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Chapter-3 Air Handling Units

Chapter - 3 Air Handling Units

-
.

(AHU)
Air handling

characteristics
(

( )

Vertical Unit
-

Blow-Through Unit

() Outdoor Air (or Makeup Air)


() Constant Air Volume (CAV)

Variable-Air-Volume (VAV)

- Horizontal unit
(

- Vertical unit

Vertical Unit
Blower(supply fan) cooling coil

filter)

(same level)

Horizontal Unit

nit
3-1

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation (Vol. 1)

cooling

Vertical Unit
AHU blower

Vertical

Unit

(foot print

Vertical unit
Air Handling Unit

Vertical Unit
( ) Draw Through Unit

Blow Through Unit

Draw Through Unit


cooling c
Supply fan (blower)

Draw Through Unit


coil section

fin

cooling coil
(leav

Draw Through Unit

- Draw-Through Unit

- Blow Through Unit

Blow Through Unit


cooling coil

Blow Through Unit

Blow -Through Unit


cooling coil

Unit

Blow Through Unit

Makeup Air AHU

Mixing AHU

3-2

Blow Through

supply fan

circulate

serving area)

() Outdoor Air

Makeup Air Handling Unit

(filter)

heat)

air)

cooling c

(treat)

(fresh

Outdoor Air Handling Unit


Pre Cooled Air Handling Unit

Chapter-3 Air Handling Units

Outdoor air

treat)

Outdoor Air Handling Unit


Makeup

Air Handling Unit

Pre Cooled Air Handling Unit

condensation)

(condensation

outdoor AHU


() Constant Air Volume (CAV) AHU

(air flow rate)

Variable-Air-Volume (VAV) AHU


Constant Air Volume(CAV) AHU

Variable Air Volume (VAV) AHU


(constant air flow rate

Constant Air Volume Air Handling Unit(CAV

AHU
(air flow rate)
Variable Air Volume Air Handling Unit(VAV AHU)
d

Variable Air Volume Box (VAV Box)

Variab

-(Chapter-9)
.

Component)

-
..
return air)
air)

outside

Com
3-3

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation (Vol. 1)

outside air)

outside air)
return air

(outside air)
(mixed air

damper
(linear relationship)

-
..

damper

- )

Air Filter)
air filter)
return air

outdoor air

(service area)

(application)

(air filter types)


air filter)
filter

efficiency

(MERV

-Spot E

Dust-Spot Efficiency
air filter

3-4

Particulate Media Filter

Particulate

inimum Efficiency Reporting Value


ASHRAE Standard 52.2

- (

Chapter-3 Air Handling Units

) Disposable Filter

- ( ) Washable Filter

- () Bag Filter

- ( ) HEPA Filter

- ( ) Cartridge filter

- () Electronic Filter

Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value(MERV)


1 micron

ASHRAE Standard 52.2

0.3

filter)
(pressure drop)
E

(pressure drop)

electrostatic

filter
disposable filter)
washable filter)

Air Handlin

air filter)

(pressure drop)

Air Filtration

(particulate contaminant)

(filter

filter

outdoor air)

filter)
outdoor air)
(

()

Mixed air

filter)

bypass air)

filter)

filter)

filter)

(pressure drop)
3-5

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation (Vol. 1)

d
(filter)

filter)

filter)

(quality)
d

Recalculated air

mixed air

outdoor air)

fine particle
outd

Pollution standard index of

fine particle)

.. Heating Coil
heating coil

heater

electric heat

steam

heating coil
.. Cooling Coil
Cooling c

chilled water cooling coil

direct expansion (DX) cooling coil

.. Humidifier
(moisture)
Humidifier
.. Fan

air)

steam humidifier

Blower
circulate)

fan

- (Chapter..
technical data s

Unit Name AHU 1-1

AHU 1-1

reference number
(model)

7
7

model

York

Unit Configuratioin (Horizontal)


blower

orizontal c
3-6

Chapter-3 Air Handling Units

-
Fan

cooling coil

(Motor Specification)

AHU Blower
Blower Type / Blade (DIDW / BACKWARD)
B

SISW

Double
b

Double Width blower w


b

Single Inlet Single W

single width b

Radial

Inlet

blade)

