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Mathematical models

industrial context
Stef van Eijndhoven

The use of mathematics to solve practical problems in an industrial or business context has
shown a great development in the last decades. Mathematics is applied to a broad range of
practical problems, in which the translation of the real world problem to a mathematical
problem, mathematical modeling, is the essential step. This development shows that
mathematics has a leading role in the design, implementation, and refinement of models for
application purposes.
For centuries theoretical physics is using mathematics as the language and the means to
describe physical phenomena. The mathematics is so woven into the description that the
dividing line between the mathematical model and the described phenomenon can often
hardly be drawn. The mathematical model not only provides an explanation of observations,
but supports attempts to more and more generalizing physical theories such as string theory, in
line with Eugene Wigners Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics.
In this document, I do not want to discuss the classic use of mathematics and mathematical
models within the other sciences. Instead, I am concerned with the use of mathematical
models in a technological industrial context. I would like to concentrate on two appealing
1. What are generic aspects of mathematical modeling and mathematical models in the
solution of practical problems?
2. What are methodological characteristics of an academic training that focuses on the
application of mathematics in a corporate environment?
The statement of Salomon Bochner-What makes mathematics so effective when it enters
science is a mystery of mysteries- is of course related to the application of mathematics within
the other sciences such as physics, chemistry, and biology. But this statement applies nowadays
certainly also to the effectiveness of the use of mathematical modeling to solve practical
problems. Perhaps, if there were methodology of mathematical modeling, the mystery would
have partially been solved.

Design of Mathematical Models

Why mathematics?
1. Mathematics is a very precise language. This helps us to formulate ideas and identify underlying
2. Mathematics is a concise language with well-defined rules for manipulations.
3. All the results that mathematicians have proved over hundreds of years are at our disposal.
4. Computers can be used to perform numerical calculations.

One cannot escape the feeling that these mathematical formulas have an independent existence
and an intelligence of their own, that they are wiser than we are, wiser even than their discoverers,
that we get more out of them than was originally put into them. (Heinrich Hertz)

The important role that mathematics plays in our society in relationship with the many practical
applications goes without saying. Regrettably, full insight into this relationship is still largely
missing. The hypothesis is that with this insight, the use of mathematics will become even more
effective. It will lead to a methodological approach towards design of mathematical models
more than available at present.

Methodology in theory

The demand for a methodology may be formulated as:

How do we teach the relationship between mathematics and practice in the context of
solving practical problems?
A methodology should contain three main ingredients:

Indication of methods
Developments of tools
Art to handle the tools
Methodology suggests a well thought-out logical development in which students gradually are
brought to higher and more complex levels. In a sense, a modeling methodology may be
compared with a methodology that teaches students to (correctly) prove mathematical
statements as a first step and to formulate statements with correct proofs as a second step. For
mathematicians the proof of a statement has equal importance as the statement itself. To write
down a mathematical proof and verify its correctness is a methodical part of any academic
mathematics training. Of course, creativity makes part of the process to come to a
mathematical proof; its importance cannot be ignored. Whether creativity is learnable is a
question for psychologists.

Design of Mathematical Models

That creativity is involved shows the limitation of any methodological approach.

By identifying methodological aspects in the process of mathematical modeling, we start
up a process of consciousness in the minds of students, by which they recognize how
effective the application of mathematics can be made.

Looking for methodology, questions need an answer.

Generic questions

What is a mathematical model?

How can mathematical models be classified?
How can mathematical models be used and in what context?
How can we distinguish generic aspects from heuristic aspects?

When developing a methodology, the modeling process plays an important role. In this process,
creativity is stimulated by answering process-related questions. In the overall design of a
methodology, lists of questions related to process, choice of models, type of deliverables, may
constitute a prominent part. Burghes et al (1984) suggest a clear distinction between teaching
models and teaching modeling.

Process related questions

What can we get from a model?

How and by what means do we observe the practical situation?
What role does acquisition and analysis of data play?
How and what expert knowledge and relevant literature can be used?
What is the best choice of the model in relationship to the observations from the practical
Which mathematical techniques can be applied?
Are we capable to answer the practical questions with the chosen model? To what extent?

