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in

industrial context

Stef van Eijndhoven

Preface

The use of mathematics to solve practical problems in an industrial or business context has

shown a great development in the last decades. Mathematics is applied to a broad range of

practical problems, in which the translation of the real world problem to a mathematical

problem, mathematical modeling, is the essential step. This development shows that

mathematics has a leading role in the design, implementation, and refinement of models for

application purposes.

For centuries theoretical physics is using mathematics as the language and the means to

describe physical phenomena. The mathematics is so woven into the description that the

dividing line between the mathematical model and the described phenomenon can often

hardly be drawn. The mathematical model not only provides an explanation of observations,

but supports attempts to more and more generalizing physical theories such as string theory, in

line with Eugene Wigners Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics.

In this document, I do not want to discuss the classic use of mathematics and mathematical

models within the other sciences. Instead, I am concerned with the use of mathematical

models in a technological industrial context. I would like to concentrate on two appealing

questions:

1. What are generic aspects of mathematical modeling and mathematical models in the

solution of practical problems?

2. What are methodological characteristics of an academic training that focuses on the

application of mathematics in a corporate environment?

The statement of Salomon Bochner-What makes mathematics so effective when it enters

science is a mystery of mysteries- is of course related to the application of mathematics within

the other sciences such as physics, chemistry, and biology. But this statement applies nowadays

certainly also to the effectiveness of the use of mathematical modeling to solve practical

problems. Perhaps, if there were methodology of mathematical modeling, the mystery would

have partially been solved.

Why mathematics?

1. Mathematics is a very precise language. This helps us to formulate ideas and identify underlying

assumptions.

2. Mathematics is a concise language with well-defined rules for manipulations.

3. All the results that mathematicians have proved over hundreds of years are at our disposal.

4. Computers can be used to perform numerical calculations.

One cannot escape the feeling that these mathematical formulas have an independent existence

and an intelligence of their own, that they are wiser than we are, wiser even than their discoverers,

that we get more out of them than was originally put into them. (Heinrich Hertz)

The important role that mathematics plays in our society in relationship with the many practical

applications goes without saying. Regrettably, full insight into this relationship is still largely

missing. The hypothesis is that with this insight, the use of mathematics will become even more

effective. It will lead to a methodological approach towards design of mathematical models

more than available at present.

Methodology in theory

How do we teach the relationship between mathematics and practice in the context of

solving practical problems?

A methodology should contain three main ingredients:

Indication of methods

Developments of tools

Art to handle the tools

Methodology suggests a well thought-out logical development in which students gradually are

brought to higher and more complex levels. In a sense, a modeling methodology may be

compared with a methodology that teaches students to (correctly) prove mathematical

statements as a first step and to formulate statements with correct proofs as a second step. For

mathematicians the proof of a statement has equal importance as the statement itself. To write

down a mathematical proof and verify its correctness is a methodical part of any academic

mathematics training. Of course, creativity makes part of the process to come to a

mathematical proof; its importance cannot be ignored. Whether creativity is learnable is a

question for psychologists.

By identifying methodological aspects in the process of mathematical modeling, we start

up a process of consciousness in the minds of students, by which they recognize how

effective the application of mathematics can be made.

Generic questions

How can mathematical models be classified?

How can mathematical models be used and in what context?

How can we distinguish generic aspects from heuristic aspects?

When developing a methodology, the modeling process plays an important role. In this process,

creativity is stimulated by answering process-related questions. In the overall design of a

methodology, lists of questions related to process, choice of models, type of deliverables, may

constitute a prominent part. Burghes et al (1984) suggest a clear distinction between teaching

models and teaching modeling.

How and by what means do we observe the practical situation?

What role does acquisition and analysis of data play?

How and what expert knowledge and relevant literature can be used?

What is the best choice of the model in relationship to the observations from the practical

situation?

Which mathematical techniques can be applied?

Are we capable to answer the practical questions with the chosen model? To what extent?

Models

words, a model presents a simplified version of something. It may be as simple as a drawing of

house plans, or as complicated as a miniature but functional representation of a complex piece

of machinery. A more practical concept of a model is that of an abstraction, from the real

situation, of key variables and relationships. These are abstracted in order to simplify. Modeling

allows the user to better understand the problem and presents a means for manipulating the

situation in order to analyze the results of various inputs ("what if" analysis) by subjecting it to a

changing set of assumptions. Some models are replicas of the physical properties (relative

shape, form, and weight) of the object they represent. Others are physical models but do not

have the same physical appearance as the object of their representation. A third type of model

deals with symbols and numerical relationships and expressions. Each of these fits within an

overall classification of four main categories: physical models, schematic models, verbal

models, and mathematical models.