Forward Curve

Backward Curve

Wheel Diameter (800 mm)/ Frame K


wheel diameter

()

blower

frame)
Discharge (Rear)

Top Discharge

Top Discharge

(discharge

Discharge

Discharge

3-7

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation (Vol. 1)

Air Volume = 28,249 CFM (CMH 48,000)


AHU b

air volume)
()

28,249 CFM (48,000 CMH)

(48,000 CMH

volume flow rate

Total Pressure = 2.83 in. Wg (707 Pa)


AHU b

total pressure

Pa)

total pressure

2.83 inch of water column (707

(pressure loss)

Mixing b

pressure loss) cooling coil

pressure loss)

filter

(pressure loss)
pressure loss)

(losses)

ESP / TSP (Pa) = 1.40 in. Wg (350 Pa) / 2.41 in. Wg (603 Pa)
External Static Pressure
Pressure

Total Static

AHU blower

External Static Pressure

water column (350 Pa)

Total static p

1.40 inch of

2.41 inch of water column (603

Pa
External/total static p

AHU blower

total Pressure)

filter

filter pressure loss)

(pressure losses

pressure)

pressure

External/total static

diffuser
pressure drop)

damper

pressure drop)

Altitude / Temperature = 0(0)/ 68.9(20.5)


sea level)
Fan Speed (RPM) = 1019
AHU blower

()

Motor Type /Poles = TEFC - IP55 / 4


"Totally Enclosed, Fan Cooled"
winding)

enclosure)

fan

motor e

(protection against solid and Liquid )


Absorbed Fan / Motor Power kW = 13.50 kW / 16.20 kW
Absorbed p

blower

shaft)

power)
Belt d

s
3-8

belt d

Chapter-3 Air Handling Units

(transmission loss)

motor power)

AHU blower
.

absorbed p

(motor power)

Recommended Motor = 18.50 kW


Recommended motor 18.5kW

size)

motor power)

(recommendation)

recommend

.0 W

(motor size)
.

22.

AHU

7 W 4

.
W

W 4.

5kW

W 7.

Motor Safety Allowance = 20 %


safety allowance

Electrical supply = V-ph-Hz (380-415 V / 3ph / 50 Hz)


AHU blower
supply

()

(electrical power

(voltage)

Frequency

60 Hz

Frequency

(electrical power supply

Fan Discharge Velocity = 13.15 m/s


(out let)

(.)

discharge velocity)

Total Fan Efficiency = 69.79 %


Fan

blower

.7

(F

Transmission Specification
Pulley Type/Grooves = SPB/2
2 grooves)
d
-
Fan / Motor Pulley = mm 335 mm / 236 mm
Fan

blower

pulley diameter
pulley diameter
(

()

(s

()

fan (blower)
)
3-9

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation (Vol. 1)

Belt Length = 2000 mm


Fan (blower)

belt)

OUTLET IN-DUCT SOUND PWR

dB(A)95

OUTLET IN-DUCT SOUND PWR

dB 125 Hz 95

PER OCTAVE BAND UNIT

250 / 500 Hz

97 / 94

1k / 2k Hz

67 / 62

4k / 8k Hz

76 / 68

AIRBORNE SOUND POWER

dB(A)74

AIRBORNE SOUND POWER

dB 125 Hz 85

PER OCTAVE BAND UNIT

250 / 500 Hz

77 / 69

1k / 2k Hz

91 / 85

4k / 8k Hz

45 / 34

. Air Handling Unit

Fire Mode
(operate

Mode

Fire Mode

Normal

Normal Mode
Fire Mode

fire alarm panel

alarm p

(sub fire alarm p

main fire

Fire alarm p
(

) Smoke detector

( )

heat detector

Sprinkler f

fire alarm p

fire alarm p

Sprinkler

(water loss
()

Manual call p

fire alarm p

() FM200 d
( )

fire alarm p

Fire alarm p
Normal Mode

sprinkler f

) Air Handling Unit(AHU)

(shut down)

( )

underground car park


speed)

Hi speed)

()

(1,900 sq. m)

smoke

purging system

Smoke purging system


a

3-10

low

9 Air Change per Hour(9 ACH)

6 Air Change per Hour(6 ACH)

()

