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Didactic Midterm Exam Individual

Quynh-Nhu Nguyen
VIBS 289-501
EPITHELIUM

Simple Squamous
o Single layer of cells
o Composed of flat cells
o Covers organs
o Bound by tight junctions
o Thin and flat cells allow large surface area
Stratified Squamous
o Multiple layers of cells
o Composed of flat cells
o Selectively permeable
o Found in lining of esophagus
o Function is protection
Simple Cuboidal
o Single layer of cells
o Composed of square cells
o Found in kidneys and eyes
o Function is secretion and absorption
Simple Columnar
o Single layer of cells
o Tall and thin cells
o Function is absorption and secretion of enzymes
o Connected by tight junctions
Pseudostratified Columnar
o Single layer of cells
o Tall and thin cells
o Staggered nuclei
o Found in upper respiratory tract
o Lines the epididymis
Transitional
o Also stratified cuboidal
o Can contract and expand
o Found in urinary system
o Stretchiness allows for distension of bladder by urine
o Not very permeable to salts and water
Zonula Occludens (tight junctions)
o Regulate transportation through extra-cellular matrix

o Found in apical region of cell


o Surround cells to attach to other cells
o Regulate cell polarity
Zonula Adherens (adhering belt)
o Holds together tissue by forming a lateral bridge (holds together cardiac muscles
as they expand and contract)
o Link actin filaments between cells
o Provides structural support
Desmosome (Macula Adherens)
o Provide mechanical stability to cells
o Link intermediate filaments to plasma membrane
o Contain proteins (like keratin) for rigidness
Gap Junctions
o Function is communication through signals
o Form pores to connect cells
o Allow small molecules and electric signals to be passed through cells

MUSCULAR TISSUE

Skeletal
o Actin and myosin arranged in sarcomeres (creates dark and light banVoluntary
o Some regeneration
o Exteriorly surrounded by epimysium
Cardiac
o Central nuclei
o Contain intercalated discs
o Branched cells
Smooth
o Not striated
o Found in respiratory tract, blood vessels, and uterus
o Central nuclei

CONNECTIVE TISSUE (fibroblasts, collagen fibers)

Connective Tissue
o Bind tissues to form organs
o Includes blood, cartilage, and bone
o Loose connective tissue has many cells and few collagen and elastic fibers.
o Dense connective tissue has few cells and collagen is condensed
Fibroblasts
o Function is synthesis of extracellular matrix
o Main connective tissue cells in the body
o Important in wound healing
o Flat and long

Collagen Fibers
o Flexible
o Makes a banding pattern
o Most abundant tissue fiber
o Resist collagenase digestion

NERVOUS TISSUE

Nervous tissue
o Transmission, reception, and integration of electrical impulses
o Supported by glial/satellite cells
o Main function is communication
o Able to complete long processes with the help of neurons
Pacinian corpuscles
o Type of receptor
o Situated in the deeper layers of the skin
o Composed of a nerve ending wrapped in connective tissue
o More abundant in areas sensitive to touch, such as skin.
Nodes of Ranvier
o Gaps formed between myelin sheaths
o Rich in ion channels
o Allows nutrients and waste products to enter and leave the neuron
o Located between adjacent Schwann cells
Myelinated Coat/Sheath
o Covers some axons
o Protects and insulates nerve fibers
o Made of proteins and fats
o Direct regenerating axons

CELL MEMBRANE, RER, SER, GOLGI, MITOCHONDRIA, LYSOSOMES

Cell Membrane
o Selectively permeable
o Gives cell support and shape
o Maintains inside of cell by enclosing the cytoplasm and organelles within
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
o Covered in ribosomes
o Protein folding in lumen of rough ER
o Eukaryotic organelle
o Controls protein quality (rejects incorrectly folded or formed proteins)
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
o Not covered in ribosomes
o Metabolizes carbohydrates
o More tubular than rough ER

o Called the sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscles


o Regulates calcium
Mitochondria
o Supply energy needed in cell (powerhouse of the cell)
o Make ATP
o Store calcium
o Cristae can have varied shapes
Lysosomes
o Digestive system of cell (contains digestive enzymes)
o Preprogrammed cell death
o Is a membranous organelle
o Produced by Golgi apparatus

MICROTUBULES, MICROFILAMENTS, INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS, FREE


RIBOSOMES

Microtubules
o Found in cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells
o Major components cilia and flagella
o Can act as structural support
o Help form spindle fibers in cell mitosis
Microfilaments
o Composed of actin
o Provide structural support
o Helix shaped
o Thinnest filaments of cytoplasm
Intermediate Filaments
o Between microfilaments and microtubules
o Most soluble part of cell
o Important in cells that undergo mechanical stress
Free Ribosomes
o Unbounded
o Composed of RNA and protein
o Make proteins for the cytosol
o Produced in nucleolus

NUCLEUS

Nucleus
o Control center of cell
o Regulation of energy and nutrient metabolism
o Contains genetic material
o Has pores that allow movement of molecules across nuclear envelope

NUCLEOLUS

Nucleolus
o Located in the nucleus
o Produces ribosomes
o Non-membrane bound
o rRNA is transcribed and assembled in nucleolus