Design of Mathematical Models


A model is an abstraction of reality or a representation of a real object or situation. In other

words, a model presents a simplified version of something. It may be as simple as a drawing of
house plans, or as complicated as a miniature but functional representation of a complex piece
of machinery. A more practical concept of a model is that of an abstraction, from the real
situation, of key variables and relationships. These are abstracted in order to simplify. Modeling
allows the user to better understand the problem and presents a means for manipulating the
situation in order to analyze the results of various inputs ("what if" analysis) by subjecting it to a
changing set of assumptions. Some models are replicas of the physical properties (relative
shape, form, and weight) of the object they represent. Others are physical models but do not
have the same physical appearance as the object of their representation. A third type of model
deals with symbols and numerical relationships and expressions. Each of these fits within an
overall classification of four main categories: physical models, schematic models, verbal
models, and mathematical models.
Physical models are the ones that look like the finished object they represent. Iconic models
(prototypes) are exact or extremely similar replicas of the object being modeled. The advantage
here is the correspondence with the reality of appearance. In other words, the model user can
tell exactly what the proposed object will look like before making a major investment. In
addition to looking like the object they represent, some models perform as their counterparts
would. This allows experiments to be conducted on the model to see how it might perform
under actual operating conditions.. A scale model that behaves in a manner that is similar to
the "real thing" is far less expensive to create and test than its actual counterpart.
Schematic models are more abstract than physical models. While they do have some visual
correspondence with reality, they look much less like the physical reality they represent.
Graphs and charts are schematic models that provide pictorial representations of mathematical
relationships. Plotting a line on a graph indicates a mathematical linear relationship between
two variables. Two such lines can meet at one exact location on a graph to indicate the breakeven point, for instance. Pie charts, bar charts, and histograms can all model some real
situation, but really bear no physical resemblance to anything. Diagrams, drawings, and
blueprints also are versions of schematic models. These are pictorial representations of
conceptual relationships. This means that the model depicts a concept such as chronology or
Verbal models use words to represent some object or situation that exists, or could exist, in
reality. Verbal models may range from a simple word presentation of scenery described in a
book to a complex business decision problem (described in words and numbers). A firm's
mission statement is a model of its beliefs about what business it is in and sets the stage for the
firm's determination of goals and objectives. Verbal models frequently provide the scenario
necessary to indicate that a problem is present and provide all the relevant and necessary
information to solve the problem, make recommendations, or at least determine feasible
alternatives. Even the cases presented in management textbooks are really verbal models that
represent the workings of a business without having to take the student to the firm's actual
premises. Oftentimes, these verbal models provide enough information to later depict this

Design of Mathematical Models

problem in mathematical form. In other words, verbal models frequently are converted into
mathematical models so that an optimal, or at least functional, solution may be found utilizing
some mathematical technique.
Mathematical models are perhaps the most abstract of the four classifications. A mathematical
model involves an abstract structural language to describe the reality of interest. What type of
abstract structure to choose depends on the preference and expertise of the modeler and
includes, but is not limited to dynamical systems, statistical models or partial differential
equations. The process of mathematical modeling usually begins with the desire to describe a
situation in the real world. In mathematical modeling the goal is to express the real-world
problem in symbolic terms
that lead to a set of variables and a set of equations that establishes the relationship between
the variables. The simple structure allows the modeler to gain insight and clarity about soma
aspects of reality because the model is usually designed to describe some aspects accurately,
while omitting less relevant details. A classification of mathematical models related to the
mathematics involved is schematized as follows. Other classifications relate to use of the model
rather than to the underlying mathematics.