Chapter-3 Air Handling Units

Staircase Pressurization Fan

Code of Practice for Fire Precautions in Building

Heating Coils

Cooling c
(function)

heat t
heat exchangers)

cooling coil
cooling coil

Chilled-water cooling coil

plate-fin-tube heat

exchanger

cooling

cooling coil
cooling coil

heating coil

Air
Cooling Coil

Heating Coil

Chilled water cooling coil

Hot water heating coil

Direct expansion cooling coil (DX coil)

Steam heating coil

Chilled water cooling coil


hot fluid) [

-return air]

-chilled water

heat exchange
hot fluid

cold fluid)

-return Air]

-chilled water]

(temperature)

(heat)

(temperature)

latent heat)

remove)

Coiling c

(essential part)

Heating c
heating c
Hot water
fluid(return air)

steam coil

heating coil

fluid(hot water)

Hot water c

heat exchange)

fluid (hot water)


fluid (return air)

Cooling coil

(removing)

(dehumidification
refrigerant

chilled water cooling coil

chilled water
cooling coil

Cooling c

direct expansion cooling coil (DX coil)


chilled water cooling coil
cooling coil

Chilled water
refrigerant

DX (Direct expansion) cooling coil


3-11

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation (Vol. 1)

- Cooling coil and heating coil

- DX(Direct expansion) cooling coil

Chilled water cooling coil

ir)
Heat Exchanger

(Direct expansion) cooling coil

ir)

transfer)

DX

refrigerant

heat

Heat Exchanger

Plate heat exchanger


cooling

coil

fin and tube heat exchanger


C

dehumidif

cooling coil

tube

Bypass Air
F

factor(BF)

Bypass Factor(BF)

. m/s

tube

Bypass

0.3

..

(DX Coil)

refrigerant

refrigerant

liquid)
)

refrigerant

latent heat of vaporization

capillary tube

diameter)
(-)

capillary tube

direct expansion cooling coil


DX coil

direct expansion cooling coil


3-12

tube

refrigerant

Chapter-3 Air Handling Units

- DX(Direct expansion) cooling coil


.. Chilled Water Cooling Coil

chilled water
(inlet pipe)

Chiller water

(outlet pipe)

pressure

oil (two row)

heating coil
3-13

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation (Vol. 1)

..

oil

Hot water

-
..

oil

oil
C

steam)

condensation

steam (vapor

form)

-
(-)
(-)

-
heating coil
variable flow

cooling coil

heat exchanger characteristics

constant flow

- Counter-flow Cross-flow
3-14

heat exchanger characteristics

Parallel-flow

Chapter-3 Air Handling Units

Hot media

cold media

flow arrangement

Heat exchanger

circuit
counter-flow

parallel-flow

cross-flow

Flow

. Coil

efficiency

(Size)
Coil

(air flow or air volume)


Cooling load

face

Cooling load

fin

coil

row

FPI(

(air flow rate)

coil

(face area)

face velocity

(500 FPM)

Cooling coil

(velocity)
Cooling coil

2.5m/s
fin

Face Velocity

face velocity

2.5m/s (500 FPM)

2.5m/s (500FPM)
Cooling coil

fin
Dew point temperature
(water vapor)

condensation
condensate water

face velocity

cooling coil
d

drain pan

drain pan

- Chilled water cooling coil

Carried Over

Air flow rate (CMH)


Coil

(length)

face velocity 2.5 m/s


coil

(m2)

coil

(height)

(rectangular) cooling coil

(square) coil

(square) coil

(rectangular) coil

Coil
Square
tube

copper tube
Welding

Brazing

Rectangular

copper tube
W

Welding

(rectangular) cooling coil


3-15

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation (Vol. 1)

length to height ratio


Coil

coil

cooling coil

Coil

(height)

condensate water

drain pan

coil

coil

(height)

Coil

drain

pan

-
(supply air)

dehumidification

counter-flow

.
AHU cooling coil

tubes)
tubes)

fin

tubes)
Fin
material)
3-16

(aluminum material
Cu

(copper

material
(copper

(aluminum material)

Chapter-3 Air Handling Units

Al

Chilled water cooling coil

..
copper p

Row

Fins Per Inch(FPI)

fin
ow

fin

blower

fin

cooling capacity

Row

FPI (Fins per Inch)

