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Section D20-B31.3-G, ASME B31.3 Process Piping Guide, App C Rev.

2, 3/10/09

General Guidance - Metals


The following is a brief description of some of the common metals used in valve construction, and their
general use.
CAST IRONS
Generally used in low hazard services (e.g. water or oil). Cast irons have a low cost and are readily
available. Disadvantages - no weld end valves, generally poor corrosion resistance, and code limitations.
BRONZE
Generally used in low hazard services (e.g. water or oil). Bronze alloys have a low cost and are readily
available. They can have better corrosion resistance than Carbon Steel in some water services.
Disadvantages - limited welding.
CARBON STEEL
Carbon steels are the standard selection for many services where corrosion resistance is not critical. It
has a relatively low cost and is readily available. Disadvantages - generally poor corrosion resistance.
TYPE 304(L)
SS Austenitic stainless steels are used for their high resistance to oxidation and sulfidation, and where
general resistance to corrosion is desired. They are also used widely for cryogenic services.
Disadvantages - susceptibility to certain specific corrosion processes (e.g. stress corrosion cracking and
intergranular corrosion) in certain media. Type 304(L) is generally a special order valve material, and has
been replaced as the standard stainless steel material with type 316(L).
TYPE 316(L)
SS Austenitic stainless steels are used for their high resistance to oxidation and sulfidation, and where
general resistance to corrosion is desired. They are also used widely for cryogenic services. Type 316(L)
has a better resistance to attack by reducing agents, and lower susceptibility to pitting than type 304(L).
Disadvantages - susceptibility to certain specific corrosion processes (e.g. stress corrosion cracking and
intergranular corrosion) in certain media.
ALLOY 20
Alloy 20 was developed to provide resistance to sulfuric acid over a wide range of concentrations and
temperatures. It has good corrosion resistance to other media as well, and is widely used for handling
caustic soda, organic acids, chlorinated hydrocarbons, sludge acids, etc. Disadvantage -- cost.
MONEL
Monel provides excellent resistance to sea water, and good resistance to aqueous sulfide
and caustic. It is resistant to chloride stress corrosion cracking. It is widely used for handling
alkalis, salt water, organic intermediates, and many air-free acids. Disadvantages -- poor
resistance to sulfidation above 400F, and embrittled by sulfur and heavy metals at low
concentrations during welding or heating. Corroded rapidly by ammonia and compounds.
INCONEL
Inconel is generally used for handling corrosive media at elevated temperatures. It provides good general
corrosion and oxidation resistance, good elevated temperature strength, good resistance to chloride
stress corrosion cracking, and excellent corrosion resistance to caustic. Disadvantages - poor sulfidation
resistance above 1000F creates working and welding problems, vulnerable to sensitization and
intergranular cracking in some services, and cost.
HASTELLOY B/B2
Hastelloy B provides good resistance to reducing atmospheres at elevated temperatures, and is very
resistant to stress corrosion cracking. It is also used for handling hydrochloric acid vapor and varied
concentrations of hot sulfuric, hydrochloric, and phosphoric acids. Disadvantages - cost, availability,
sensitizes, and can be vulnerable to intergranular corrosion in many services.
HASTELLOY C/C276
Hastalloy C provides good resistance to hypo-chlorites and other solutions containing free
chlorine in considerable concentrations. It is also used for handling both oxidizing and
reducing chemicals, and is very resistant to stress corrosion cracking. Disadvantages
cost,availability.