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# Pipeline Research Council International,

Inc.
A PRCI Webinar

SEIKOWAVE

www.prci.org

We will cover
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## A brief review of corrosion damage assessment methods

Determination of burst pressure two examples
Integration with NDT tools
3D surface measurements
UT

Whats next?
Pit gage data entry interface
ASME B31G (2012), DNV RP-F101, Kastner

Q&A

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## A BRIEF HISTORY OF CORROSION

DAMAGE ASSESSMENT METHODS FOR
PIPELINES

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Barlows Formula
4

## Barlow's formula calculated the

maximum internal pressure that a pipe
can withstand using the dimensions
and material properties of the pipe
=

direction of flow

Where
P = burst pressure
so = allowable stress
t = pipe wall thickness
D = outside diameter of the pipe

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L
d

## Developed in the 1960s to describe the impact of flaws on

reducing the maximum pressure of a pipe; modifies the
stress based on the surface flaw geometry

1

1

Where

direction of flow

=
=
=

0.82
1+

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## Based on concepts pioneered by Maxey and Kiefner

Modifications to Barlows formula to account for surface flaws

## First ASME B31G standard in 1991

Subsequent revisions in 2009, and 2012

RSTRENG
Based on a more detailed assessment of the shape of the corrosion damage
Incorporates more accurate Folias factors
Original development by John F. Kiefner while at Battelle Memorial Institute
Ongoing development and advancement supported by PRCI

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Original B31G
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=
Where

2
1 3
2
1
3

2
=
3

## Parabolic defect model for defects

L
d

direction of flow

= 1.1

=
L = defect length
d = maximum defect depth
D = pipe diameter
t = pipe wall thickness
SMYS = Specified Minimum Yield Strength
For defects defined as 20

0.82
1+

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Original B31G

## Rectangular defect model for long defects

L

d
=

Where

direction of flow

= 1.1

L = defect length
d = maximum defect depth
D = pipe diameter
t = pipe wall thickness
SMYS = Specified Minimum Yield Strength
For defects defined as > 20

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## Bulging stress magnification factor

(Folias factor) depends on defect length

0.85dL Method
9

Where

1 0.85

1 0.85

direction of flow

= 0.85
= + 10,000

2
2
1 + 0.6275
0.003375

L = defect length
d = maximum defect depth
D = pipe diameter
t = pipe wall thickness
SMYS = Specified Minimum Yield Strength
For defects defined as 50

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0.85dL Method

## Bulging stress magnification factor

(Folias factor) depends on defect length

10

Where

1 0.85

1 0.85

direction of flow

= 0.85

= + 10,000
2
= 0.032
+ 3.3

L = defect length
d = maximum defect depth
D = pipe diameter
t = pipe wall thickness
SMYS = Specified Minimum Yield Strength
For defects defined as > 50

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Comparison
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Criterion
Flow stress
Defect area

Original B31G

0.85dL Method

Effective Area

1.1SMYS
2

3

SMYS + 10,000psi

SMYS + 10,000psi

0.85

Effective Area

20

50

50

Folias factors

Defect model

Corrosion Profile

Pressure model

Transition length

Improved performance achieved by adjusting the bulging stress magnification factor (Folias factor) for the length of the defect
and maintaining a single failure stress (pressure) model
Effective area is the best method for estimating the remaining strength of the pipe (hence the term rstreng)

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## ASME B31G Folias Factor Comparison

12

12

10

31 =

1+

0.82

0.85 =

0.85

2
= 0.032 + 3.3

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

2
2
1 + 0.6275 0.003375

120

2
50

2
> 50

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A second look
L

## Whats the best

method to
estimate the area
of damage, A?

direction of flow

=
=
t

=
D

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Effective Area
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## Better calculation of the area of damage

Does not depend on a specific defect model
Parabolic, rectangular, or otherwise

## Requires detailed data regarding the shape of the infrastructure damage

One step closer to a FEA (finite element analysis) for damage assessment

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15

## DETERMINATION OF BURST PRESSURE

TWO EXAMPLES

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16

corrosion
Data collected
using a 3D surface
measurement tool

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17

Corrosion damage
analyzed to
determine depth
and extent of metal
loss

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18

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19

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20

20 = 17.321

## Area model for ASME B31G (1991)

2
31 = = 1.148 2
3
Area model of 0.85dL
0.85 = 0.85 = 1.464 2
Area model Effective Area
= 0.860 2