(air resistance)

Fin

tube b

3-17

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation (Vol. 1)

expansion

face area)
face area)

Full circuit coil

Half circuit coil

- Chilled water cooling coil operation

- Fow rows coil


)

water circuit

Hellically wound fin(Embeded Fin)

L-footed fin(Wrapped-On Fin)

f = Fins Per Inch

d = Diameter of Tube

D = O.D. of Finned Tube

t = Fin Thickness

-
3-18

Chapter-3 Air Handling Units

serpentine

serpentine

1 serpentine

4 water circuit

6 water circuit

8 water circuit

8 passes

4 and 6 passes

6 passes

4 row

4 row

6 row

oil

1 serpentine

2 serpentine

12 water circuit

19 water circuit

4 passes

4 passes

6 row

8 row

- Cooling coil
.

Wet Coil
Cooling coil

Dry Coil

(dehumiditation)

dry coil
C

surface)

temperature)

condition)

c
(
(surface temperature)
p

temperature)

dew

(serving
c
cooling coil

area)

cooling

Dry Coil

lo

chilled
part-load operation

water

perform)

dehumidification
3-19

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation (Vol. 1)

Cooling c

dehumidification

Wet Coil

c
D

condensation p
condensate water

cooling coil

Wet Coil

- Cooling and dehumidifying process of coil


chilled water cooling coil

temperature gradient

- Chilled water cooling coil


Chilled water cooling coil

- Direct expansion cooling coil(DX coil)


chilled water

(leaving temperature)

(entering temperature)

Direct expansion cooling coil (DX coil)

refrigerant

(vapor)

Refrigerant

refrigerant

. AHU Cooling Coil Specification


Cooling coil

air distribution system(air side)

Airside load

(heat transfer

chilled water side


AHU

Air c

(manufacturer)
(user)

3-20

chilled water system(water side)

Chapter-3 Air Handling Units

cooling coil specifica


technical r

York

cooling coil

Altitude (ft)
sea level)
(select)

altitude)

(air density
air density)

AHU blower
air density)

altitude

sea level)

Coil Type (BDW)


(manufacture
c
Tube / Fin Material (Cu/ Al)
ube
(aluminum

(copper
(copper)

(aluminum)

Cu
Al
3-21

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation (Vol. 1)

Tube Height / Fin Length (38/87)


height

(length)

Rows / FPI / Circuit (6/8/C)


Vertical)
row

copp

Fins Per Inch(FPI)

f
f

coi

fin

cooling

(pressure drop)

(air resistance)

Coil Area

Coil
c

heating
AHU model

Coil

Air On DB/ WB
cooling coil

On Coil Temperature

cooling coil

air properties)

Dry Bulb

Wet Bulb

Air Off DB/ WB


cooling coil
Off Coil Temperature
cooling coil

Bulb

Wet Bulb

air properties)

Dry

Face Velocity
Cooling c

(air velocity)
air velocity)

Wet

Coil

2.5m/s
(drain

cooling coil

pan)

Carried O

f
(heat transfer

cooling coil

(air)
Face v

3-22

cooling coil

heat)

(2.5m/s or 500 fpm)


Heating c

Chapter-3 Air Handling Units

Air Pressure Drop


cooling

coil

resistance)

pressure)

Air

Pressure

Drop
air pressure dorp)

air pressure dorp)


()

()

energy)

Sunction Temp for BDX


direct expansion (DX)
Water ON/OFF Temperature
W

cooling c

chilled w

chilled water supply te

cooling coil

chilled w

chilled

emperature immediately after the coil.

Water Flow Rate


Cooling c

chilled water

(flow rate

(flow rate

(pressure drop across the coil

total capacity)
AH
coil

chilled w

Chilled w

(flow rate)

chilled w

(flow rate)
cooling

pumping energy

Water Pressure Drop


Chilled water supply pressure
Chilled water supply pressure
(pressure

chilled water return pressure


chilled water return pressure

chilled w

Chilled water

(flow rate)

cooling c

water pressure drop)


drop)

pumping energy)
()

energy)

water pressure
()

( )

pumping

3-23

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation (Vol. 1)

Chilled wat

chilled water pressure dro


.