Physical models are the ones that look like the finished object they represent. Iconic models

(prototypes) are exact or extremely similar replicas of the object being modeled. The advantage

here is the correspondence with the reality of appearance. In other words, the model user can

tell exactly what the proposed object will look like before making a major investment. In

addition to looking like the object they represent, some models perform as their counterparts

would. This allows experiments to be conducted on the model to see how it might perform

under actual operating conditions.. A scale model that behaves in a manner that is similar to

the "real thing" is far less expensive to create and test than its actual counterpart.

Schematic models are more abstract than physical models. While they do have some visual

correspondence with reality, they look much less like the physical reality they represent.

Graphs and charts are schematic models that provide pictorial representations of mathematical

relationships. Plotting a line on a graph indicates a mathematical linear relationship between

two variables. Two such lines can meet at one exact location on a graph to indicate the breakeven point, for instance. Pie charts, bar charts, and histograms can all model some real

situation, but really bear no physical resemblance to anything. Diagrams, drawings, and

blueprints also are versions of schematic models. These are pictorial representations of

conceptual relationships. This means that the model depicts a concept such as chronology or

sequence.

Verbal models use words to represent some object or situation that exists, or could exist, in

reality. Verbal models may range from a simple word presentation of scenery described in a

book to a complex business decision problem (described in words and numbers). A firm's

mission statement is a model of its beliefs about what business it is in and sets the stage for the

firm's determination of goals and objectives. Verbal models frequently provide the scenario

necessary to indicate that a problem is present and provide all the relevant and necessary

information to solve the problem, make recommendations, or at least determine feasible

alternatives. Even the cases presented in management textbooks are really verbal models that

represent the workings of a business without having to take the student to the firm's actual

premises. Oftentimes, these verbal models provide enough information to later depict this

problem in mathematical form. In other words, verbal models frequently are converted into

mathematical models so that an optimal, or at least functional, solution may be found utilizing

some mathematical technique.

Mathematical models are perhaps the most abstract of the four classifications. A mathematical

model involves an abstract structural language to describe the reality of interest. What type of

abstract structure to choose depends on the preference and expertise of the modeler and

includes, but is not limited to dynamical systems, statistical models or partial differential

equations. The process of mathematical modeling usually begins with the desire to describe a

situation in the real world. In mathematical modeling the goal is to express the real-world

problem in symbolic terms

that lead to a set of variables and a set of equations that establishes the relationship between

the variables. The simple structure allows the modeler to gain insight and clarity about soma

aspects of reality because the model is usually designed to describe some aspects accurately,

while omitting less relevant details. A classification of mathematical models related to the

mathematics involved is schematized as follows. Other classifications relate to use of the model

rather than to the underlying mathematics.

Mathematical models

Deterministic models

Stochastic models

Continuous models

Discrete models

Static models

Dynamic models

Linear models

Nonlinear models

Problem solving

By a practical problem we mean a practical situation that carries with it certain open questions

that challenge somebody intellectually who is not in immediate possession of direct methods/

procedures/algorithms sufficient to answer the questions. This notion of a problem is

apparently relative to the persons involved; so, what to one person is a problem may be an

exercise to someone else.

As to mathematical problems, there are two kinds. It is characteristic of an applied problem

that the situation and the question defining it belong to some segment of the real world and

allow some mathematical concepts, methods and results to become involved. By real world we

mean the rest of the world outside mathematics, i.e. school or university subjects or disciplines

different from mathematics, or everyday life and the world around us. In contrast, with a purely

mathematical problem the defining situation is entirely embedded in some mathematical

universe. This does not prevent pure problems from arising from applied ones, but as soon as

they are lifted out of the extra-mathematical context that generated them they are no longer

applied.

Problem solving refers to the entire process of dealing with a problem in attempting to solve it.

Corresponding to the two categories of problems just identified there are two categories of

problem solving, applied problem solving and purely mathematical problem solving. Essential

elements of content and structure are common to both categories, but significant differences

exist as well, in particular as regards purposes, goals, and roles.

