2010.09.017
Veerman, A., & Veldhuis-Diermanse, E. . (2001). Collaborative learning through computer-mediated
communication in academic education. Paper presented at the In Euro CSCL 2001 (pp. 625632). .

Ogata, H. et al. (Eds.) (2015). Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computers in
Education. China: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

Need for Cognitive Closure as Determinant for


Guidance in Wiki-based learning
a

Sven HEIMBUCHa*, Daniel BODEMERa


Media-Based Knowledge Construction, University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany
*sven.heimbuch@uni-due.de

Abstract: In Wikis as collaborative knowledge construction environments for learning the


outcome and its underlying processes can be considered on an individual as well as on a
social systems level. In previous research, we could show that by implementing either
supplemental implicit or explicit guidance focused on Wiki discussions positive effects on
the learners side could be achieved. This study investigates what type of guidance
implemented on the level of talk page discussions is beneficial dependant on the learners
degree of need for cognitive closure and if an interaction of these both factors produces
larger positive effects on the individual learning processes and the resulting outcome.
Therefore, we are conducting a 2x2 between-subjects design experimental study comparing
four groups contrasting high vs low need for cognitive closure participants and implicit vs
explicit guidance measures that we have positively evaluated in previous work. We expect to
gather evidence that fostering learning processes in Wiki-based settings making use of talk
page discussions is highly dependent on individual cognitive variables interacting with the
type of provided additional guidance.
Keywords: Wiki, collaboration scripts, representational guidance, learning, cognitive
closure

1. Introduction and Research Questions


In computer-supported collaborative learning there is an ever-growing number of research covering
supplemental web-based learning environments, such as Wikis, to facilitate knowledge construction
processes within the individual learner and the social system itself. In previous work on the coevolution of knowledge in social system, Cress and Kimmerle (2008) discussed the occurrence of
internalisation and externalisation processes of knowledge artefacts into an individual cognitive
system as well as into the Wiki as social system, which are similar and analogous to those processes
originally discussed in Piagets theories of equilibration. The mutual influences of either system on
the other open up prospects for the emergence of socio-cognitive conflicts through possible dissents
between an individuals and the social systems knowledge base. Such conflicts that can arise from
information contradicting the other systems knowledge base do not have to be detrimental for
learning and making use of its beneficial potentials plays an important role in collaborative learning
scenarios (Mugny & Doise, 1978). The induction and confrontation with conflicts that are grounded
on different perspectives or contradictory facts can trigger reorganisation and restructuring of
cognitive structures. Resulting alteration processes of an individual's cognitive representation of
knowledge about specific contents are strengthened while trying to reach a consensus or feeling the
need for a common understanding (Bell, Grossen & Perret-Clermont, 1985).
Supportive measures for dealing with socio-cognitive conflicts in web-based learning
environments that have proven to be effective for participants in different contexts range from
deployments of implicit guidance approaches, e.g. implementation of cognitive group awareness
representations (Janssen & Bodemer, 2013), to more explicit instructional methods, i.e. instructional
designs through collaboration scripts (Dillenbourg, 2002). Wiki talk pages comprise hidden
potentials for collaborative knowledge construction purposes that should be made more salient to
interested users and learners by providing them additional guidance on the level of discussion
threads. Visual feedbacks as external representations of group awareness information have been
realised as multidimensional graphs or highlighting emphases of specific aspects of interest. Such
visualisations can be helpful cues for readers of large online forum discussions that can also be
found on Wiki talk pages to navigate through the contents and select the most relevant information,
e.g. the occurrence of content-related controversies (Heimbuch & Bodemer, 2014). The deployment

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Ogata, H. et al. (Eds.) (2015). Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computers in
Education. China: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

of such cognitive group awareness representations that gather and visualise knowledge-related
information have been successfully implemented as implicit guidance measures to structure learning
processes in Wiki-based environments (Heimbuch & Bodemer, 2015). Research on collaboration
scripts has also been gathering evidence that explicit instructions to groups can be effective to
achieve significant learning effects in Wiki-related research. Instructions aiming at the improvement
of collaborative revision processes that set the focus on increased coordination prior to any
integration of knowledge artefacts can lead to less redundant revisions and more coherent texts
(Wichmann & Rummel, 2013). Similar Wiki-related collaboration scripts with regard to a more
intensive a priori exchange of different points of view and opposing arguments facilitated learners to
acquire contrary pieces of information and integrate these into their individual cognitive systems,
which resulted in more elaborated responses to a historically controversial topic (Heimbuch &
Bodemer, 2015).
Regardless of the type of deployed supportive measure for individual learners focussing on sociocognitive conflicts in collaborative settings such as Wikis, the consideration of differences in
specific personality and cognitive differences plays an important role. In settings as the
aforementioned, research has identified the personal need for cognitive closure as a relevant
construct when learners are confronted with conflicts and controversies induced by ambiguous or
contradictory information (Webster & Kruglanski, 1994). A person with a high need for cognitive
closure tends to avoid ambiguity and searches for plausible but quick solution to a problem. In
contrast to that, low need for cognitive closure individuals show preferences towards ambiguity and
mostly enjoy participating in discussions and more extensive information search. Recent research on
Wiki-based learning scenarios with implementations of implicit and explicit measures of supporting
learners could confirm the influences of the individual need for closure on the learning outcome and
the underlying processes (Heimbuch & Bodemer, 2015). For this current study we are building upon
the results of our previous work where the need for cognitive closure has been identified as
influential variable on learning in Wiki-based environments. Therefore, we are mainly interested in
the question if we are able to identify a significant interaction between the degree of an individuals
need for cognitive closure and the type of provided guidance (implicit vs explicit) that have already
been deployed and their positive outcomes have been confirmed in previous studies.

2.

Methods

To answer our main research question of interest, an experimental study is currently conducted in a
controlled laboratory setting. We are aiming at researching approximately N = 180 students in a
balanced two factorial between-subjects design (cf. Table 1). Figure 1 illustrates the setups of the
Wiki environments for the experimental groups that correspond to the studys first independent
factor guidance, where (1) visual representations of a discussions controversy occurrence and its
status are implemented as implicit guidance and (2) a collaboration script with a focus on discussing
changes to the Wiki prior to editing is applied as explicit guidance for learners. For the second factor
we are conducting a pre-study on students level of need for cognitive closure and categorise them
into high and low closure.
Table 1: Study design with two between-subjects factors

Factor 2:
Need for cognitive closure

Low
High

Factor 1:
Guidance
Implicit
Explicit
Group 1 (n = 45)
Group 3 (n = 45)
Group 2 (n = 45)
Group 4 (n = 45)

Independent of the experiments guidance type, the overarching task for all groups is to edit an
original article relying on new information and evidence found inside the discussion threads and to
participate in a number of talks. The article and discussion contents of this study are on a number of
different topics covering renewable and fossil energy sources for which contradictory information
and opposing points of view on several aspects exist. The currently conducted study is scheduled to
be finished until mid-November.

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Ogata, H. et al. (Eds.) (2015). Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computers in
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Figure 1. Mockup illustrations of the Wikis for implicitly guided (controversy occurrence plus
resolution status) groups 1 and 2 (left) and explicitly guided (talk first collaboration
script) groups 3 and 4 (right).

3.

Outlook

To measure the outcome with regard to learning success we will process and evaluate the answers
given in a knowledge test about the studys contents. With regard to underlying processes we plan to
analyse recorded log data on clicks and Wiki activities, such as reading and writing times at each of
the studys phases. Furthermore, a number of qualitative analyses on the contents of the edited texts
of a random selection from the four experimental groups will be conducted. At all analytical stages
we will analyse the effects of the main interested influencing variable need for cognitive closure as
well as the effects from other potentially relevant influencing variables.

