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DIGITAL NOTES

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS-2

BY PROF. V.K.GUPTA, DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL

ENGINEERING, HCST, FARAH, MATHURA

UNIT- 1
FIXED BEAMS
Fixed Beam is an indeterminate beam having
indeterminacy equal to 2.

3.
If horizontal reactions are not considered then
indeterminacy is equal to 2.
If horizontal reactions are considered then
indeterminacy is equal to 3.

NOTE: - In fixed beams, it is better to choose the end

moments as the redundant forces for the analysis of
the beam.

Ques.1:- Analyze the beam given below.

D.O.R = 4-2
=2
Let us choose Ma and Mb as the redundant forces.
Release the redundant forces.

Remove all the external loads and reactions and

apply redundant forces.

Apply Area Moment Theorem.

EI =
EI =
( = Slope; d = Deviation; x = Distance of C.G of
B.M.D of fixed beam. =0 and d =0 at the ends.)
So,

=0
=0

Now,
=0
A1 +A2 = 0 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _((1))
A1 = Area of free B.M.D = [(1/2)*(L)*(WL/4EI)]
A2 = Area of fixed B.M.D = [(M/EI)*(L)]

We get

M=

Ques. 2:- Analyze the beam given below.

D.O.R = 4-2

=2
Choose Ma and Mb as the redundant forces.

Remove all the external loads and reactions and

apply redundant forces.

(v)

=0

[(1/2)*(Wab/LEI)*(L)] - [(1/2)*((Ma +Mb)/EI)*(L)]

Ma +Mb = Wab/L_ _ _ _ _ _ _
And,
=0
Ma +3Mb = [Wab(L+a)]/L2 _ _ _ _ _ _

Ma =

And

Mb =

Energy Method (Method of least ork)

This method is credited to Albert Castigliones, an engineer
of Italian Railways.

Statement: - In any loaded indeterminate structure the

values of the redundant must be such as to make the total
elastic internal strain energy resulting from the application of
a given system of load; a minimum.
If U is the elastic strain energy due to external loads and R
be the redundant force

=0

Then,

The strain energy in axial member is

U=
So in flexural or bending sections
U=

dx

=0

This is known as the energy Method.

Ques. 1:- Analyse the beam as shown in figure.

D.O.R = 3-2
=1
Let Rc be the redundant force.
The value of the redundant force would be such that,
=0

Form the table given below

Portion

Origin

Mx

CB

Rc.x-0.25x2

(Rc.x-0.25x2).x/EI

BA

Rc.x-0.25x2-10.(x-8)

(Rc.x-0.25x2-10(x-8)).x/EI

So,
dx +

) dx = 0

On solving it, we get

Rc = 8.1 KN

******************************************

MOMENT
DISTRIBUTION METHOD
MOMENT DISTRIBUTIOIONN METHOD
This method was introduced by an officer Hardy Cross in
1924 during his acadimic work.Moment Disribution
method is the greatest contribution ever made to the
indeterminate structure theory.This method has been
proved to be a powerful tool for analysing the
contineous beams and frames.
SOME IMPORTANT TERMS:ABSOLUTE STIFFNESS:- It is represented by S and is
equal to the moment per unit displacement.
S=

Moment induced at the joint where the joint rotates by an

amount
For far end hinged
M=

=
S=

S=

Stiffness measures the capacity of a member to

resist the rotation at one end owing to the moment
applied at that time.
Relative Stiffness:- It is represented by K and is equal to
the ratio of the moment of inertia to the length of
member.
We know that,

S=

or S =

S
Or
SK

Relative stiffness is rather a cumbersome number to handle.

It would be much easier to use in computation if
reduced by a common divisor 4E.When such a
division is made , the resulting number bears a fixed
ratio of a prismatic member.
For far end fixed K =

For far end hinged K =

Carry Over Factor :- It is the factor by which the
developed moment at the near end of a
member is multiplied to get the moment at the
far end. It is represented by C.O.F.
For far end fixed
C.O.F = 0.5
For far end hinged
C.O.F = 0
4. Distribution factor :- Total moment at O is
M = Moa + Mob + Mob+ Mod
On putting the values we get
M = 4E.K

So, Moa =

*M

Mob =

*M

Moc =

*M

Mod =

*M

In general,

Mij =

*M

Where,

= Distribution Factor
Hence,

D.F =

Sum of the distribution Factor of all the members meeting at

a joint is always equal to unity

Ques. 1. Analyse the following beam.