The description of a device or behavior can be done in words, drawings, physical models,

mathematical relations and formulas, computer codes. Thus the activity can use several languages

to identify the real word and a conceptual world, the world of the mind. We roughly distinguish

three stages: observation, modeling, and prediction. The modeling part concerns analyzing the

observations towards (1) models that describe, (2) models that explain, and (3) models that predict.

Predictions may be followed by observations that validate the model or suggest that the model

needs to be corrected and improved. The last point relates to the looping nature of the modeling

process. We build models, predict events, confirm or deny the model, improve the gathering of

empirical data according to the model prediction or enhance the model.

According to H.A. Simon (in The Sciences of the Artificial) design is the distinguishing activity of

engineers, where design relates to devices, processes, and systems. Engineers must have the skills

and competencies to describe and analyze devices in order to predict their behavior. Engineers

need to model devices and processes when they are going to design these devices and processes.

Both in science and in engineering design models are used to predict. In science, models are merely

used to anticipate the outcome of an experiment or to design new types of experiment. The model

prediction in engineering science has far reaching consequences; beyond model validation,

prediction in engineering science assumes that time and money can be invested with confidence

because the predicted outcome can be trusted (c.f. Clive. L. Dym).

Thus, in the process of mathematical modeling, mathematics is used as a means to solve a nonmathematical problem; in the process of (pure) mathematical research new mathematical

theories or new mathematical methods are developed. Both processes rely on mathematics,

but mathematical modeling is characterized by the existence of a reality of interest in a

generally non-academic outside world that, from its practical situation, looks for solutions of its

problem. For sure, a successful modeling process requires a "how to solve it" attitude.

Problem

interpretation

observation

experience (intuition)

intuitive solution

Problem

interpretation

data-acquisition + statistics

model design

mathematical observation and validation

mathematical solution

mathematical interpretation

recommendation

In a practical situation, a problem is interpreted and from that interpretation observations are

carried out that lead to an intuitive solution largely based on experience. This method is

inherently subjective.

A solution strategy based on mathematical modeling requires objective observations based on

data from experiments or sensors with a predefined accuracy. At any time, data acquisition and

data analysis will be part of mathematical modeling. The designed mathematical model creates

mathematical observations that allow us to validate the model on the basis of the practical

data. Solution of the mathematical model leads to a mathematical interpretation of the

practical problem. With this interpretation, recommendations concerning concrete solutions or

solution strategies are provided to the reality of interest.

Modeling is regarded as a cyclic process. The description of this cycle in seven phases according

to Penrose (1978) appears in almost all textbooks on modeling:

Phase P1. Specify the real problem and define the reality of interest

Phase P2. Create a mathematical model

Phase P3. Specify the mathematical problem and define a solution strategy

Phase P4. Implement the solution strategy and solve the mathematical problem

Phase P5. Interpret the mathematical solution

Phase P6. Validate the model and generate results

Phase P7. Revise and report

In contrast to this division into phases of the process of modeling as a means to solve a

problem, practical experience suggests to make a distinction into five phases:

Phase 1

Phase 2

Diagnosis

I.

Interpretation

II.

III.

I.

Model choice

II.

Phase 3

Phase 4

Phase 5

I.

Authentication

II.

Validation

III.

Mathematical interpretation

The following schematic represents the modeling process as introduced by Sargent (2007).

Reality of interest

Confirmation

Experimentation

Validation

Data validity

Computer model

Conceptual model

Mathematical model

Implementation

Verification

The starting point is an applied problem or, as we also call it, a real problem situation. This

situation has to be simplified, idealized, structured, subjected to appropriate conditions and

assumptions, and to be made more precise by the "problem solver" according to his/her

interests. This leads to a real model of the original situation, which on the one hand still

contains essential features of the original situation, but on the other hand already is so

schematized that (if at all possible) it allows for an approach with mathematical means. The real

model has to be mathematized, i.e., its data, concepts, relations, conditions and assumptions

are to be translated into mathematics. Thus, as a result we get the mathematical model of the

original situation. Such a model consists essentially of mathematical objects, corresponding to

the basic elements of the original situation or the real model, and of certain relations between

these objects. To be precise, a mathematical model can be viewed as a triple (S,M,R), consisting

of some real problem situation S, some collection M of mathematical entities and some relation

R by which objects and relations of S are related to objects and relations of M (Niss, 1989).