References
Bell, N., Grossen, M., & Perret-Clermont, A.-N. (1985). Sociocognitive conflict and intellectual growth. New
Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 1985(29), 4154.
Dillenbourg, P. (2002). Over-scripting CSCL: The risks of blending collaborative learning with instructional
design. In P. A. Kirschner (Ed.), Three worlds of CSCL. Can we support CSCL (pp. 6191). Heerlen:
Open Universiteit Nederland.
Cress, U., & Kimmerle, J. (2008). A systemic and cognitive view on collaborative knowledge building with
wikis. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 3(2), 105122.
Heimbuch, S., & Bodemer, D. (2014). Supporting Awareness of Content-related Controversies in a Wikibased Learning Environment. In Proceedings of The International Symposium on Open Collaboration.
New York, NY, USA: ACM.
Heimbuch, S., & Bodemer, D. (2015). Let's Talk about Talks: Supporting Knowledge Exchange Processes on
Wiki Discussion Pages. In AAAI Technical Report on Wikipedia, a Social Pedia: Research Challenges
and Opportunities (ICWSM-15) (Vol. WS-15-19). Palo Alto, USA: AAAI Press.
Janssen, J., & Bodemer, D. (2013). Coordinated Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning: Awareness and
Awareness Tools. Educational Psychologist, 48(1), 4055.
Mugny, G., & Doise, W. (1978). Socio-cognitive conflict and structure of individual and collective
performances. European Journal of Social Psychology, 8(2), 181192.
Webster, D. M., & Kruglanski, A. W. (1994). Individual differences in need for cognitive closure. Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology 67(6):10491062.
Wichmann, A., & Rummel, N. (2013). Improving revision in wiki-based writing: Coordination pays off.
Computers & Education, 62, 262270.

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Ogata, H. et al. (Eds.) (2015). Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computers in
Education. China: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

Experimental Use of Error-Based Simulation


for Dynamics Problems in National Institutes
of Technology
Tomoya SHINOHARAa*, Takahito TOMOTOb, Tomoya HORIGUCHIc, Atsushi YAMADAa,
Sho YAMAMOTOd, Yusuke HAYASHIa & Tsukasa HIRASHIMAa
a
Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Japan
b
Department of Applied Computer Science, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo Polytechnic University,
Japan
c
Faculty of Maritime Science, Kobe University, Japan
d
Department of Informatics, Kinki University, Japan
*sinohara@lel.hiroshima-u.ac.jp
Abstract: In order to solve mechanics problems, force finding in the problem is an
indispensable step. Also, this step is often difficult for not only beginners and also learners
who have learned. Therefore, there are several researches proposed supporting method for
learners in this step. Error-Based Simulation (EBS) is one of the support methods. In this
research, we have experimentally evaluated EBS for a dynamics problems.
Keywords: Error-Based Simulation, Physics, Mechanics, Force, Visualization

1. Introduction
One of the most difficult steps in solving of mechanics problem is the step of force finding in the
problem. Therefore, examinations and developments of support methods for this step are important
research issues (Clement, J., 1982, Clement, J., 1993, Tao, P.-K., & Gunstone, R., F., 1999). Also,
this step is hard for students who have learned physics one time (Clement, J., 1982).
Error-Based Simulation (EBS) is one of the methods to support a learner at force finding (Hirashima,
T., Horiguchi, T., Kashihara, A. & Toyoda, J., 1998, Horiguchi, T., Imai, I., Toumoto, T., &
Hirashima, T., 2014). EBS is a motion simulation reflecting the forces that a leaner find in the
problem. This means that if any incorrect force is included, EBS shows incorrect behavior reflecting
it. Therefore, EBS visualizes errors as difference between wrong behavior and normal simulation.
By observing the incorrect behavior, it is expected that the learner detect his/her mistake and correct
it. The effectiveness of EBS has already been confirmed at statics problems. In this research, we
have been experimentally evaluating the effectiveness of EBS for dynamics problems. In this time,
we held the experimental use for the students in national institutes of technology who have
learned physics.

2.

Learning System with EBS

Evaluation of the effectiveness of EBS system is the goal of this research. Here, we will
illustrate about EBS system of this research.
EBS System
In this research, we implemented EBS system for dynamics problems on Android tablet. The user
interface of our system consists of problem sentence, some buttons, and drawing area (figure 1).
Drawing of force, and showing of EBS are done on drawing area. On drawing of force, learners
draw force they think acting on target objects by flicking as arrow. Then, motions of objects are
simulated based on this drawing. It is supposed that learners detect and correct own error by
observation for this simulation because correct motion is known for them.

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Figure 1 shows the example problem about the forces act on the person who skating on the ice
without friction with uniform motion. In this problem, many learners draw the force direction of
motion. For that drawing, the parson is accelerated in EBS.

Figure 1. System Interface and Example of EBS


Problems in EBS System
In this section, problems implemented in our system are explained. In this research, learning about
dynamics problems is main target. On elementary mechanics, these three kinds of motion are treated:
(1) linear uniform motion without force of motion direction, (2) linear uniform motion with balanced
forces of motion direction, (3) motion with acceleration.
We implemented these three problems corresponding to above three kinds: (A) a person who skating
on the ice without friction, (B) a person who dropping at constant velocity by parachute, (C) a ball
thrown up vertically. Also, we implemented these three applied problems corresponding to above
three kinds: (D) a space ship moving linearly at constant velocity in cosmic space, (E) an object
pushed at constant velocity on horizontal plane with friction, (F) a ball thrown up on the angle. From
here, we call above six problems learned problems.

3.

Experimental Use

In this research, EBS system explained above was used experimentally to evaluate its effect.
In this section, this use is explained.
Plan for Experimental Use
In this research, experimental use of EBS system with 19 subjects of fourth years at national
institutes of technology was conducted to evaluate its effect. On this use, we conducted pre-test just
before, system use, post-test just after, and delayed-test after a month. While this use, subjects dealt
with above six learned problems. Also, some questionnaire survey were conducted with each test.
Evaluation Test
In this use, we conducted written test as evaluation. Each test was drawing of forces same as
practice.
In pre-test, we used learned problems (problem (A) to (F)), and test was done for 10 minutes. In
post-test, we used six problems on pre-test, and additional four problems which not used at system.
So, total ten problems were used at post-test for 15 minutes. Added four problems: (G) a truck
moving on slope and horizontal plane without friction, (H) a sled which being pushed and
accelerating on ice without friction, (I) a box decelerating on horizontal plane with friction, (J) an
elevator which being lifted up at a constant speed. From here, we call above four additional
problems transfer problems.
Delayed-test was conducted after a month of use, also used problems and time are same as post-test.
Results of Evaluation Test

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Ogata, H. et al. (Eds.) (2015). Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computers in
Education. China: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

In this section, the result of three tests above are explained. In this research, we used the
number of correct answer (we call this number point from here).
In learned problems, the point rose significantly between pre-test and post-test (p =
0.0000021). Also, although the point decreased at delayed-test, but the point of delayed-test
was higher than pre-test significantly (p = 0.00627) (Figure 2).
In transfer problems, the point was not so high. Also, there were no significant declination
between post-test and delayed-test (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Results of Evaluation Test

4.

Conclusions

In this research, we are trying to evaluate the effectiveness of Error-Based Simulation in dynamics
problems. In this paper, we reported about the design of EBS system and its experimental use.
In this experimental use, there was some effectiveness for learned problems. From this, it is
confirmed that EBS was acceptable at dynamics problems. However, the knowledge was not so
applicable.
As future work, we will analyze the results of questionnaire with results of evaluation test in detail.
Also, as the means to encourage more deep understanding, the using of additional feedback with
EBS can be needed. Also, learning support that focuses on Motion Implies Force (MIF)
misconception (Clement (1982)) on dynamics problem is important.

Acknowledgements
We would like to thank all the people who relate to this research and this paper.

References
Clement, J. (1982). Students preconceptions in introductory mechanics. American Journal of Physics, 50, 6671.
Clement, J. (1993). Using bridging analogies and anchoring intuitions to deal with students' preconceptions in
physics. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 30(10), 1241-1257.
Tao, P.-K., & Gunstone, R., F. (1999). The Process of Conceptual Change in Force and Motion during
Computer-Supported Physics Instruction. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 36(7), 859882.
Hirashima, T., Horiguchi, T., Kashihara, A. & Toyoda, J. (1998). Error-Based Simulation for ErrorVisualization and Its Management. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 9, 17-31.
Horiguchi, T., Imai, I., Toumoto, T., & Hirashima, T. (2014). Error-Based Simulation for Error-Awareness in
Learning Mechanics: An Evaluation. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 17(3), 1-13.