Total Capacity

IP

SI

CFM

L/s

= Volume Flow Rate of Air being process.

h2-h1

= Enthalpy Change(Btu/lb F)

t2-t1

= Temperature Change( )

w2 w1

= Humidity Ration Change (lbw/lb d.a)

(kJ/kg K)
(

(kg/kg d.a)

Cooling Coil Sensible Heat Factor(SHF)Formula

where

SHF = room sensible heat factor


Sensible Cooling Capacity
Total Cooling Capacity

Total Heat Load (kW or Btu/hr)

(. )

cooling capacity

heat l

sensible

Latent cooling capacity

3-24

Sensible Heat Load (kW or Btu/hr)

dehumidification)

latent

Chapter-3 Air Handling Units

Coil Load
Coil load

coil

sensible heat

Cooling coil

total heat)

cooling coil

(temperature)

Off coil

(air flow rate)

12C

latent heat

Cooling coil

off coil temperature

12C

(air flow rate)

17C

(air flow rate)

chilled water
11.5C

18C DB

(Pre cooled coil

Wet Bulb Depression


W

ulb Depression

(WB

off coil air temperature


Off coil air

leaving air

Dry Bulb(DB)

Bulb

Wet Bulb

0.1C

2C
Wet Bulb Depression

fin

(fin

spacing)

Fin
W

spacing

(fin

Over cooling

large wet bulb d

Wet Bulb depression

0.5C

coil

1.0C

Chilled Water Velocity


Copper tube
m/s)

chilled water
0.3 m/s

coil

(velocity)

(.)

(0.3

turbulence flow

tube

Cooling

coil

performance)

1.5m/s

(heat transfer

(.)

(1.5 m/s)

tube

velocity)

coil

velocity)

tube
(water velocity)

(water

(water pressure drop)

(water

Fin Spacing

pacing

spacing

fin

Fin

fin

12 FPI

fin
Coil

(face area)

(length)

Cooling coil
FPI 12 FPI

tube
tube

14 FPI

fin spacing

(length)

()

finned area

coil

coil

(height)

8 FPI 10

3-25

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation (Vol. 1)

Coil

(depth of the coil)

row

Row

coil

Cooling coil

(performance)

heat transfer coefficient

(surface)

Log

Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD)

temperature difference between supply air and return a

temperature difference between chilled water supply and r


(heat transfer)

Log Mean Temperature Difference

(LMTD)

U-factor

thermal transmittance

heat transfer coefficient

coil

overall heat flow rate

U factor
()

Air side coefficient

air stream

heat transfer

fin

(surface)

(resistance to heat transfer)

(barrier)
()

Water film coefficient

chilled water

copper tube

(barrier)
()

Thermal conductance

Coil

aluminum film

(air flow rate)

resistance)

copper tube

(velocity)

(heat transfer

water side

(heat transfer resistance)


Fin

(geometry)

coefficient

Coil

overall heat transfer


(face area)

(heat transfer)

. Cooling Coil Header Connection


AHU
pipe)

cooling coil

(Right Hand RH coil connection)


(Left Hand LH coil connection)

3-26

(order)

(header

Chapter-3 Air Handling Units

return a
(RH)

connection

(LH

- Righit Hand (RH) and Left Hand (LH) Coil Connection


. AHU

Pipe Fitting

- AHU
Chilled

water

supply

side

Device

pipe fitting

device

Chilled water return

device

device
(A) Gate valve (Isolation valve)

(A) Gate Valve (Isolation valve)

(B) Pressure gauge

(B) Pressure gauge

(C) Thermometer

(C) Thermometer

(D) Strainer

(E) Balancing valve


(F) Motorize valve

Chilled water control valve


3-27

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation (Vol. 1)

.. (A) Gate Valves


Gate valve
(isolation

AHU

chilled water supply

return

(devices)
(devices)
chilled water supply

Gate Valve

AHU

chilled water return

Gate Valve

AHU

gate valve

AHU

fitting

fitting

supply

return

gate valve

gate valve

.. (B) Pressure Gauge


Pressure gauge
(

chilled water supply

AHU

chilled water return

cooling coil

chilled water
(chilled water flow rate)