While mathematization is the process from the real model into mathematics, we use modeling or

model building to mean the entire process starting from the original real problem situation leading

to a mathematical model. It has proved appropriate to distinguish between different kinds of

models. If economic items, for example, such as interests or taxes are considered mathematics

particularly serves to establish certain norms involving value judgments. Here it is a matter of

normative models. If physical phenomena, for example, such as planetary motions or radioactive

decay are considered, mathematics serves primarily to describe and explain the respective

situation. Here it is a matter of descriptive models.

The model is divided into a conceptual model and a mathematical model. Ideally, there would

be the model developer and the experimenter, who co-develop the conceptual model.

Developing the conceptual model involves identifying the computational objective, the

required level of agreement between the experiment and simulation outcomes, the domain of

interest, all important physical processes and assumptions, the failure model of interest, and

the validation metrics (quantities to be measured and the basis for comparison). Once the

conceptual model is developed, the modeler constructs the mathematical model, and the

experimenter designs the validation experiment. The mathematical model is a set of

mathematical equations intended to describe the physical reality. In mechanics, for instance,

the mathematical model includes the conservation equations for mass, momentum, and

energy, the specification of the spatial and temporal domain, the initial and boundary

conditions, the constitutive equations, and the relationships describing the models

uncertainty.

The computer model represents the implementation of the mathematical model, usually in the

form of numerical discretization, solution algorithms, miscellaneous parameters associated

with the numerical approximation, and convergence criteria. The computer model comprises

the computer program (code), conceptual and mathematical modeling assumptions, code

inputs, constitutive model and inputs, grid size, solution options, and tolerances.

Additionally, the mathematical and computer model may include a performance (or failure)

model, as well as an uncertainty analysis method, solution options, and tolerances. The process

of selecting important features and associated mathematical approximations needed to

represent the reality of interest in the mathematical model is termed modeling. Assessing the

correctness of modeling is termed confirmation. The verification activity focuses on the

identification and removal of errors in the software implementation of the mathematical

model.

Verification (Sargent, 2007) is the process of determining that a model implementation accurately

represents the developers conceptual description of the model and the solution to the model.

Validation is the process of determining the degree to which a model is an accurate representation

of the real world from the perspective of the intended uses of the model. Verification is concerned

with identifying and removing errors in the model by comparing numerical solutions to analytical or

highly accurate benchmark solutions. Validation, on the other hand, is concerned with quantifying

the accuracy of the model by comparing numerical solutions to experimental data. In short,

verification deals with the mathematics associated with the model, whereas validation deals with

the mechanisms associated with the model. Because mathematical errors can eliminate the

impression of correctness (by giving the right answer for the wrong reason), verification should be

performed to a sufficient level before the validation activity begins.

10

During the years the computer model obtained a more and more prominent place in setting up

model based simulations - a simulation model. The simulation model can be considered as the

conceptual model run on a computer system such that experiments can be conducted in the

simulated environment. For many, modeling and simulation have become two of a kind due to

the availability of multi-purpose simulation software such as Simulink and Comsol.

The computer facilitates processing and analyzing huge data bases. Black box modeling i.e.,

modeling purely with measured data without taking into account underlying principles, have

become popular in the last decades.

Methodology in practice

In 1982, Burghes and Huntley wrote the paper Teaching mathematical modeling, reflections

and advice. By then, many papers have been written on this topic; I list some of them in the

references. They all address the fact that mathematical modeling is a multi-disciplinary activity

that relies on a great number of qualities and skills. That one is a good mathematician does not

guarantee that one is a good modeler, although it is a prerequisite to perform a complex

modeling task. Generally, mathematical modeling is creative team work, where the team relies

on the qualities of each individual. The question is whether the methodology should focus on

the modeling process as carried out by an individual or the modeling process as carried out by a

team. Dividing the process into phases helps in distinguishing the roles to be taken. In

introductory courses on mathematical modeling (university Bachelor or Master level) these

roles can be taken up by one person; in advanced courses the multi-disciplinary aspects should

be emphasized, either by letting a team of students with different scientific backgrounds work

on solving true industrial problems or by having this done by a team with the same scientific

background but supported by a problem owner from industry and expert advisors.