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Ogata, H. et al. (Eds.) (2015). Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computers in
Education. China: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

Making Electronic Textbook for College


Chemistry-experiment
Akira IKUO*, Yusuke YOSHINAGA & Haruo OGAWA
Department of Chemistry, Tokyo Gakugei University, Japan
*ikuo@u-gakugei.ac.jp
Abstract: We are developing electronic textbook of basic chemistry-experiment for
university students in which chemical reactions are shown by computer graphics (CG). The
CGs of chemical reactions was made based on quantum chemical calculations and the Quick
Time movie of the reaction path was produced which was combined with electric textbook
of chemistry-experiment. The CGs include following reactions; 1) formation of di-atomic
molecule by collision of two atoms such as hydrogen iodide, 2) hydroxylation of methyl
chloride as a model of Waldens inversion where drastic change in structure takes place, 3)
esterification of acetic acid and ethanol as an example of more complex reaction. The CG
could simultaneously demonstrates the nature of the reaction such as structural change by the
ball-and-stick model or the space filling model with electrostatic potential, and potential
energy change by the reaction profile. The textbook displays picture of apparatus and flowchart of small-scale experiment in addition to the CG. Therefore students were able to
conduct experiment smoothly and safely while studying dynamical reaction mechanism by
CG in the electronic textbook inserted in the Ziploc type plastic bag. The developed
electronic textbook could be used to integrate the observable level experiment and the
molecular world.
Keywords: Computer graphics, Visualization, Electronic textbook, Chemical experiment

1. Introduction
Understanding the observed phenomena, chemists use to imagine and explain observations in terms
of molecules. Observed phenomena and molecular level models are then represented in terms of
mathematics and chemical equation (Gilbert, 2009 and Tasker, 2010). Students difficulties and
misconceptions in chemistry are from inadequate or inaccurate models at the molecular level
(Kleinman, 1987). A molecular structure visualized by the computer graphics (CG) provides a
deeper understanding of molecular structure (Tuvi-Arad, 2006). It is our aim to produce a CG
teaching material based on quantum chemical calculations, which provides realizable images of the
nature of chemical reaction (Ikuo, 2006 and 2009). If the CG were combined with chemical
experiments of students laboratory, students would observe the reaction from three thinking levels,
namely, phenomena in the actual observable level and the CG in the molecular level, and chemical
equation in the symbolic level. The CG on the tablet computer was effective to provide image of
Energy change and also effective to provide image of Structure change and Migration of
Electron during chemical reaction (Ikuo, 2012). Our ultimate goal is to produce an electronic
textbook linking chemical experiment, which integrates these three levels. This paper introduces our
works of development of the electronic textbook for chemical experiment of students laboratory at
the university, which integrates the observable level experiment and the molecular world.

2.

Developing Method

Strategy
Electronic textbook has several advantages over paper textbook. For example, realistic image can be
shown by photograph or 3-dimensional CG, and movie. These images could be, apparatus,
molecular structure, and reaction mechanism. In addition, programmable capability (for example.
Singhose, 2013), hyper-link, and networking feature provide inter-active operation. Many electronic
textbooks of chemistry are found but most of them are very similar to the paper book, and very few

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Ogata, H. et al. (Eds.) (2015). Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computers in
Education. China: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

are related to the chemical experiment (Morvant, 2013). Moreover, combination of CG movie of
reaction and experiment are not seen.
Flow chart of development of the electronic textbook for chemical experiment is shown in
the Scheme 1. Reaction was selected based on importance in fundamental chemistry. To exhibit
phenomena, experimental condition was optimized for the student laboratory and experimental
program was made. For easier understanding of experimental procedure, enlargeable-photos and
flow charts were used in addition to regular text-base description. The electronic textbook could acts
as an individual electronic tutor. To provide image of molecular world, CG images such as realistic
shape of molecules, the CG teaching material (movie) were made based on quantum chemistry
calculation (Ikuo, 2006 and 2009). Students would be able to see structure and energy change during
reaction while they are watching actual reaction progress. In this manner, observable level
experiment and the molecular world could be integrated (Scheme 1). In order to use the electronic
textbook on the lab bench, it need to be covered with a waterproof, Zip-lock type, case.

Scheme 1. Flow chart of developing method.


CG Teaching Material and Electronic Textbook
A movie of the reaction path was produced by the software DIRECTOR (ver. 8.5.1J, Macromedia,
Inc.) following the display of the bond order of the structure of the reactants in each reaction stage,
which was drawn by the CAChe (Ikuo, 2006 and 2009). The obtained CG was combined with
reaction profile in the same reaction stage. It was confirmed that the drawn CGs of the molecular
models of reactants moves smoothly. A ball, which indicates progress of the reaction, was arranged
on the reaction profile and simultaneous movements of the ball and the reactants were confirmed.
Created movie file was converted to the Quick Time movie for iPad by the Quick Time PRO (ver.
7.66, Apple, Inc.). Electric textbook was produced with iBooks Author (ver. 2.1.1, Apple, Inc.) and
was saved to iPad (Apple, Inc.) by using the iTunes (ver. 11.2.1, Apple, Inc.).

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Ogata, H. et al. (Eds.) (2015). Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computers in
Education. China: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

3.

Feature of Electronic Textbook

The CG teaching material was combined with chemical experiments of students laboratory for the
purpose of making electronic textbook of basic chemistry to provide experiment at the observablelevel, CG visualization at the molecular-level, and chemical equation at the symbolic-level. The
electronic textbook was inserted with images of experimental procedure in the flow charts and
photographs, which can be enlarged by students touch. Student can write memo for the observation.
CG teaching materials of reaction profiles were also inserted. When student touches the CG teaching
material in the tablet computer, the teaching material appears to show image of the structural change
during the reaction. Student can compare different reaction mechanisms. If student touches the
material again, the Quick Time control bar appears and the green ball on the profile can move by
students choice. Student can manipulate the reaction back and forth until they obtain the image of
the reaction. Although more study need to be done on the effectiveness of the electronic textbook,
students were able to conduct experiment smoothly and safely with the textbook inserted in the
Ziploc type plastic bag.

4.

Conclusions

Developing method of electronic textbook for chemical experiment of students laboratory at the
university was decided which aimed at integration of observable level experiment and the molecular
world. The electronic textbook was developed according to the policy. The developed textbook
could display picture of apparatus and flow-chart of small-scale experiment in addition to CG
teaching material. The CG in the textbook effectively demonstrates images of dynamical reaction
mechanism. From the preliminary study, students were able to conduct experiment smoothly and
safely with the electronic textbook inserted in the Ziploc type plastic bag. The developed electronic
textbook could be used to integrate the observable level experiment and the molecular world.

Acknowledgements
This work was supported by JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) (25350188).