Mathematical models

Deterministic models

Stochastic models

Continuous models

Discrete models

Static models

Dynamic models

Linear models

Nonlinear models

Design of Mathematical Models

Problem solving

By a practical problem we mean a practical situation that carries with it certain open questions
that challenge somebody intellectually who is not in immediate possession of direct methods/
procedures/algorithms sufficient to answer the questions. This notion of a problem is
apparently relative to the persons involved; so, what to one person is a problem may be an
exercise to someone else.
As to mathematical problems, there are two kinds. It is characteristic of an applied problem
that the situation and the question defining it belong to some segment of the real world and
allow some mathematical concepts, methods and results to become involved. By real world we
mean the rest of the world outside mathematics, i.e. school or university subjects or disciplines
different from mathematics, or everyday life and the world around us. In contrast, with a purely
mathematical problem the defining situation is entirely embedded in some mathematical
universe. This does not prevent pure problems from arising from applied ones, but as soon as
they are lifted out of the extra-mathematical context that generated them they are no longer
Problem solving refers to the entire process of dealing with a problem in attempting to solve it.
Corresponding to the two categories of problems just identified there are two categories of
problem solving, applied problem solving and purely mathematical problem solving. Essential
elements of content and structure are common to both categories, but significant differences
exist as well, in particular as regards purposes, goals, and roles.
The description of a device or behavior can be done in words, drawings, physical models,
mathematical relations and formulas, computer codes. Thus the activity can use several languages
to identify the real word and a conceptual world, the world of the mind. We roughly distinguish
three stages: observation, modeling, and prediction. The modeling part concerns analyzing the
observations towards (1) models that describe, (2) models that explain, and (3) models that predict.
Predictions may be followed by observations that validate the model or suggest that the model
needs to be corrected and improved. The last point relates to the looping nature of the modeling
process. We build models, predict events, confirm or deny the model, improve the gathering of
empirical data according to the model prediction or enhance the model.
According to H.A. Simon (in The Sciences of the Artificial) design is the distinguishing activity of
engineers, where design relates to devices, processes, and systems. Engineers must have the skills
and competencies to describe and analyze devices in order to predict their behavior. Engineers
need to model devices and processes when they are going to design these devices and processes.
Both in science and in engineering design models are used to predict. In science, models are merely
used to anticipate the outcome of an experiment or to design new types of experiment. The model
prediction in engineering science has far reaching consequences; beyond model validation,
prediction in engineering science assumes that time and money can be invested with confidence
because the predicted outcome can be trusted (c.f. Clive. L. Dym).

Design of Mathematical Models

Thus, in the process of mathematical modeling, mathematics is used as a means to solve a nonmathematical problem; in the process of (pure) mathematical research new mathematical
theories or new mathematical methods are developed. Both processes rely on mathematics,
but mathematical modeling is characterized by the existence of a reality of interest in a
generally non-academic outside world that, from its practical situation, looks for solutions of its
problem. For sure, a successful modeling process requires a "how to solve it" attitude.

How is a problem solved in daily practice?


experience (intuition)
intuitive solution

What proposes mathematical modeling?


data-acquisition + statistics
model design
mathematical observation and validation
mathematical solution
mathematical interpretation

In a practical situation, a problem is interpreted and from that interpretation observations are
carried out that lead to an intuitive solution largely based on experience. This method is
inherently subjective.
A solution strategy based on mathematical modeling requires objective observations based on
data from experiments or sensors with a predefined accuracy. At any time, data acquisition and
data analysis will be part of mathematical modeling. The designed mathematical model creates
mathematical observations that allow us to validate the model on the basis of the practical
data. Solution of the mathematical model leads to a mathematical interpretation of the
practical problem. With this interpretation, recommendations concerning concrete solutions or
solution strategies are provided to the reality of interest.

Design of Mathematical Models

The modeling process

Modeling is regarded as a cyclic process. The description of this cycle in seven phases according
to Penrose (1978) appears in almost all textbooks on modeling:
Phase P1. Specify the real problem and define the reality of interest
Phase P2. Create a mathematical model
Phase P3. Specify the mathematical problem and define a solution strategy
Phase P4. Implement the solution strategy and solve the mathematical problem
Phase P5. Interpret the mathematical solution
Phase P6. Validate the model and generate results
Phase P7. Revise and report
In contrast to this division into phases of the process of modeling as a means to solve a
problem, practical experience suggests to make a distinction into five phases:
Phase 1

Phase 2




Data acquisition and analysis


Problem identification and specification

Choice of strategy (therapy)


Model choice


Choice of mathematical methods

Phase 3

Implementation of the strategy

Phase 4

Review and revision of the strategy - is it effective?

Phase 5






Mathematical interpretation

Conclusion and recommendation

Design of Mathematical Models

The following schematic represents the modeling process as introduced by Sargent (2007).