Mathematical modeling is an activity that relates both to principles and to methods. In any

case, a methodology of mathematical modeling must focus on the following elements that are

vital in the modeling process:

Efficient observation of the practical situation; efficient discussion with experts

What's wrong or what should be improved? What are the measurable quantities?

Qualitative or quantitative? In which direction is to find a solution? What is the intended

effect? Are there (supposed) relationships between observed quantities?

Description of the problem approved by the stake holders. Try to mathematize the

problem!

Is it a combinatory optimization problem, if so, what should be optimized? Is it a

decision problem, if so, what are the choices? Is it a data analysis problem, if so, what

kind of relationships must be investigated? Is it a study in order to gain insight, a means

to structure or construct?

11

Relate mathematical variables to measured quantities. Assume, based on expert

knowledge, relationships between these variables. What are the parameters, known or

to be estimated? The whole of mutual relationships may be called a mathematical

model.

Description of the mathematical model with contained within the original problem of

the practical situation

Analyze the model for consistency, sensitivity of parameters, robustness, genericity, and

complexity. Validate the model on the basis of quantitative or qualitative data. Deploy

the model by the correct selection of mathematical techniques. Interpret the

mathematical results in the context of the questions from practice. Use the experience

and intuition of the problem owner and other experts.

Description of the solution of the real problem from the reality of interest in terms of

conclusions and recommendations.

Why?

What are we looking for? What problem should be solved, what process, system, or

device improved? Who is the problem owner? Identify the need for developing the

model.

Find?

What knowledge or insight should the model bring us? List the data that the model

should provide.

Given?

What knowledge, experience, and insight are available from experts and literature?

Identify available relevant data.

Assume?

What can we assume, what level of simplification is acceptable, what level of accuracy

is requested? Identify the circumstances that apply.

How?

What are the governing principles relating to the process, system or device? Draw up a

conceptual model, identify variables (dependent and independent) and parameters

(known and unknown), and determine their nature, deterministic or stochastic.

Implement?

What kind of mathematical model is used, what mathematical techniques apply, how is

the numerical simulation arranged? Define the mathematical model in terms of

mathematical formulas, relations and equations, determine the solution strategy,

confirm that the model is consistent with its principles and assumptions, and describe

the corresponding implementation in software.

12

Predict?

What is the result of our model, what will our model predict? Identify the type of results

the model generates, the data it generates and its precision and accuracy.

Verified?

Is the model implementation verified? Design benchmark problems with known

outcome to verify the outcome of the implementation and establish its accuracy.

Valid?

Are the model outcomes (predictions) valid? Identify experiments to validate the model

and check whether the results are consistent in respect to available data.

Improve?

Should the model be improved? Identify parameter values that are not adequately

known, identify variables that should have been included, identify assumptions that

should be relaxed, adapt the model accordingly.

Use?

What conclusions and recommendations can be drawn from the model? How can the

model be used in practice?

A checklist is not providing a simple algorithm that guarantees a successful modeling process.

The process should be logged based on a clearly written logbook. The above list identifies the

issues that should be addressed in the logbook. Furthermore, at each stage there should be

agreement on the way the questions are addressed by the project team involved in the

modeling process. The team consists of the party with the questions, the problem owner, and

the party that will deliver answers to these questions, the problem taker. Both have shared

responsibility in the modeling process and the outcome of that process. Applying mathematical

modeling in the practice of engineering always means teamwork in a multidisciplinary setting.

The methods of modeling are based on mathematical principles; they include: (a) dimensional

homogeneity, (b) abstraction and scaling, (c) conservation and balance principles, and (d)

consequences of linearity.

a) Every equation must be dimensionally consistent. Every term in a mass balance

equation must have the dimension of mass. This statement is the basis of the technique

called dimensional analysis and scaling. Modeling should incorporate the (physical)

dimensions of the variables and parameters, and the units by which they are measured.

b) Abstraction answers the question what level of detail the model should address. It

requires identification of the phenomena that the model should focus on. Closely

related is the question of finding the right scale for the model. For example, a spring

model can be used on micro scale to model atomic bonds and on macro scale to model

dynamic behavior of buildings. Scale is related to geometry, function, and size.

c) The development of models often relates to some property of an object or a system

being conserved. The model relates to the balance of quantities, as mass, volume, or

flow. In physical terms, there is a physical property of a system being monitored, say Q,

as function of the independent variable of time; the time rate of change is determined

13

by influx and efflux through the boundary of the system, and the rate at which of Q

generated/ consumed in the system.

d) Linearity is a main concept in mathematical modeling. A model is said to be linear if the

basic equations representing the model are linear. In terms of model input (excitation)

and output (response), the model output is directly proportional to the input.