References
Gilbert, J. K., Treagust, D. F., 2009. in Gilbert, J. K., Treagust, D. (eds.), Models and Modeling in Science
Education Vol. 4 Multiple Representations in Chemical Education, Springer, 333-350.
Ikuo, A., Ikarashi, Y., Shishido, T. and Ogawa, H., 2006. User-friendly CG visualization with animation of
chemical reaction: esterification of acetic acid and ethyl alcohol and survey of textbooks of high school
chemistry, Journal of Science Education in Japan, 30 (4), 210-215.
Ikuo A., Nagashima H., Yoshinaga Y., and Ogawa H., 2009. Calculation of potential energy in the
reaction of I + H2 HI + H, and its visualization, The Chemical Education Journal (CEJ),
Registration #13-2.
Ikuo, A., Nagashima, H., Yoshinaga, Y., and Ogawa, H., 2012. Development and practice of teaching material
in tablet computer based on computer graphics by quantum chemistry calculation - Reaction of I + H2
HI + H -, Proc. 7th IEEE Intl. Conf. on Wireless, Mobile, and Ubiquitous Technologies in Educ., 82-86.
Kleinman, R. W., Griffin, H. C., Kerner, N. K., 1987. J. Chem. Edu., 64, 766-770.
Morvant, C. M, Halterman, R.L., 2013, Organic Chemistry Laboratory Manual, iBooks Store.
Singhose, W., Donnell, J., 2013, Introductory Mechanical Design Tools, iBooks Store.
Tasker, R., Dalton, R., 2010. in Gilbert, J. K., Reiner, M., Nakhleh, M. (Eds.), Models and Modeling in
Science Education Vol. 3 Visualization: Theory and Practice in Science Education, Springer, 103-131.
Tuvi-Arad, I. and Blonder, R., 2006. Continuous symmetry and chemistry teachers: learning advanced
chemistry content through novel visualization tools, Chem. Educ. Res. and Pract., 11(1), 48-58.
Velazquez-Marcano, A., Williamson, V. M., Ashkenazi, G., Tasker, R. F., and Williamson, K. C., 2004. The
use of video demonstrations and particulate animation in general chemistry, J. Sci. Educ. and Tech.,
13(3), 315-323.

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Education. China: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

The Game-based Learning Activity Integrating


Board Game and Mobile Online Searching
Tasks for History Learning
a

Huei-Tse HOU a*, Yi-Hui Lin b


Graduate Institute of Applied Science and Technology, National Taiwan University of Science and
Technology, Taiwan
b
Aim for the Top University Project Office, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan
*
hthou@mail.ntust.edu.tw
Abstract: The study designed a game-based learning (GBL) activity Historical Battleship,
which adopted an educational board game Voyage with Taiwan and mobile devices with
online searching tasks to support students history learning. Students perceived GBL
learning process at different playing stage and their flow experience were probed. The
findings showed that students at the stage using board game with mobile device for online
searching had more perceived attention, cognitive engagement, discussion within group, and
usefulness of history learning, compared with the stage using the board game only.
Moreover, students also had high flow experience when playing this board game combined
with mobile devices.
Keywords: board game, mobile devices, flow, history learning

1.

Introduction

With the development of teaching and instruction, research on GBL has gradually gained
more and more attention. Traditional history learning tends to be one-way lecture by teacher
and knowledge recitation by students. The use of GBL in history learning may contribute to
students motivation in their further analysis in history knowledge and their follow-up
exploration. Board game becomes increasingly popular in education because of its being
low-budget and environment friendly; meanwhile, it may enhance interpersonal interaction
and social knowledge construction in classroom. Well-designed board games have the
potential to motivate students and include an element of competition and surprise (Royse, &
Newton, 2007). Furthermore, board games can improve players interpersonal intelligence
(e.g. communicative and interactive skill) and promote active learning through interaction
with other players (Richardson & Birge, 1995). On the other hand, Flipped-classroom
pedagogy has become popular. It offers students a preview activity for self-directed learning,
followed by the higher-level cognitive discussions led by the teacher. However, how to
promote students self-learning motivation may be a problem for flipped-classroom
implementation (Du, et al., 2014; Mason et al., 2013). To improve self-learning motivation,
the mini-flipped GBL model was proposed (Hou, Chou, & Chen, 2014). Mini-flipped
GBL helped design GBL activities for 5-20 minutes that integrated learner autonomy and
cognitive evaluation, which promoted students learning motivation and helped their
learning effective. This included the use of board game or GBL supported by technology.
So far, empirical research focusing on the GBL that integrates board games, mobile
learning, and online searching tasks is scarce. Voyage with Taiwan is an educational
board game, and it is a work of industry-university cooperative project between NTUST
MEG research group (http://www.ntustmeg.net) and TwoPlus Studio. This board game was
designed according to Taiwan historical education curriculum guideline, cognitive theories,
scaffolding strategies, and social interaction theories. The cards for this board game had two
sides. The front of the cards showed the name of historical events in Taiwan, and the back
of the card showed the date and story of the events. The GBL activity, Historical
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Ogata, H. et al. (Eds.) (2015). Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computers in
Education. China: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

Battleship, was designed with this board game in the study. The players were divided to
groups for competitions. Each group had ten minutes. For the first 9 minutes (the first stage),
players needed to build many historical battleships by discussing and arranging the order of
cards without reading the back of the cards. They could use mobile devices in the last
minute (the second stage) to search for information and change the order of the cards. The
scores were calculated based on the players card arrangements in the end. The study aims
to explore students flow experience in this activity to understand how much they were
involved in it. Moreover, students perceived learning processes at the two stages are
compared to understand the influence of mobile devices on students perceived learning
process.

Figure 1 Students discussed and arranged the historical events cards chronologically

2. Method
The participants for this study were 74 students (including 41 males and 33 females) from
9th grade classes in one high school in Taoyuan city. All participants had not played this
board game before. The students of one class were first divided into six groups randomly.
After the game instructions were provided, the participants were given ten minute to
accomplish the game task. After the activity, they completed a questionnaire that measured
their perceived learning process and the flow scale for games. The current study developed
four perceived learning process indicators for students to measure at the two stages. These
indicators were attention, cognitive engagement, discussion within group and usefulness of
history learning. The students gave scores from one to five based on the degree of the
indicators above at the two stages. The Flow Scale for Games was developed by Kiili
(2006), which divided flow state into nine sub-dimensions. The questionnaire was a fivepoint Likert type scale in which numbers from five to one were assigned to responses that
ranged from agree to disagree, respectively. The Cronbachs value for the scale was 0.93.
3. Results and Discussions
The average and the standard deviation of participants perceived learning process scores
are illustrated in Table 1.
Table 1. Perceived learning process scores of the participants
Perceived learning process
Attention
Cognitive Engagement
Discussion within Groups
Usefulness of History
Learning
*
p<0.05

Initiate Game Playing Stage


M (SD)
3.41 (1.281)
2.88 (1.170)
3.68 (1.336)
3.45 (1.240)

20

Mobile Devices Intervention Stage


M (SD)
3.80 (1.135)
3.43 (1.304)
4.08 (1.070)
3.74 (1.159)

t
-2.776*
-2.907*
-2.722*
-2.191*

Ogata, H. et al. (Eds.) (2015). Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computers in
Education. China: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

The table shows with the comparison of the students perceived learning process at the
initial game playing stage and mobile devices intervention stage. The results suggested that
students at the mobile devices intervention stage had relatively more attention (M=3.80,
SD=1.135), cognitive engagement (M=3.43, SD=1.304), discussion within group (M=4.08,
SD=1.070), and usefulness of history learning (M=3.74, SD=1.159) than initial game
playing stage, and the difference was statistically significant. To evaluate students level of
engagement, the students demonstrated flow scores higher than three (median of a five-point
Likert-type scale) across all dimensions. (As shown in Table2)
Table 2 The mean and standard deviation of flow state scores
Flow Dimensions
Challenge
Goal
Feedback
Control
Playability
Concentration
Time distortion
Autotelic experience
Loss of self-consciousness

4.

M
3.85
4.06
3.73
3.77
3.47
3.84
3.87
3.85
3.09

SD
0.81
0.74
0.80
0.92
0.76
0.77
1.06
0.84
0.99

Conclusion

According to the preliminary findings in the study, students were highly involved in the
learning activity with the help of Historical Battleship. At the second stage when mobile
devices were included for online searching, students had higher perceived cognitive
engagement, cohesion with group, sense of competition between group, personal attention,
usefulness of history learning, and discussion within group. This finding showed the
potential in using GBL that integrated board games and mobile devices for flipped
classrooms. Future research can record and analyze students learning process to investigate
their behavioral patterns using sequential analysis (e.g. Hou, 2015).
Acknowledgements
This research was supported by the projects from the National Science Council, Republic of China,
under contract number MOST-104-2511-S-011-003-MY3, MOST-102-2511-S-011-001-MY3,
MOST-100-2628-S-011-001-MY4 and MOST-104-2911-I-003-301.