(i) Lock all the joints and evaluate the fixed end moments
similar to slope deflection method.
So,
FEMAB = 40 KN-m
FEMBA = -40 KN-m
FEMBC = 20 KN-m
FEMCB = -20 KN-m
(ii) Find Distribution factor using the following table:-

Joint

Member

BA

0.5

BC

0.5

Type equation here.

Maximum Bending moment due to UDL at the centre of span
AB = 60 KN-m.
Maximum Bending moment due to concentrated load at the
centre of span BC = 40 KN-m.
The B.M.D of the above beam is shown below.

B.M.D

Ques. 2. Analyse the beam as shown below.

Lock all the joints and find the fixed end moments
FEMab = 15 KN-m
FEMba = -15 KN-m
FEMbc = 52.08 KN-m
FEMcb = -52.08 KN-m
Find Distribution factor using the following table:
Joint

Member

BA

BC

Energy Method (Method of

least work)
This method is credited to Albert Castigliones, an engineer
of Italian Railways.
Statement: - In any loaded indeterminate structure the
values of the redundant must be such as to make the total
elastic internal strain energy resulting from the application of
a given system of load; a minimum.
If U is the elastic strain energy due to external loads and R
be the redundant force

=0

Then,

The strain energy in axial member is

U=
So in flexural or bending sections
U=

dx

=0

Ques. 1:- Analyse the beam as shown in figure.

(i)
(ii)

D.O.R = 3-2
=1
Let Rc be the redundant force.
The value of the redundant force would be such
that,
=0

Portion

Origin

Mx

CB

Rc.x-0.25x2

(Rc.x-0.25x2).x/EI

BA

Rc.x-0.25x210.(x-8)

(Rc.x-0.25x2-10(x8)).x/EI

So,
dx +

) dx = 0

On solving it, we get

Rc = 8.1 KN

Portal Frame
The strain energy method becomes laborious for its
applictation when the load system on the frame is
not simple and when the end the coloumns are fixed
and the different component have different section .
The of method moment distribution can be
conveniently applied in the analysis of portal frame.
From the point of view of analysis , portal farme may
be classified into
(1)NON SWAY TYPE FRAME
(2)SWAY TYPE FRAME
(1) NON SWAY TYPE FRAME-In this cse thetwo
coloumn of the frame are identical with identical end
symmectrical such that the frame doesnot sway to
any side.

(2)SWAY TYPE FRAME- These may be classified

into .....
(a)Pure sway frame
(B) Genral sway frame
portal frame consist of horizontal load (Q)at the level
of beam as shown in (fig;a,b)
Q

Q
A

I1
I2

Fig(a)

B
C

A
Fig(b)
D
The following case are aries.

CASE(1)-When both end of the

frame are fixed.
Figure shows the a portal frame fixed at the both
ends.
The moment,
BB=CC=delta
For the beam ABfixedat ends Aand Bthe fixing
moment due to the movement of the joint B by
delta is given by
MBA=MAB=6EI/L12
For the beam CD fixed at end C&D the fixing
moments due to the movement of joint Cby is
given by ,
MCD=MDC=6EI2/L22
MBA/MCD=(I1/L12)/(I2/L22)Both the moments , MBA&MCD
will always the same sign. For the clock wise rotation
the sway moments will be negative .For the
anticlockwise rotation the sway will be piossitive.