Reality of interest

Analysis and Modeling


Data validity

Computer model

Conceptual model
Mathematical model

The starting point is an applied problem or, as we also call it, a real problem situation. This
situation has to be simplified, idealized, structured, subjected to appropriate conditions and
assumptions, and to be made more precise by the "problem solver" according to his/her
interests. This leads to a real model of the original situation, which on the one hand still
contains essential features of the original situation, but on the other hand already is so
schematized that (if at all possible) it allows for an approach with mathematical means. The real
model has to be mathematized, i.e., its data, concepts, relations, conditions and assumptions
are to be translated into mathematics. Thus, as a result we get the mathematical model of the
original situation. Such a model consists essentially of mathematical objects, corresponding to
the basic elements of the original situation or the real model, and of certain relations between
these objects. To be precise, a mathematical model can be viewed as a triple (S,M,R), consisting
of some real problem situation S, some collection M of mathematical entities and some relation
R by which objects and relations of S are related to objects and relations of M (Niss, 1989).
While mathematization is the process from the real model into mathematics, we use modeling or
model building to mean the entire process starting from the original real problem situation leading
to a mathematical model. It has proved appropriate to distinguish between different kinds of

Design of Mathematical Models

models. If economic items, for example, such as interests or taxes are considered mathematics
particularly serves to establish certain norms involving value judgments. Here it is a matter of
normative models. If physical phenomena, for example, such as planetary motions or radioactive
decay are considered, mathematics serves primarily to describe and explain the respective
situation. Here it is a matter of descriptive models.

The model is divided into a conceptual model and a mathematical model. Ideally, there would
be the model developer and the experimenter, who co-develop the conceptual model.
Developing the conceptual model involves identifying the computational objective, the
required level of agreement between the experiment and simulation outcomes, the domain of
interest, all important physical processes and assumptions, the failure model of interest, and
the validation metrics (quantities to be measured and the basis for comparison). Once the
conceptual model is developed, the modeler constructs the mathematical model, and the
experimenter designs the validation experiment. The mathematical model is a set of
mathematical equations intended to describe the physical reality. In mechanics, for instance,
the mathematical model includes the conservation equations for mass, momentum, and
energy, the specification of the spatial and temporal domain, the initial and boundary
conditions, the constitutive equations, and the relationships describing the models
The computer model represents the implementation of the mathematical model, usually in the
form of numerical discretization, solution algorithms, miscellaneous parameters associated
with the numerical approximation, and convergence criteria. The computer model comprises
the computer program (code), conceptual and mathematical modeling assumptions, code
inputs, constitutive model and inputs, grid size, solution options, and tolerances.
Additionally, the mathematical and computer model may include a performance (or failure)
model, as well as an uncertainty analysis method, solution options, and tolerances. The process
of selecting important features and associated mathematical approximations needed to
represent the reality of interest in the mathematical model is termed modeling. Assessing the
correctness of modeling is termed confirmation. The verification activity focuses on the
identification and removal of errors in the software implementation of the mathematical
Verification (Sargent, 2007) is the process of determining that a model implementation accurately
represents the developers conceptual description of the model and the solution to the model.
Validation is the process of determining the degree to which a model is an accurate representation
of the real world from the perspective of the intended uses of the model. Verification is concerned
with identifying and removing errors in the model by comparing numerical solutions to analytical or
highly accurate benchmark solutions. Validation, on the other hand, is concerned with quantifying
the accuracy of the model by comparing numerical solutions to experimental data. In short,
verification deals with the mathematics associated with the model, whereas validation deals with
the mechanisms associated with the model. Because mathematical errors can eliminate the
impression of correctness (by giving the right answer for the wrong reason), verification should be
performed to a sufficient level before the validation activity begins.


Design of Mathematical Models

During the years the computer model obtained a more and more prominent place in setting up
model based simulations - a simulation model. The simulation model can be considered as the
conceptual model run on a computer system such that experiments can be conducted in the
simulated environment. For many, modeling and simulation have become two of a kind due to
the availability of multi-purpose simulation software such as Simulink and Comsol.
The computer facilitates processing and analyzing huge data bases. Black box modeling i.e.,
modeling purely with measured data without taking into account underlying principles, have
become popular in the last decades.