References
Du, S.-C., Fu, Z.-T., & Wang, Y. (2014). The flipped classroomadvantages and challenges. Paper presented
at International Conference on Economic Management and Trade Cooperation (EMTC 2014), Xi'an City,
China.
Hou, H. T. (2015). Integrating cluster and sequential analysis to explore learners' flow and behavioral patterns
in a simulation game with situated-learning context for science courses: a video-based process exploration,
Computers in Human Behavior, 42, 424-435.
Hou, H. T., Chou, Y. S. & Chen, H. W. (2014). Applying mini-puzzle games for flipped classroom: the MiniFlipped GBL model and the development of educational game authoring environment- XML-based ER
Game Maker. Paper presented at Taiwan E-Learning Forum 2014 (TWELF 2014), Taipei, Taiwan.
Kiili, K. (2006). Evaluations of experiential gaming model. Human Technology, 2(2), 187-201.
Mason, G. S., Shuman, T. R., & Cook, K. E. (2013). Comparing the Effectiveness of an Inverted Classroom to
a Traditional Classroom in an Upper-Division Engineering Course. IEEE Transactions on Education,
56(4), 430-435.
Richardson, D., &Birge, B. (1995).Teaching physiology by combined passive (pedagogical) and active
(andragogical) methods. The American journal of physiology, 268(6 Pt 3), S66-74.
Royse, M. A., & Newton, S. E. (2007). How gaming is used as an innovative strategy for nursing
education. Nursing Education Perspectives, 28(5), 263-267.

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Ogata, H. et al. (Eds.) (2015). Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computers in
Education. China: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

Learning Design in Combination of Mobile


Application for Summary Speaking Task by
Self-study and Pair Work in a Class
a

Kae NAKAYAa,b*, Masao MUROTAa*


Dept. of Human System Science, Graduate School of Decision Science and Technology, Tokyo
Institute of Technology, Japan
b
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Japan
*{knakaya, murota}@mr.hum.titech.ac.jp
Abstract: We developed MAST (Mobile Application for Summary speaking Task), which
helps learners to practice English speaking by self-study. Using MAST, learners read an
English article and speak its summary referring vocabularies of the article that learners
record in advance. This research aimed to show effectiveness of combination of self-study
using MAST and face-to-face speaking pair-work in an English class. In the experiment, we
asked participants to use MAST at home, and in an English class we conducted pair-work
based on the task of MAST for four weeks. The analysis result of the experiment showed
that the participants might keep practicing English speaking using MAST and they might
improve fluency.
Keywords: English speaking, second language acquisition, English class, mobile learning

1.

Introduction

In the age of globalization, the need to acquire English skills is indisputable. We developed a Mobile
application for Dynamic Listening and Speaking method (MDLS) to support self-study in speaking
English (Nakaya & Murota, 2015) based on DLS method (Shinzaki & Takahashi, 2004). MDLS
aimed to increase speaking fluency and acquire vocabularies offering Summary speaking task.
In this research we propose a learning design in combination of self-study by using mobile
application based on MDLS and pair work in a class. In order to realize it, we have developed
MAST (Mobile Application for Summary speaking Task), which tasks are based on MDLS. The
objectives of the learning design are to motivate learners to keep self-study and to offer learners
face-to-face English speaking task. This paper aims to show effectiveness of the learning design.

2.

Learning Design

MAST
We developed MAST, which is an Android application, in order to help learners to practice English
speaking by self-study. The learning goal is improving fluency. In this research, the targets are
undergraduate and graduate students who have achieved a TOEIC level C score (IIBC). The students
are supposed to have already learned all basic grammar so that they can read the texts in MAST.
The learning process of MAST is as below. First, learners read an English newspaper article
and add some vocabularies (maximum is five) to a list (Figure 1(a) and (b)). Second, learners
compose the summary referring the list for one minute and speak it for the next one minute (Figure
2). Third, they reflect on the practice by listening to their recorded vocabulary list and summary.
MAST has two features. First, MAST saves a list of vocabularies that learners intend to refer
when they speak the summary. During Summary speaking task, MAST shows leaners to the list of
vocabularies (Figure 2) so that they might pay attention to grammatical encoding in composing a
sentence. This feature aims to improve fluency. Second, MAST offers a simple summary task.
Learners read an English newspaper article with 80 to 150 words, speak the summary twice and then

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Ogata, H. et al. (Eds.) (2015). Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computers in
Education. China: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

reflect on their summary. Therefore leaners can finish the task for only fifteen minutes. In addition,
teachers have only to select articles in order to offer the task to the learners.
Learning Design in Combination of MAST and Pair Work in a class
In this research, we proposed learning design in combination of MAST and pair work in an English
class. In this design, learners practice English speaking by using MAST as homework, and then they
conduct pair work based on practice of MAST in a class. This design aimed to offer face-to-face
speaking task to MAST users and to motivate them to keep practicing English speaking by selfstudy.
The process of pair work is as below. First, learners explain summary and impression of
some articles in pairs. The articles are ones with which learners have learned by using MAST.
Second, a teacher explains some important phrases or contents of the articles. Third, learners modify
and speak the summary. Finally, learners evaluate their own motivation for speaking English.

Figure 1. The Screen for reading the Article and


adding vocabularies.

Figure 2. The Screen for


Speaking the Summary.

Figure 3. The Schedule of the Experiment.

Figure 4. Analysis Results for the Number of Learned Articles and Fluency Score.

3.

Outline of the Experiment

We conducted an experiment in an English class of a Japanese university from 1st June to 29th June,
2015 (four weeks) and the participants were 22 Japanese 2nd undergraduate in a science department.

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Ogata, H. et al. (Eds.) (2015). Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computers in
Education. China: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

Figure 3 shows the schedule. In one week, the participants used MAST as homework for six
days and on the 7th day, they conducted pair-work in the class. For the self-study, we prepared nine
articles every week. The topics are IT, sports, science, and movies and the topic changed every
week.
In addition, we conducted speaking tests as pre-test on the first day and as post-test on the last day of
the experiment. In the test the participants were asked to explain in English their interests of their
major and their experience of part-time job or club activities within three minutes for each topic.

4.

Analysis Result

We analyzed the data about the number of learned articles during self-study terms to evaluate how
the learning design could motivate the participants to keep learning. Moreover, we analyzed the data
about fluency score of pre- and post-test to evaluate effectiveness for improving fluency. The data of
six participants was not included for analysis because they were absent from pre- or post-test.
The number of learned articles is shown in Figure 4. The result of ANOVA did not show statistically
significant differences between weeks (F(3. 45)=1.634, p>.1). The result suggests that the
participants might keep the number of learned articles by self-study.
The result of a fluency score is also shown in Figure 4. Fluency score was calculated with syllable
divided by spoken time (seconds). This calculation was referred to the way by Kormos et al. (2004).
The T-test showed marginally differences between pre- and post-test (t(15)=-2.073, p < .1) and the
average score of post-test was higher than the one of pre-test. Therefore we concluded that the
learning design might be effective for improving fluency.

5.

Conclusion and Future Work

In this research, we got the following conclusion. (1)We developed MAST and proposed learning
design in combination of self-study by using MAST and pair work in a class. (2) Learners might not
only keep self-study of English speaking but also improve fluency.
However, we have to improve the contents of MAST and pair-work to motivate learners to
practice more because many of the participants practiced once or twice a week for all articles. As for
self-study of MAST, we will offer more variety of speaking tasks. As for pair-work in the class, we
will re-design more interactive tasks between students.

Acknowledgements
We would like to thank Prof. Masatoshi Tamura, Foreign Language Research and Teaching Center
of Tokyo Institute of Technology for his help in conducting the experiment.