- Pressure Gauage
Chilled water
return pressure
difference)
AHU

(flow rate)

gauge
3-28

chilled water supply pressure

chilled water

(pressure
chilled water

(flow rate)

specification

pressure gauge
flow rate)

differential pressure across the coil

(Actual chilled water

Supply pressure
(pressure

Chapter-3 Air Handling Units

.. (C) Temperature Gauge

Temperature gauge
supply

Thermometer

(thermometer)

chilled water return

supply temperature

chilled water return temperature

Cooling coil

chilled water
Chilled water

(performance)

(trouble

shooting)
.. (D) Strainer
Strainer

AHU

(chilled water supply)

AHU

chilled water

(filter)

cooling coil

strainer

strainer

(mesh)

- Strainer

- Balancing Valve

.. (E) Balancing Valve


Balancing valve
Pump

(design flow rate

AHU

rate)

) chilled water flow rate

friction loss
Pump

water flow rate

(flow

AHU

pump

chilled
AHU

(flow

rate)

- Two way valve and three way valve


.. (F) Chilled Water Control Valve
AHU
Valve

Modulating Valve

chilled water
Cooling load

- Chilled water control valve and actuator

(flow rate)

AHU

chilled water

cooling load

(flow rate)

Modulating Actuator
3-29

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation (Vol. 1)

. AHU

FCU Drain
AHU

condensate water
drain pan

drain pipe
Drain pan

AHU
Drain pipe
(site

AHU

Air Handling Unit


drain pipe

trap

Drain

- Trap for Draw-Through Unit


Tee joint

(copper)

PVC

(removable) plug

Removable plug

Trap
fan

(outlet pressure)

(-)

(-)

AHU/FCU

(Thermal Capacity in kW)


7 kW
7.1 kW

3-30

Drain

(mm)

19 mm (/

35 kW

25mm (

35.1 kW

106 kW

32 mm (

106.1 kW

176 kW

40 mm ( -/

176.1 kW

616 kW

50 mm (

616.1 kW

1050 kW

75 mm (

)
)

Chapter-3 Air Handling Units

. Air Handling Unit ( AHU )


()

Air Handling Unit

()

AHU

(Code)
control device

cooling coil

(8 row

row

8 row
) Air treatment process

cooling coil

()

finned coil

Cooling coil

cooling coil

(cleaning)

servicing

condensate water
Condensate drain pan

(drain) U bend

floor trap

(Air break

between the condensate drain pope and the floor trap. )


()

AHU

(switched off)

cooling coil

condensate water

AHU
()

AHU fan

()

AHU

blower

cooling coil

chilled water

abrasion

resistant
()

AHU

Air con

system

AHU

system

(installation)
()

AHU

Code of practice for Fire Precaution


(operate)

(fire safety requirement)


.. AHU Fan System Design Criteria
AHU

fan

blower

4 kW

Fan power limitation in air conditioning system


Allowable Nameplate motor power
Constant Volume (CAV AHU)

Variable Volume

1.7 kW / m/s

2.4 kW / m/s

Variable Air Volume (VAV) AHU


(

fan nameplate motor

2.4 kW

Constant Air Volume System (CAV) AHU


1.7 kW/ m/s

(
1.7 kW

2.4 kW/m/s

fan motor nameplate reading


(1 m3)

Air conditioning system


(automatically s
3-31

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation (Vol. 1)

) 7 day timer

schedule

AHU

(start/stop
(temporary operation)

function
( )

Occupancy sensor

occupancy sensor

(no occupant)
()

(detect)

Security system

AHU

()
(shutdown)

security system

AHU

(shutdown)

(guest room)
()

(manual

(air flow rate) 5 m/s

AHU

Optimum start control algorithm

on/off) AHU

optimum start control

set point

(differential temperature)

(room temperature)
scheduled occupancy

( )

AHU
(zone)

2300 m

(zone)

( )

AHU

(shutdown)

(outdoor air intake)


(

AHU
exhaust air system

(shutdown)

AHU

building cool-down

pre occupancy

outdoor air damper


( )

(space)

system

outdoor supply air

exhaust

damper

( ) Damper

(pressure)

damper

(maximum leakage rate)


damper

100 l/s

per m

(leak)