I2

L2
I1

L1

D
A

CASE(2)-When both end of the

frame are hing.
Consider a portal frame with dimension as fig
shows below let the force P caused the sway ,so
thejoint move B toB throw the horizontal distance
delta consider no change in the length of BC ,joint
C will moveC toC through distance delta.
For a beam hing at one end and fixed at the
other ,the fixed end moment due to moment or
settlement of the support ,
MAB=3EI1/L12

(1)

Similarly, the fixed end moment induced at C due to

movement,
MCD=3EI2/L22
Dividing (1) by (2),we get
MBA/MCD=(I1/L12)/(I2/L22)

(2)

Since both the column rotate in the same direction ,

the moment MBA&MCD will be the same sign (either
+ve or ve as the case may be).For the same case of
figure both the moment will of the negative sign
since the columns tend to rotate in the clock wise
direction .

L1

I!

L2

I2

CASE(3)-When both end of the

frame is hinged and the and the
other end is fixedLet usnow take the case of portal frame fixed at one
end and hing at the other end , as show n aaaaFig
.The moment
BB=CC=
For the beam AB ,fixing moment due to the
movement of the joint B by is given by

MAB=MBA=6EI1/L12

(1)

For thebeam CD ,the fixing moment due to the

movement of jointCby is given by
MCD=3EI2/L22

(2)

From the equation no. (1),(2),

we get

MBA/MCD=(2I1/L12)/(I2/L22)

(3)

Thus equation no. (1),(2),(3)give the ratio of the

induced at the column head due to the side sway ,for
various end conditons.

(2)NON SWAY FRAME-Those frame

which are not contain unbalanced horzjontal force
are called non swy frame.
20KN
L
EI=CONST

NO SWAY CONDITION

So there is no horizontal displacement in the frame

By-Sunilkumarverma

SLOPE DEFLECTION
METHOD:This method was developed by axel Bandier in
Germany in 1914. This method is applicable to both
for determinate and indeterminate structures live
continuous

beam

and

frames.

This

method

is

specifically used for indeterminate structures. In this

method slope deflection equations are developed for
each member.
The equilibrium of the joint along with the slope
deflection

of

simultaneous

each

member

equations

with

yields

set

of

displacements

as

unknown. Once the displacement get evaluated, the

end moments can be computed by sub stet of
displacement in slope deflection equation the slope
deflection equation are expressed in terms of

relationship

to

members

and

all

possible

displacements at their and slope deflection are

Mij = FEMij+ 2EI (2B+C+3 )
L

L

Anti Clock wise = +ve moments

Anti Clock wise = -ve moments

Drive the two slope deflection equations

Let us consider a structure as show in fig (a)
unsoiled the member i j of this structure which
may be represented as a sum of fig (b) fig, (c)
fig (d) fig (e)

L2

L2

L

L

Equation no (i) & (ii) are the slope defection

equations.

UNIT -2
YALLABUS- Muller-Breslaus Principal and its application for drawing influence
lines for Indeterminate beams. Analysis of two hinged arches.Influence line
diagrams for maximum bending moment,shear force and thrust.

MULLER-BRESLAUS PRINCIPLE
INTRODUCTION:- The muller-breslaus principal or muller-breslaus influence
line theorem is the most important tool in obtaining influence lines for statically
determinate as well as statically indeterminate structures.The method is based

on the concept of the influence line as a deflection curve.In fact , muller-breslaus

principleis the straight applicaton of Maxwells reciprocal theorem.
STATEMANT:If an internal stress component, or a reaction is considered to act
through some small distance and thereby to deflect or displace a structure,the
curve of the deflected or displaced structure will be,to some scale,the influence
line for the stress or reaction component.
To prove the validity of the above statement, let us consider a two span
continuous beam ABC , freely supported at A and C,and continuous over support
B and plot the influence line for reaction R B at B. Let a unit load act at a point X
distance x from end A.If the support at B is removed, the beam will defelectas
shown in fig.(b)

Remove the unit load as well as the redundant reaction R B,and place a
downward unit load at B.The beam will deflect under the unit load as shown in
fig.(c).
Let

YBB = deflection at B due to unit load at B.

YXB = deflection at X due to unit load at B.

YBX = deflection at B due to unit load at X.