References
Nakaya, K. & Murota, M. (2015). The Effectiveness of Mobile Application for Dynamic Listening and
Speaking Method in Self-study, Proceeding of 45th Annual Conference of The English Language
Education Society of Japan, http://www.decode.waseda.ac.jp/announcement/documents-for-2015-03-0708/KaeNakaya.pdf (Aug. 7th, 2015 accessed).
Shinzaki, R. & Takahashi, Y. (2004). Make hidden English skills appear. (Memutta eigo wo yobisamasu in
Japanese). Hamano Publisher.
IIBC (the Institute for International Business Communication). PROFICIENCY SCALE,
http://www.toeic.or.jp/library/toeic_data/toeic/pdf/data/proficiency.pdf (Aug. 21st, 2015 accessed).
Kormos, J. and Denes, M. (2004). Exploring measures and perceptions of fluency in the speech of second
language learners, System, 32(2), pp145-164

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Ogata, H. et al. (Eds.) (2015). Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computers in
Education. China: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

Opportunities and Challenges in Implementing


Digital Equity Initiatives in Remote Areas In
Taiwan
Chientzu Candace CHOU
College of Education, Leadership, and Counseling, University of St. Thomas, Minnesota, USA
Abstract: This research project examines the outcomes and strategies in implementing
digital equity initiatives by government agencies, non-profit organizations, and academic
institutions for improving K-12 students learning in Taiwans remote areas. This study will
utilize the case study approach to analyze several major initiatives aim at improving the
performance of under-served students. I will work with the principle investigators of major
digital equity initiatives to conduct research at strategic locations in Taiwan. The findings
will provide recommendations for policy makers and educators in designing new initiatives
to bridge the digital divide.
Keywords: Digital divide, digital equity, social responsibility, digital justice, service learning

1.

Introduction

Bridging the digital divide has been a top concern for many countries (OECD, 2000). The
divide is no longer understood only as obstacles to accessing ICT but also the ability to access ICT
with the confidence and competence needed to participate fully in the modern economy and
contemporary society (OECD, 2000). While advancements in information and communication
technology (ICT) on Taiwan makes possible the creation of a knowledge society, the ROC (Republic
of China) government has determined that the widening digital divide has had negative social
consequences to those segments of society unable to connect via the internet to information
knowledge. As a teacher and researcher, I believe that while ICT drives economic growth it should
also enhance democratic and social goals.
Taiwan's digital divide has become more evident as the inequality in wealth distribution
widens. The ratio of household income share of the highest 20% to that of the lowest 20% has risen
from 4.21 in 1981 to 6.17 in 2011 (Statistics Bureau, 2014). Although it is relatively low compared
with United States (14.71), Hong Kong (20.7), and China (9.59), rising inequality impacts the
government and society at many levels. The proportion of social welfare spending to total central
expenditure has risen from 8.45% in 1990 to 19.89% in 2006 (Chen, 2008).
Education is seen as key to reducing income inequality. The gap between the student
performance in rural areas and non-rural areas in Taiwan has also significantly widened (Sheu,
2012), limiting rural options for colleges and careers. The Research, Development, and Evaluation
Commission (RDEC) (2014) of Taiwans Executive Yuans has collected data on the digital divide
and noted a significant gap along gender, generation, region, and ethnicity, especially between
majority Han and minority Aborigine. In response, Taiwans government nation-wide digital equity
initiatives aim to provide digital resources to empower participants in remote communities.
This study will provide valuable analysis of what recent government digital initiatives mean
to policy makers and educators and their impact on the lives of students. The study will (1)
identifying factors that contribute to successful cases of digital equity initiatives; (2) examining
factors that may inhibit the successful implementation of digital equity initiatives; and (3)
determining strategies and components that are critical in the design, implementation, and evaluation
of digital equity initiatives.

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Ogata, H. et al. (Eds.) (2015). Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computers in
Education. China: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

2.

Background

In the social sciences, digital equity in education is achieved when "all learners have
opportunities to develop the means and capacity to be full participants in the digital age, including
being designers and producers (not only users) of current and future technologies and
communication and information resources" (Solomon, Allen, & Resta, 2003, p. xiii). Fulton and
Sibley (2003) proposed the following four critical components for educational equity in the digital
age: (1) access to hardware/software and connectivity, (2) access to excellent and culturally
responsive content and the opportunity to contribute to the content, (3) access to educators who
know effective technology integration, and (4) access to systems whose leaders support change
through technology (p. 14-23). Although the critical components may vary in different international
contexts, they do provide a holistic framework for dialogues on digital equity in different regions of
the world.
There have been many studies that explored the impact of digital equity initiatives on
individual students or schools through case studies in Taiwan ( et al., 2013; &
, 2012). More studies on the overall impact are essential for the implementation of future
initiatives. I would like to use Fulton and Sibleys framework to analyze the overall impact of digital
equity initiatives over the past ten years. Taiwan's current digital infrastructure plan seeks to provide
access to digital resources to improve the life quality of under-served populations. A total of 168
Digital Opportunity Centers (DOC) have been established in remote townships and villages. Most
DOCs utilize office space at local K-12 schools, libraries, non-profit organizations, or community
centers.
The new phase of digital equity initiatives will be moving toward empowerment. A recent
major initiative is titled The Project of Online Tutoring for After Schools Learning, aka eTutor
Program, which provides one-to-one learning opportunity through video-conferencing and
customized curriculum for students in-need at various DOCs. The eTutor program will be the
starting point for this study.

3.

Research Methods

I will apply the case study approach to scrutinize the opportunities and challenges of digital equity
initiatives. The case study method produces in-depth qualitative and quantitative examination of
design, implementation, and evaluation of the digital equity initiatives. This approach can provide a
holistic account of the phenomenon under investigation (Yin, 2003).

3.1 Participants and Settings


The participants for this study will be parents, K-12 students, eTutor volunteers, organizers
of digital equity initiatives from Digital Opportunity Centers, University partners, and non-profit
organizations in Taiwan. According to Ministry of Education, 24 university teams, 61 K-12 schools,
22 DOCs have participated in the initiative, totaling 1,420 university tutors and 1,064 K-12 tutees
(Ministry of Education, 2014). More non-profit organizations will be identified as the research
unfolds. A combination of surveys, interviews, and focus group discussions will be used to gain the
perspectives of the participants at ten different Digital Opportunity Centers in Northern, Central,
Southern, North-Eastern, and South-Eastern Taiwan.

3.2 Research questions


1. What efforts have been made by government agencies, university researchers, K-12
educators, and non-profit organizations to promote digital equity for students in remote areas
in Taiwan? I will begin with an extensive literature review and examine government
publications to gain a better understanding of the current development in the summer before
I arrive.
2. What are the opportunities and challenges in implementing digital equity initiatives? In
Taiwan, I will send surveys and conduct subsequent focus groups with the students and
parents to learn from their perspectives on their achievements and obstacles in participating

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Ogata, H. et al. (Eds.) (2015). Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computers in
Education. China: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

in the various digital equity initiatives. I will also poll the project organizers and volunteers
during in person interviews.
3. What are the different components of digital equity initiatives in Taiwan and how do these
components promote educational opportunities? I will interview staff at Digital Opportunity
Centers, university partners, tutors, and curriculum developers on their views of the essential
components of the digital equity initiatives to promote learning.
4. What are the effects of the digital initiatives on student learning? Students GPAs or test
scores before and after the eTutoring sessions will be one indicator of their performance. I
will also observe onsite the videoconferencing between tutors and tutees. Student selfassessment via survey will also be collected to address this question.
3.3 Data Collection
The following data sources will establish a database of evidence to answer the research questions:

4.

Quantitative data: Online survey of students, tutors, project coordinators, public databases,
and student GPA

Qualitative data: onsite observation at the etutoring centers and remote sites, focus groups,
and interviews with stakeholders.

Outcomes and Contributions

The results of this study will establish evidence-based best practices for practitioners in
enhancing digital equity, empirical data for scholarly publications, and recommendations for policy
makers in improving digital equity initiatives based on the voices of the participants. This project
will contribute to increased international and intercollegiate collaboration of scholars on digital
divide, a revised framework on digital equity, and a collection of real-life case examples as the base
of a new graduate course on digital equity in international context for students who are interested in
the issue.