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Effective Area

## Defines Original ASME B31G

boundary for area estimation
Defines 0.85dL boundary
for area estimation

## Area model for ASME B31G (1991)

2
31 = = 1.148 2
3
Area model of 0.85dL
0.85 = 0.85 = 1.464 2
Area model Effective Area
= 0.860 2

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## Isolated pits that

likely interact to
form a single
defect
Data collected
using a 3D surface
measurement tool

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## Isolated pits that

likely interact to
form a single
defect
Data collected
using a 3D surface
measurement tool

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20 = 225

2
31 = = 408 2
3

## Area model of 0.85dL

0.85 = 0.85 = 520 2
Area model Effective Area
= 263 2

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25

## Defines 0.85dL boundary

for area estimation

## Defines Original ASME

B31G boundary for area
estimation

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27

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Seikowave Tools
3DSL Rhino
3D Toolbox

Ultrasound
Olympus

## Other 3D surface measurement tools

Handyscan 700
Coordinate Measurement Machines (e.g. Mitutoyo)

Need 3D data in
ply or stl format

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WHATS NEXT?

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29

Complexity
Difficult to acquire the
data
Difficult to perform the
calculation
Conservatism
More conservative
generally means more
cost to maintain

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30

## ASME B31G-2012 includes

Expanded definition of flow stress
Applicability to metal loss in field bends,
induction bends and elbows
ASMEB31G-2012 does not include
Preferential corrosion affecting pipe
seams or girth welds
Metal loss in fittings other than bends
and elbows

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Material

SMYS

Temperature

Flow Stress

Carbon Steel

Carbon Steel
and low-alloy
Steel

## sflow = 1.1 X SMYS

sflow < SMTS
sflow = SMYS + 10kpsi (69MPa)
sflow < SMTS

Carbon Steel
and low-alloy
Steel

80 (551MPa)

## sflow = (sYT + sUT)/2

sYT and sUT are specified at the
operating temperature (YT is
the yield strength and UT is the
ultimate strength in tension)

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SMYS
ksi

SMTS

Mpa

ksi

SMYS + 10kpsi
(69MPa)
(SMYS+SMTS)/2

1.1 SMYS

Mpa

ksi

Mpa

ksi

Mpa

ksi

Mpa

X65

65

448

77

531

71.5

493

75

517

71

490

X80

80

551

90

621

88

607

90

621

85

587

X100

100

690

110

759

110

759

110

759

105

725

2
=

2
3
2
1 3
1

## For X65, Pburst is higher when using SMYS + 10kpsi

For X80, SMYS + 10kpsi equals SMTS
For X100, 1.1SMYS and SMYS + 10kpsi = SMTS
Subject of ongoing PRCI studies
Average of SMYS and SMTS is more conservative but
ASME B31G-2012 does not cover pipe with SMYS > 80kpsi

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## Whats Available Now

Original ASME B31G
Modified 0.85dL
Effective Area
API 579
Level 1 and Level 2

## Whats Next (Q2 2016)

Pit Gage Data Entry
Robotic Collection
Expanded definition of flow stress
DNV RP-F101
Per DNV RP-F101, applicable for corrosion
in girth welds and seam welds
Applicable for temperatures above 250F
(120C)

## Kastner (Circumferential corrosion

analysis)
Better solution for examining extensive
circumferential corrosion

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## Data from NDT tools is

not always available
Sometimes a pit gage is
all you have

## Data entry in a grid

format that matches the
grid drawn on the
pipeline
Integrates with existing
database
Integrates with existing
flaw detection and
interaction rule software
Integrates with Pipeline
FFS for fitness for service
calculations

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## Seikowave robotic systems

can move omnidirectionally over surfaces
and can be operated
remotely enabling
collection of
3D inspection data
Other inspection data (e.g. UT,
eddy current)

Untethered
Able to operate as far as 300
meters from the base station
(1) Photos courtesy of Asahi and ExxonMobil

Seikowave systems
navigating and
measuring inside and
outside of pipes (1)

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< 1

## More work still needed but shows promise

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February 2-4, 2016 at the Omni San Diego Hotel in San Diego, CA