Methodology in practice

In 1982, Burghes and Huntley wrote the paper Teaching mathematical modeling, reflections
and advice. By then, many papers have been written on this topic; I list some of them in the
references. They all address the fact that mathematical modeling is a multi-disciplinary activity
that relies on a great number of qualities and skills. That one is a good mathematician does not
guarantee that one is a good modeler, although it is a prerequisite to perform a complex
modeling task. Generally, mathematical modeling is creative team work, where the team relies
on the qualities of each individual. The question is whether the methodology should focus on
the modeling process as carried out by an individual or the modeling process as carried out by a
team. Dividing the process into phases helps in distinguishing the roles to be taken. In
introductory courses on mathematical modeling (university Bachelor or Master level) these
roles can be taken up by one person; in advanced courses the multi-disciplinary aspects should
be emphasized, either by letting a team of students with different scientific backgrounds work
on solving true industrial problems or by having this done by a team with the same scientific
background but supported by a problem owner from industry and expert advisors.
Mathematical modeling is an activity that relates both to principles and to methods. In any
case, a methodology of mathematical modeling must focus on the following elements that are
vital in the modeling process:
Efficient observation of the practical situation; efficient discussion with experts
What's wrong or what should be improved? What are the measurable quantities?
Qualitative or quantitative? In which direction is to find a solution? What is the intended
effect? Are there (supposed) relationships between observed quantities?
Description of the problem approved by the stake holders. Try to mathematize the
Is it a combinatory optimization problem, if so, what should be optimized? Is it a
decision problem, if so, what are the choices? Is it a data analysis problem, if so, what
kind of relationships must be investigated? Is it a study in order to gain insight, a means
to structure or construct?


Design of Mathematical Models

Appointment of mathematical variables that play a role

Relate mathematical variables to measured quantities. Assume, based on expert
knowledge, relationships between these variables. What are the parameters, known or
to be estimated? The whole of mutual relationships may be called a mathematical
Description of the mathematical model with contained within the original problem of
the practical situation
Analyze the model for consistency, sensitivity of parameters, robustness, genericity, and
complexity. Validate the model on the basis of quantitative or qualitative data. Deploy
the model by the correct selection of mathematical techniques. Interpret the
mathematical results in the context of the questions from practice. Use the experience
and intuition of the problem owner and other experts.
Description of the solution of the real problem from the reality of interest in terms of
conclusions and recommendations.

Dym (2004) formulates the following modeling principles:

What are we looking for? What problem should be solved, what process, system, or
device improved? Who is the problem owner? Identify the need for developing the
What knowledge or insight should the model bring us? List the data that the model
should provide.
What knowledge, experience, and insight are available from experts and literature?
Identify available relevant data.
What can we assume, what level of simplification is acceptable, what level of accuracy
is requested? Identify the circumstances that apply.
What are the governing principles relating to the process, system or device? Draw up a
conceptual model, identify variables (dependent and independent) and parameters
(known and unknown), and determine their nature, deterministic or stochastic.
What kind of mathematical model is used, what mathematical techniques apply, how is
the numerical simulation arranged? Define the mathematical model in terms of
mathematical formulas, relations and equations, determine the solution strategy,
confirm that the model is consistent with its principles and assumptions, and describe
the corresponding implementation in software.


Design of Mathematical Models

What is the result of our model, what will our model predict? Identify the type of results
the model generates, the data it generates and its precision and accuracy.
Is the model implementation verified? Design benchmark problems with known
outcome to verify the outcome of the implementation and establish its accuracy.
Are the model outcomes (predictions) valid? Identify experiments to validate the model
and check whether the results are consistent in respect to available data.
Should the model be improved? Identify parameter values that are not adequately
known, identify variables that should have been included, identify assumptions that
should be relaxed, adapt the model accordingly.
What conclusions and recommendations can be drawn from the model? How can the
model be used in practice?

A checklist is not providing a simple algorithm that guarantees a successful modeling process.
The process should be logged based on a clearly written logbook. The above list identifies the
issues that should be addressed in the logbook. Furthermore, at each stage there should be
agreement on the way the questions are addressed by the project team involved in the
modeling process. The team consists of the party with the questions, the problem owner, and
the party that will deliver answers to these questions, the problem taker. Both have shared
responsibility in the modeling process and the outcome of that process. Applying mathematical
modeling in the practice of engineering always means teamwork in a multidisciplinary setting.
The methods of modeling are based on mathematical principles; they include: (a) dimensional
homogeneity, (b) abstraction and scaling, (c) conservation and balance principles, and (d)
consequences of linearity.
a) Every equation must be dimensionally consistent. Every term in a mass balance
equation must have the dimension of mass. This statement is the basis of the technique
called dimensional analysis and scaling. Modeling should incorporate the (physical)
dimensions of the variables and parameters, and the units by which they are measured.
b) Abstraction answers the question what level of detail the model should address. It
requires identification of the phenomena that the model should focus on. Closely
related is the question of finding the right scale for the model. For example, a spring
model can be used on micro scale to model atomic bonds and on macro scale to model
dynamic behavior of buildings. Scale is related to geometry, function, and size.
c) The development of models often relates to some property of an object or a system
being conserved. The model relates to the balance of quantities, as mass, volume, or
flow. In physical terms, there is a physical property of a system being monitored, say Q,
as function of the independent variable of time; the time rate of change is determined