References
Chen, C. L. (2008). The impact of income inequality on social welfare spending in Taiwan countylevel
analysis.
Unpublished
MA
Thesis.
Retrieved
from
http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/38823
Fulton, K., & Sibley, R. (2003). Chapter 2: Barriers to equity. In G. Solomon, N. Allen, & P. Resta
(Eds.). Toward digital equity: Bridging the divide in education (pp. 14-24). Boston, MA:
Pearson Education Group, Inc.
OECD (2000). Chapter 4: Emerging trends and issues: The nature of the digital divide in learning. In
Learning to bridge the digital divide (pp. 51-62). Paris, France: Organization for Economic
Co-Operation
and
Development.
Retrieved
from
http://www.oecd.org/site/schoolingfortomorrowknowledgebase/themes/ict/emergingtrendsan
dissuesthenatureofthedigitaldivideinlearning.htm
Sheu, T. M. (2012). Impact of educational resource on junior high school student achievement in
Taiwan rural and non-rural area. Grant report to Taiwans Ministry of Education. Retrieved
from https://srda.sinica.edu.tw/search/gensciitem/1398
Solomon, G., Allen, N. J., & Resta, P. (Eds.). (2003). Toward digital equity: Bridging the divide in
education. Boston, MA: Pearson Education Group, Inc.
Statistics Bureau. (2014). Report on the survey of family income and expenditure. Taiwans
Statistics Bureau. Retrieved from http://eng.stat.gov.tw/np.asp?CtNode=1542
Yin, R. K. (2003). Case study research: Design and methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

27

Ogata, H. et al. (Eds.) (2015). Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computers in
Education. China: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

Chinese Bibliography
, , , , , & . (2013).
. (GCCCE
2013), -.
, & . (2012). -
. (GCCCE 2012), -.

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Ogata, H. et al. (Eds.) (2015). Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computers in
Education. China: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

Influence of Learning on Realistic


Mathematics ICT-Assisted Mathematical
Problem Solving Skills Students
Veny SEPTIANYa, Sigid Edy PURWANTOb*, Khoerul UMAMc**,
Mathematics Education,University of Muhammadiyah Prof. DR. HAMKA, Indonesia
Mathematics Education,University of Muhammadiyah Prof. DR. HAMKA, Indonesia
Mathematics Education,University of Muhammadiyah Prof. DR. HAMKA, Indonesia
*sigidmath@yahoo.co.id
**khoerul.umam@uhamka.ac.id
Abstract: This research study aims to (1) determine whether or not the influence of ICTassisted learning realistic mathematics to students' mathematical problem solving ability. (2)
Develop the learning model of the integration of mathematics realistic education with
Information Technology. The research was conducted in class VIII in the second semester
of school year 2014-2015. The sample used in this study were 88 students in each class
numbered 44 students in the experimental class and 44 students in the control class. The
research validators included one expert in Mathematics education and one expert in
instructional multimedia. The instruments employed in this study were a questionnaire,
observation guide, and pre-test and post-test. The data were analyzed by using descriptive
statistics. This study uses a quasi-experimental design. Instruments used in the form of test
problem-solving ability in the form of a description. The research finding is that the
mathematical problem solving ability of students taught using ICT-assisted learning
realistic mathematics higher than that is not taught using ICT-assisted learning realistic
mathematics.
Keywords: Realistic Mathematics-ICT Assisted, Mathematical Problem Solving Ability

1.

Introduction

The important of problem solving in mathematic learning has encourage many teachers to develop
their students problem solving skills. Improving the problem solving will encourage students to
better understanding of mathematics and solving various problems. If the students have the high
quality of problems solving then students will be easy to solve various kind of problem life.
Tests results of Trends in International Mathematics and Sciences Study (TIMSS) held by
the International Association for Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) suggests that
mathematical ability of grade 8th of Junior High School in Indonesia is still quite alarming, which is
ranked 38 from 45 countries (Mullis, 2012). The ability of grade 8th of Junior High School in
Indonesia for completing non-routine problems (mathematical problem) is very weak, but relatively
well in resolving questions about the facts and procedures.

2.

Realistic Mathematics Education ICT-Assisted

Treffer (Wijaya, 2012) formulate five main characteristics of realistic mathematics education,
namely (1) the use of context, (2) use the model for progressive mathematics process, (3) utilization
of construction student outcomes, (4) interactivity and (5) linkages. The use of context of realistic
mathematics learning is the first step in building and find back a math concept through mathematical
process. The mathematical process come from horizontally mathematics process to vertically.
Mathematics in the horizontal process starts from the issue-a matter of contextual, then students
define for themselves the language and symbols of its own. While vertical mathematics is a process

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Education. China: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

that occurs within the system itself mathematical concepts such as the use of multiplication, division,
addition or subtraction.
Microsoft power point is used in this ICT-assisted learning of realistic mathematics
education. Power point is used to display the contextual issues related to real life, so hopefully the
students may be interested to resolve the problem.

3.

Mathematical Problem Solving in Realistic Mathematics Education

In realistic mathematics, learning begins with contextual issues (real-world), allowing students to use
prior experience directly. Through abstraction and formalization performed by the students will
develop a more complete concept. Furthermore, students can apply mathematical concepts to new
areas of the real world (applied mathematization). Therefore, in order to bridge the math concepts
with everyday experiences children need to be considered mathematical from everyday experience
(mathematization of everyday experience) and the application of mathematics in everyday life
(Bonotto, 2000). In the context of real-world use students will develop mathematical concepts as part
of the priorities within the framework of the process of mathematical problem solving. The use of
real-world contexts will also foster a sense of pleasure in doing mathematics that will encourage
perseverance in resolving the problem (Ginsburg et al, 2005).

4.

Research Method

This study used a Quasi Experiment design. Data sources in this study were students of VIII6 class
as the class were taught by a realistic mathematics education ICT assisted (experimental class), and
students of VIII8 class as a class taught without a realistic mathematics education ICT assisted
(control class) in SMPN 4 Bekasi registered in 2014/2015 academic year. Collecting data using a
written test with a test item instrument description, which is to measure the ability of students
problem solving skills.

5.

Results

The mathematical problem solving ability of students taught using ICT-assisted learning realistic
mathematics higher than that is not taught using ICT-assisted learning realistic mathematics.

Table 1: The result of mathematical problem solving ability between experimental


and control class

Mathematical
problem solving
ability indicator

understanding,
planning, problem
solving, revise and
check.

Experimental class
Items

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Ideal score

10
10
10
10
10
10
10

Control class

Average
score

Gain

Average
score

Gain

5,3
1,3
3,8
3,1
4,2
3,7
4,6

53%
13%
38%
31%
42%
37%
46%

5,1
2,8
2,3
2,6
2,9
2,6
2,4

51%
28%
23%
26%
29%
26%
24%

Score data calculation results of mathematical problem solving ability experimental class
students obtained an average score of 41.409 and a standard deviation is 9.061, while the
control group gained an average score of 33.136 and a standard deviation is 10.409.
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6.

Conclusion

tcount = 3.997 > 1.666 = ttable it can be concluded that the H0 is rejected. The conclusion is
ICT-assisted learning Realistic Mathematics affect the ability of students' mathematical problem
solving.
The next step calculates how much influence the ICT-assisted learning realistic mathematics to
students' mathematical problem solving ability. After doing the calculations obtained ES (effect size)
= 0.795 or 79.5% is included in medium condition.
Math teacher can be expected to pay more attention to mathematical problem solving skills
as the ultimate goal of learning mathematics. The use of ICT in teaching and learning will allow
students in the learning process, and can attract students to learn mathematics. Realistic mathematics
education can be used as a mathematics teacher learning approaches in enhancing students'
mathematical problem solving ability.