100 L/s

2.4 m/s

fan system

exhausted air

outdoor air connection

(design airflow)

(zone)

exhaust air system

(zone)

automatic shutdown
3-32

(power)

0.5 kW

Chapter-3 Air Handling Units

Part load fan power limitation


VAV
(

(power)

) Variable Speed Drive (VSD)

( )

11 kW
Variable Frequency Drive (VFD)

variable pith blade

(design airflow) %

static pressure set point


demand

wattage

design

Static pressure sensor location


VAV system AHU

static pressure sensor

1/3 of

total design fan static pressure


duct

Main

main branch duct

duct

major branch duct

static pressure sensor


Set point reset
Direct Digital Control(DDC)

VAV Box

reset
damper

set point
95%

. VAV AHU

reset lower

Controller

Control Logic

- Building Automation System(BAS)


Building Automation System(BAS)
AHU

static pressure set point

AHU graphic

Direct Digital Controller(DDC)

AHU graphic
control logic

Building Automation System(BAS)


3-33

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation (Vol. 1)

Air Handling Unit

field device

Input

Output

Legend
ST:

On/Off status

SP:

Static pressure

TA:

Trip alarm

RH:

Relative Humidity

A/M: Auto/Manual mode

WFR: Water flow rate

SD:

KWH: kilo-watt hour

Smoke detector

DPS: Differential pressure


switch

S/S:

Start/Stop control

VSD: Variable speed drive

WLD: Water leakage Detector

M:

T:

O/C: Open/Close control

Air Handling Unit

Temperature
field device

input

Motorised actuator

output

legend

.. Description of DDC Inputs and Outputs


Variable Air Volume (VAV) AHU control application
Digital Controller (DDC)

Direct

model UAH2484L

Direct Digital Controller (DDC)

Input

Direct Digital Controller(DDC) UAH24842L

input

(1) Digital Input (Dry contacts)


Direct Digital Controller (DDC) UAH24842L
(connect)
3-34

Digital Input(DI) ()

Chapter-3 Air Handling Units

- VAV AHU
VAV AHU

controller

controller

input

output

control logic

Digital Input

Selector mode status

On/Off status

Trip status

Smoke detector status (maximum 4 nos.)

General dry contacts (maximum 8 nos.)

(2) Analog Input (0-5 Vdc/ 4-20mA/ NTC 10K temperature)


Direct Digital Controller(DDC)UAH24842L

Analog Input ()

(connect)

Analog Input

Temperature sensors(maximum 4 nos.)

Static Pressure

Chilled water flow rate

CO2

Universal Input(maximum 5 nos.)

Analog Input monitoring

Where,

(abnormal) sensor reading

rder Low Pass Filter Method

Vnew = New reading to be updated in DDC


3-35

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation (Vol. 1)

Vold = Old reading updated in DDC


Vin = Sensor reading,
C = constant(0.0~ 1.0)
(3) Pulse Input
Direct Digital Controller(DDC) UAH24842L
pulse width
(value) 0

()

1,999,999,999

pulse Input ()

(50ms)

(connect)

Accumulated counter

(display)

Output
Direct Digital Controller (DDC) UAH24842L
Output (0-10 Vdc or 4- 20mA)

Digital Output (24 Vac Triac) & Analog


C

Variable Air Volume (VAV) AHU

DDC layout

- Variable Air Volume (VAV) AHU

wiring diagram

DDC Layout

Wiring Diagram

(4) Digital Output


Direct Digital Controller(DDC) UAH24842L
Channel
3-36

Digital Output control ()

Digital Output channel ()


configure

Chapter-3 Air Handling Units

AHU

AHU Start/Stop(Individual schedule or manual control)


/
Fan 1 Start/Stop(Individual schedule manual control)(used as By pass damper control )
/
Fan 2 Start/Stop(Individual schedule manual control)
Return air damper

Return air damper Open/Close control(interlock with AHU operation)


Exhaust air damper

Exhaust air damper Open/Close control(interlock with AHU operation)


Variable Air Volume (VAV) AHU

Typical Sensor Termination

- Variable Air Volume(VAV)AHU

Typical Sensor Termination

(5) Analog Output


Direct Digital Controller(DDC) UAH24842L

Analog output channel

AHU Variable Speed Drive(VSD) control


AHU chilled water valve control

3-37

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation (Vol. 1)