Linearized or perturbed models often give a fair approximation and serve as starting

point for more detailed modeling.

Introducing a methodology requires assessment. Hall (1984), Berry and Le Masurier (1984), and

Haines and Houston (2001) propose items on which the phases of mathematical modeling can

be assessed. Hall assesses the ability of the individual or team to carry out the modeling task,

whereas Berry and Le Masurier assesses the result of the process phases. Haines and Houston

suggest an evaluation of the process rather than an assessment. For completeness the

assessment schemes are included. A combination of the proposed schemes where process and

deliverables are recognized at equal level seems the most appropriate.

1

2

3

4

5

6

Content

Ability to handle and make sense of natural or experimental data

Determination of variables and parameters that describe observation

Recognition of patterns in data and in processes

Generation of mathematical expressions to summarize observations

Ability to set up a model representing the system and relating its significant variables

Technical ability to manipulate the mathematical expressions of the model to achieve objectives

Phase

1

2

2

2

2

3 and 4

Ability to carry out verification

Ability to generate results and compare relative to experimental data

7

8

9

Presentation

Representation and interpretation of data

Translation of information into and out of pictorial form

Ability to communicate clearly, especially in writing

7

7

7

10

11

12

13

14

Drive

Ability to identify situations and to formulate problems

Ability to consult literature and incorporate expert knowledge

Recognition of what constitutes a practical solution evaluation of success of models

Understanding of when to change a model, method, or objective in discussing a problem

Ability to work effectively in a group

1 and 3

1 to 6

1 and 6

1 and 7

1 to 7

14

1

2

3

Abstract

Statement of the problem to include both the starting point and the actual conclusion reached

Significance of the problem

Sources of data

Phase

1

1

1 and 6

4

5

6

Formulation

Assumptions

Simplifications (Conceptual model)

Important features

2

2

2

7

8

9

10

Initial model

Variables defined

Mathematical model (following on from assumptions) and analysis

Choice of solution strategy and implementation

Interpretation of solution and criticism of initial model

2

2 and 3

3 and 4

5

11

12

13

14

Data

How collected

Relevance of data for validation purposes

Generation of numerical data

Presentation of data in diagrams, graphs, etc.

1

6

5

6 and 7

15

16

17

Model revision

Verification and validation

Revised (mathematical or computer) model

Assessment of the final model

7

4 and 5

6

18

Conclusions

Summary of the main results and conclusions of the modeling

15

References

Mathematische Schriften Kassel, preprint nr. 6/89

Burghes, D.N. & Huntley, I. (1982) Teaching mathematical modeling reflections and advice, Int

J.Math Educ.Sci.Technol, 13.6, pp. 735-754

Dym, C.L. (2004), Principles of mathematical modeling, 2nd edition, Elsevier Academic Press,

ISBN: 0-12-226551-3

Kaiser, G., Blomhoj M. & Sriraman B. (2006), Towards a didactical theory for mathematical

modeling, ZDM 38 (2), pp. 75-89

Lingefjrd, T. (2006) Faces of mathematical modeling, ZDM, Vol. 38 (2), pp. 96 - 112

Maass, K. (2006), What are modelling competencies, ZDM 38 (2), pp. 113-142

McLaughlin, M.P. (2007) the very game a tutorial on mathematical modeling,

www.geocities.com/~mikemclaughlin

Niss, M. (1987) Applications and Modelling in the Mathematics Curriculum State and Trends,

International Journal for Mathematical Education in Science and Technology 18, p. 487-505

Penrose, O. (1978), How can we teach Mathematical Modelling? Journal of Mathematical

Modelling for Teachers 1 (2), pp. 31-42

Sargent, R. G. (2007) Verification and Validation of Simulation Models, Proceedings of the 2007

Winter Simulation Conference, pp. 124-137

Sloyer, C., Blum, W. & Huntley, I. (1995) Advances and perspectives in the teaching of

mathematical modelling and applications, ISBN 1-881821-05-6

ScienceScope, Volume 2 Number 4 (March 2008), Publications of the CSIR, Art & Science,

Modelling & Simulation

16

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