Acknowledgements
We would like to thank University of Muhammadiyah Prof. Dr. HAMKA of Jakarta for
supporting this study.
References
Bonotto, C. (2000). Mathematics in and out of School :Is It Possible Connect These Contexts? Exemplification
from an Activity in Primary Schools. http://www.nku.edu/~sheffield/bonottopbyd.htm
Ginsburg, A., Leinwand, S., Anstrom, T., & Pollock, E. (2005). What the United States Can Learn from
Singapores World-Class Mathematics System (and what Singapore can learn from the United
States): An Exploratory Study. Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research.
Inna V. S Mullis, et. all. (2012). TIMSS 2011 International Result in Mathematics.
(TIMSS) & PIRLS International Study Center, Lynch School of Education, Boston College.
Sudjana. (2005). Metode Statistika. Bandung: Tarsito.
Sugiyono.
(2009).
Metode
Penelitian
Kuantitatif
Kualitatif
dan
R&D.
Bandung:
Alfabeta.
Wijaya,
Ariyadi.
(2012).
Pendidikan
Matematika
Realistik
Suatu
Alternatif
Pendekatan Pembelajaran Matematika. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu.

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Ogata, H. et al. (Eds.) (2015). Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computers in
Education. China: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

An Investigation into Students Writing


Process Using Digital Pens
in Exercises During Lessons
Yuki MORIa*, Takayuki AMIOKAa, Hironori EGIb & Shigeto OZAWAc
a
Graduate School of Human Sciences, Waseda University, JAPAN
b
Information Science and Technology Center, Kobe University, JAPAN
c
Faculty of Human Sciences, Waseda University, JAPAN
*yukimori@aoni.waseda.jp
Abstract: Many university classes nowadays have adopted the active learning (AL) style.
AL is conducted through various techniques. In this report, we focus on exercises during
lessons in class. We propose that teachers should know how students work on exercises in
order to be able to give more effective support to students on these lessons. In order to
investigate how students work on exercises, we used digital pens to collect data on their
writing process using those pens and analyzed the data. The results showed that the students
writing process had two important features: making attempts at exercises during explanation
of the theme by the teacher, and adding other answers during group-work or explanation by
the teacher after answering.
Keywords: Digital pens, writing process, active learning, lesson study, higher education

1. Introduction
Recently, many university classes have adopted the active learning (AL) style. AL involves various
techniques, for instance, project-based learning, learning through educational games, and learning by
completing exercises during lessons. In this study, we focused on exercises during lessons.
Many studies focus on exercises during lessons in higher education. For example, Crouch
and Mazur (2001) present the peer instruction method, which gets students more involved in their
own learning during lessons and focuses their attention on underlying concepts. However, it is
important that teachers not merely design AL classes but also assess students performance or
process in AL environments. This allows teachers to find ways to provide more and better support to
students in AL classes and to better assess their performance.
In the present study, we used digital pens to collect data on students writing process while
they completed exercises on worksheets during classroom lessons. Digital pen technology has been
used previously in educational settings, for example to share notes or memo between students
(Steimle, Brdiczka, and Mhlhuser, 2009), or to assess students writing performance or process
(e.g., Ikegami and Ohsawa, 2015). The purpose of the present study is to investigate how university
students work on writing exercises during their class lessons.

2. Research Objects
The Course Design
The course in which this research took place was conducted at a university in 2015. About 180
students participated in each lesson. The course theme was learning environmental design.
Lectures on knowledge creation, study support, and educational assessment were provided over the
course of the semester. In each lesson, the teacher repeated two or three cycles of the following
activities: (1) lecture by the teacher; (2) exercises related to the lecture; and (3) group-work to share
students answers among them. The teacher distributed the worksheets in each lesson, one by one,
and students filled them in.

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Ogata, H. et al. (Eds.) (2015). Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computers in
Education. China: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

Figure 1. Methods of Data Collection.


Students started using digital pens in the 5th lesson. However, we could not analyze the data
for the 6th, 12th, and 13th lessons because of malfunctions of the digital pens and Bluetooth receiver.
We also excluded the 10th lesson because there was a guest lecturer.
Methods of Data Collection: Using Digital Pens
We used the Anoto Digital Pen (DP-401) to collect students writing data. The special paper used
with this pen has a microdot pattern surface, and the pen camera reads these dots to identify the
pattern of the writing. The data were transferred to PC via Bluetooth. Using OpneNOTE, the data for
all students were displayed with pictures onscreen, and could be managed there (Figure 1).
Since this study is a pilot for future work, we had only six students use digital pens when
they wrote exercise answers, all semester. The participants were students who expressed their own
interest in taking part or who were recommended by the teacher (Table 1).

3. Research Methods and Resources


We examined the students writing process of exercises during lessons using two methods.
The first way was by capturing students exercise answers as pictures at different stages (we
called this approach Method A). We used this method from 5th to 11th lessons. We captured data
five times per exercise, respectively when the students were (1) presented with exercise content, (2)
started the exercise, (3) finished the exercise (started the group-work), and (4) finished the groupwork (that is, at the beginning of the explanation by the teacher), and also (5) at the end of the
explanation by the teacher.
The second approach was by capturing students answers as videos in order to examine how
early or late students started and finished to write (we called this Method B). We used this method
on the 14th lesson.

4.

Results

Method A: As Students Write Answers


Table 1 shows the timing with which students wrote answers to the exercises during the lessons. In
the table, 1 means that the student started writing when first presented with exercise content by the
teacher, while 3 means that the student added further material to the answer during group-work,
and 4 means that students added to their answers during the explanation by the teacher after
answering time was over.
The results suggest that students C, D, E, and F often started writing at 1. On the other
hand, students A and B often began writing in the answering time, from 2 to 3. In 5th lesson E2
(C, D, E), 7th lesson E3 (A, C, E), and 8th lesson E3 (C, D, E), three students started at 1 each
exercises. We considered these findings to relate to the theme of the exercises. For example, 8th
lesson E3 asked students to Consider learning support to students themselves by other people:
teachers, parents, other learners. The themes they responded with focused on students own

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Ogata, H. et al. (Eds.) (2015). Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computers in
Education. China: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

experiences. We consider on this basis that themes related to student experiences are relatively easy
for students to absorb.

Student(year)

A (3)
B (3)
C (2)
D (2)
E (2)
F (2)

Table 1: Results for Method A by Participant


5th lesson
7th lesson
8th lesson
9th lesson
E1 E2 E1 E2 E3 E1 E2 E3 E1 E2 E3
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
3
4
1
1
1
1
1
4
Absent
Absent

11th lesson
E1 E2 E3
1
3

1
1

*E = Exercise; thus, E1 = Exercise 1, etc.

Method B: When Students Write Answers


We examined when students started writing answers using video that captured students writing
process. The 14th lesson had two exercises. The first involved gathering information from a reading,
instead of a lecture. Students did the exercise after the reading the handout. In the second exercise,
the teacher presented the exercise theme at the opening of a lecture (lecture 2 in Figure 2 below).
In the 14th lesson, almost all students answered the both exercises on time. However, student
D added additional answers after and during group-works. We focused on student D because she
also tried exercises early or added to the Method A analysis. Figure 2 shows the lesson plan for the
14th lesson and student Ds writing process for exercises. She stopped writing during group-work
and wrote after group-work (Exercise 1). This result suggests that she engaged in group-work and
got some information or advanced knowledge from it, which she added.

Figure 2. Compare the Lesson Plan and Student Ds Writing Process in the 14th Lesson.

5.

Conclusion and Future Work

In this study, we investigated how students worked on exercises during lessons on the basis of data
on their writing process collected with digital pens. As a result of the analysis, we identified two
important features of their process: trying exercises during explanation of content by the teacher, and
adding more material during explanation of the exercise by the teacher or during group-work after
the answering time was finished.
The next step in our project is to look for any relationships between students writing
process and learning outcomes. To do so, we will examine the exercise-writing process during
lessons and exercise outcomes for a larger number of students.

References
Crouch, C. H., & Mazur, E. (2001). Peer Instruction: Ten years of experience and results. American Journal of
Physics, 69(9), 970977.
Ikegami, K., & Ohsawa, Y. (2015). Modeling of writing and thinking process in handwriting by digital pen
analysis. IEEE International Conference on Data Mining Workshops, ICDMW, 447-457.
Steimle, J., Brdiczka, O., & Mhlhuser, M. (2009). Collaborative paper-based annotation of lecture slides.
Educational Technology and Society, 12(4), 125137.

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