.. DDC Terminal Block Assignment (UAH2484L)


Terminal Block ()
Terminal
Block No
TB0

TB1

TB2
TB3
TB4
TB5
TB6
TB7

TB8

TB9

TB10

TB1

TB6

TB8 terminal

Label

Description

Remark

+24V

24 VAC Input(L)

COM

24 VAC Input(N)

AO1

Analog Output 1

COM

COM terminal for AO1 & AO2

AO2

Analog Output 2

UI1 UI4

Universal Input 1-4

COM

2 COM Terminals for UI 1-4

UI5 UI8

Universal Input 5-8

COM

2 COM Terminals for UI 5-8

UI9 UI12

Universal Input 9-12

COM

2 COM Terminals for UI 9-12

UI13 UI16

Universal Input 13-16

COM

2 COM Terminals for UI 13-16

UI17 UI20

Universal Input 17-20

COM

2 COM Terminals for UI 17-20

UI21 UI24

Universal Input 21-24

COM

2 COM Terminals for UI 21-24

P3

Pulse Input

COM

COM terminal for P3 & P4

P4

Pulse Input

TO1-TO8

Digital Output 1 - 8

N+

Network wire from previous DDC

N-

Network wire from previous DDC

N+

Network wire to next DDC

N-

Network wire to next DDC

.. AHU Control Logic


AHU

operating mode ()
() Purge mode
() Alarm mode
() Normal operation mode
() Manual control mode
() Bypass damper control

3-38

Each com shared by 2 UI


Each com shared by 2 UI
Each com shared by 2 UI
Each com shared by 2 UI
Each com shared by 2 UI
Each com shared by 2 UI
Only P3 is used.
Only TO1,3,5,6 are used.
TO3 not used for Tower 1

Chapter-3 Air Handling Units

() Purge mode
Purge mode

AHU

Network

purge

controller

Purge Mode

Controller

Flushing Mode

network

purge mode

enable

Flushing Mode

output

) controlled device

On/Off

(type) exhaust air damper

(set to open)

On/Off

(type) return air damper

(set to close)

AHU supply air fan

Modulating

(run)

Fan speed

(type) chilled water valve

ode

set point

(set to 0%)

() Alarm mode
Alarm Mode

Blower

(VSD speed)

Return air damper

AHU

0% (set to 0%

(set to close)

AHU
air damper

AHU

chilled water valve

(open)

Exhaust air damper

(fully close)

Return

() Normal operation mode


(start/stop)

(manually

(schedule)
AHU

DDC

mode selection switch

on

Auto mode

selector switch

local mode

selector switch

Mode selection switch

DDC

() Manual control Mode


On/Off

(type) exhaust air damper

On/Off

(type) return air damper

AHU supply air fan


PID algorithm
Modulating
algorithm

fan speed

(set to close)
(set to open)
static pressure setpoint

output contol singal


(type) chilled water valve
output contol singal

VSD
cooling set point

PID

modulating actuator

3-39

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation (Vol. 1)

AHU
On/Off type Exhaust air damper

(set to close)

On/Off type return air damper


VSD output

(set to open)

0%

Valve output

(set to 0 %)

0%

(set to 0 %)

() Bypass damper control


Bypass damper control
(open/close)

manually

AHU

interlock

Chilled Water Valve Control


modulating type chilled water valve
Actuator

control

0~10 Vdc control signal

Temperature control loop

default PID parameter

Default setpoint
Supply air temperature
Proportional band
Dead band

control PID loop

default value

default value

.
.4

- Modulating valve control


Integral

- Temperature control

default value (I gain)


(

derivative constant default value

PI control

Supply Fan Variable Speed Drive (VSD) control


f
signal

Variable Speed Drive (VSD)

0~10 Vdc

Temperature setpoint

default PID parameter

Default setpoint
Minimum supply air static pressure
3-40

control PID loop

control

Output

Chapter-3 Air Handling Units

Sensor range
Proportional band
Dead band

default value

Integral
(

default value

default value

60 seconds

PI control

derivative constant default value


)

- VSD control

- Static Pressure Control

-End-

3-41