CARTILAGE

Cartilage
o Function is for flexible support
o Found in ears, nose, and respiratory system
o Can easily slide across each other while bearing weight
o Doesnt contain nerves
o Is avascular
Hyaline Cartilage
o Appears glassy
o Strong and elastic
o Temporary skeleton in embryo
o Consists of chondrocytes
o Appositional growth
Elastic Cartilage
o Similar to hyaline cartilage
o Found where flexibility and reshaping are needed
o Provide support and protection
Fibrocartilage
o Between dense connective tissue and hyaline cartilage
o Attach ligaments to cartilaginous surface of bones
o Functions as a shock absorber
o Provides sturdiness without inhibiting movement

BONE

Bone
o Skeletal support
o Calcium regulation
o Cells include osteocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts
Compact Bone
Dense or cortical bone, solid
Located externally to form walls of bone
Functional unit is osteon
Spongy Bone
Cancellous or trabeular bone, porous

Located internally within the epiphyses


Functional unit is trabeculae

EYE

Cornea
o Covers the front of the eye
o Function is protection and structural support
o Filters out light rays
o Focuses image on retina
Lens
o Focuses image on photosensitive portion of photoreceptor cells
o Changes focal distance of eye
o Works with cornea to refract light
Retina
o Photoreception of image processing by neurons prevent backscatter of light
o Cones contain pigments for primary colors
o Thin layer of tissue lining the back of the eye
Ciliary Body
o Contraction of muscle allows lens to stretch and shrink for focusing
o Secretes aqueous humor
o Blackened region stops light rays
o Coated by a double layer called the ciliary epithelium
o Located behind the iris
Iris
o Regulates amount of light that reaches retina
o Blackened surface in the front stops light rays
o Can dilate and constrict
o Controls size of pupil
o Divided into the pupillary and ciliary zones

Blood vessels

Elastic Arteries
o Receive blood directly from heart
o Include aorta and pulmonary artery
o Thin, but stretchy for heart contractions
Muscular Arteries
o Distribute blood
o Include femoral and coronary arteries
o Able to contract and dilate to change amount of blood needed
Arterioles
o Small arteries that deliver blood to capillaries
o Control blood flow by contracting and dilating the lumen

o Peripheral resistance
Capillaries
o Smallest vessels
o Connect arterioles to venules
o Composed of single layer of flattened endothelial cells
o 3 types: continuous, fenestrated, discontinuous
Venules
o Link capillaries to veins
o Can unite to form a vein
o Most of the blood flowing through venules is deoxygenated
Veins
o Collect blood from capillaries
o Contain a majority of blood in the body
o Thin walls
Larger Veins
o College blood from other veins
o Returns blood to heart
o Storage of blood
o Flexible

Blood cells of all types and megakaryocyte

Erythrocytes (red blood cells)


o Transport oxygen throughout body
o Bioconcave shaped to increase surface area
o Red due to iron
o Contain hemoglobin
Lymphocytes (white blood cells)
o Non-granular
o Responsible for immune responses
o Occur in blood and lymph
Platelets
o Function is clotting
o Have no nucleus
o Fragments of the cytoplasm from megakaryotes in the bone marrow
o Contain proteins on surface to stick onto vessels
o Small in size and make up a small fraction of total blood volume
Monocytes
o Non-granular
o Give rise to macrophages
o Respond to inflammation
o Type of white blood cell
o Aid white blood cells in identifying antigens

Basophils
o Granular
o Granules stained a dark blue
o Appear in inflammatory reactions, including those having to do with allergies
o Fight infections by releasing histamine and other chemicals to dilate blood vessels
Neutrophils
o Granular
o Most abundant leukocyte
o Formed from stem cells in bone marrow
o Ingest bacteria
Eosinophils
o Granular
o Bilobed nucleus
o Formed in bone marrow
o Used in inflammatory processes

Megakaryocyte

Located in bone marrow


Produces platelets
Large in size
Grows and replicates DNA through endomitosis
Produced by the liver, kidney, spleen, and bone marrow

THYMUS

Thymus
o Produce T-cells
o Closely associated with the immune system
o Located behind sternum and between lungs
o Produces and secretes thymosin
Lymph node
o Filters the lymph for foreign particles
o Contain afferent and efferent lymphatic vessels
o Assist the immune system in building an immune response
o Bean-shaped and surrounded by connective tissue
Spleen
o Blood flows through penicillary arteries
o Composed of red and white pulp
o Largest lymphatic organ
o Purifies blood

PITUITARY

Produces 9 hormones
Has relationships with other endocrine organs
Has a neural and vascular connection to the brain
Its location is important in connecting the endocrine and nervous system (neuroendocine
system)
Composed of parts: adenohypophysis, neurohypophysis, and cinereum

Parathyroid

Contain chief cells that produce parathyroid hormone


Regulate calcium levels
Located adjacent or inside thyroid gland (no related function)
Have no effect on metabolism

THYROID

Uses iodine from secondary sources for thyroid metabolism


Regulates the bodys metabolism
Releases hormones to regulate body functions
Located in neck

Adrenal

Regulates blood pressure


Produces cortisol (helps regulate metabolism and respond to stress) and aldosterone
(controls blood pressure)
Two parts: adrenal cortex (outer) and adrenal medulla (inner)
Known for secreting adrenaline

Pancreas

Located in abdomen
Exocrine function: helps in digestion
Endocrine function: helps in regulating blood sugar
Notable features include islets of langerhans