Design of Mathematical Models

by influx and efflux through the boundary of the system, and the rate at which of Q
generated/ consumed in the system.
d) Linearity is a main concept in mathematical modeling. A model is said to be linear if the
basic equations representing the model are linear. In terms of model input (excitation)
and output (response), the model output is directly proportional to the input.
Linearized or perturbed models often give a fair approximation and serve as starting
point for more detailed modeling.
Introducing a methodology requires assessment. Hall (1984), Berry and Le Masurier (1984), and
Haines and Houston (2001) propose items on which the phases of mathematical modeling can
be assessed. Hall assesses the ability of the individual or team to carry out the modeling task,
whereas Berry and Le Masurier assesses the result of the process phases. Haines and Houston
suggest an evaluation of the process rather than an assessment. For completeness the
assessment schemes are included. A combination of the proposed schemes where process and
deliverables are recognized at equal level seems the most appropriate.

Halls assessment scheme


Ability to handle and make sense of natural or experimental data
Determination of variables and parameters that describe observation
Recognition of patterns in data and in processes
Generation of mathematical expressions to summarize observations
Ability to set up a model representing the system and relating its significant variables
Technical ability to manipulate the mathematical expressions of the model to achieve objectives

3 and 4

Ability to choose the appropriate numerical strategy

Ability to carry out verification
Ability to generate results and compare relative to experimental data


Representation and interpretation of data
Translation of information into and out of pictorial form
Ability to communicate clearly, especially in writing



Ability to identify situations and to formulate problems
Ability to consult literature and incorporate expert knowledge
Recognition of what constitutes a practical solution evaluation of success of models
Understanding of when to change a model, method, or objective in discussing a problem
Ability to work effectively in a group

1 and 3
1 to 6
1 and 6
1 and 7
1 to 7


Design of Mathematical Models

Berry and Le Masuriers assessment scheme


Statement of the problem to include both the starting point and the actual conclusion reached
Significance of the problem
Sources of data

1 and 6


Simplifications (Conceptual model)
Important features



Initial model
Variables defined
Mathematical model (following on from assumptions) and analysis
Choice of solution strategy and implementation
Interpretation of solution and criticism of initial model

2 and 3
3 and 4


How collected
Relevance of data for validation purposes
Generation of numerical data
Presentation of data in diagrams, graphs, etc.

6 and 7


Model revision
Verification and validation
Revised (mathematical or computer) model
Assessment of the final model

4 and 5


Summary of the main results and conclusions of the modeling


Design of Mathematical Models


Blum, W. & Niss M. (1989) Mathematical problem solving, modeling, applications, .,

Mathematische Schriften Kassel, preprint nr. 6/89
Burghes, D.N. & Huntley, I. (1982) Teaching mathematical modeling reflections and advice, Int
J.Math Educ.Sci.Technol, 13.6, pp. 735-754
Dym, C.L. (2004), Principles of mathematical modeling, 2nd edition, Elsevier Academic Press,
ISBN: 0-12-226551-3
Kaiser, G., Blomhoj M. & Sriraman B. (2006), Towards a didactical theory for mathematical
modeling, ZDM 38 (2), pp. 75-89
Lingefjrd, T. (2006) Faces of mathematical modeling, ZDM, Vol. 38 (2), pp. 96 - 112
Maass, K. (2006), What are modelling competencies, ZDM 38 (2), pp. 113-142
McLaughlin, M.P. (2007) the very game a tutorial on mathematical modeling,
Niss, M. (1987) Applications and Modelling in the Mathematics Curriculum State and Trends,
International Journal for Mathematical Education in Science and Technology 18, p. 487-505
Penrose, O. (1978), How can we teach Mathematical Modelling? Journal of Mathematical
Modelling for Teachers 1 (2), pp. 31-42
Sargent, R. G. (2007) Verification and Validation of Simulation Models, Proceedings of the 2007
Winter Simulation Conference, pp. 124-137
Sloyer, C., Blum, W. & Huntley, I. (1995) Advances and perspectives in the teaching of
mathematical modelling and applications, ISBN 1-881821-05-6
ScienceScope, Volume 2 Number 4 (March 2008), Publications of the CSIR, Art & Science,
Modelling & Simulation


Design of Mathematical Models