Thus ,when the unit load is acting at X,the deflection of point B,in the absence of
RB, will be equal to YBX.However ,as the support at B is at the same level as A
and C, the upward deflection at B due to R B is to neutralize this downward
deflection YBX. Hence we get ,from consistent deformation ..
RB .YBB=YBX
By Maxwells reciprocal theorem
YBX =YXB
Hence RB=YXB/YBB
Thus ,the reaction at B due to unit load at any point X is proportional to the
deflection at the point X due to unit load at B.In other word the deflection curve
shown in fig.(c) represent ,to some scale,the I.L. for R B.
APPLICATION OF MULLER BRESLAUS PRINCIPLE FOR DRAWING I.L.
FOR INDETERMINATE BEAMS:

Let the unit load be at the section X fig.(a).According to the Muller-Breslaus

principle ,remove the prop at B.The beam will deflect as shown in fig.(b),
Where YBX = deflection at B when unit load is at X.
Now remove the unit load from X and placed it at B .The beam will deflect as
shown in fig.(c) .
Where YBB = deflection at B when unit load is at B.
YXB =deflection at X when unit load is at B.
Hence we get from Consistent deformation :RB.YBB=YBX
By Maxwells Reciprocal theoremYBX=YXB
So,

RB=YXB/YBB

Thus ,the reaction at B Due to unit load at any point X is proportional to the
deflection at point X due to the load acting at B.
In other words,the deflection curve shown in fig(c),represent ,to some scale,the
I.L. for RB.
I.L.FOR MA :-

Let the unit load be at X .Remove the fixed sopport at A and introduced a
hinge.The beam will deflect as shown in fig.(b),when unit load is applied at X Let
AX be the rotation at A due to the unit load at X.
Now remove the unit load at X and apply unit moment at A.The beam will deflect
as shown in fig(c).
Where
YXA =deflection at section X due to unit moment at A and
AA = rotation at A due to unit moment at A.
From method of consistent deformationMA.AA =AX
But from reciprocal theoremAX=YXA
So MA.AA=YXA
MA = YXA/AA
The above relation suggest that MA is proportional to Y XA.In other word the
deflection curve of fig(c) gives ,to some scale, the I.L.for M A.
I.L. FOR MD:-

Let the unit load be at X.We want to plot the influence line for bending moment
MD at the point D.According to Muller Breslau principle,the internal stress
component for which the influence line is to be plotted is first removed.For the
present case, this is accomplished by inserting a pin at D.The beam will deflect
under the unit load at X.as shown in above fig.(b).
Let DX be the rotation at D, due to unit load at X,and
apply a pair of unit moments at D as shown in fig.(c).Let DD be the resulting
rotation at D and Y XD be the resulting deflection at X.
From method of consistent deformation,
MD.DD = DX
But from reciprocal theorem,
DX=YXD
MD.DD=YXD
Or
MD=YXD/DD
The above relation shows that MD is proportional to Y XD.In other words,the
deflected curve of fig.(c) gives to some scale ,the I.L. for M D .If DD is selected as
unity the deflection curve will directly give the I.L. for M D.
I.L.FOR FD:-

Let us now plot the I.L. for shear at D. Let the unit load be at X {fig.(a)} in
order to remove the internal stress component , i.e. shear F D at D,assume
that the beam is cut at D and that a slide device is inserted in such a way that
it permits relative transverse deflection between the two parts of the cut,as
shown in fig(b)but which at the same time,maintain a common slope at both
the ends of the cut. Let YDX be the relative linear deflection at D due to unit
Now remove the unit load from X and apply a pair of unit loads at D.The
beam will like shown in fig(c),where YDD is relatve linear deflection at D due to
pair of unit loads at D and YXD is the corresponding deflecton at X.
Now from consistent deformation ,
FD.YDD=YDX
But from reciprocal theorem,

YDX=YXD
So

FD.YDD=YXD or FD=YXD/YDD

Thus ,FD is proportional to YXD ,n other words the deflection curve of fig.(c)
gives the I.L. for FD to some scale.

CONTINUOUS BEAM: I.L. FOR BENDING MOMENT:-

Let the unit load roll on the span ABC. At any instant, let it be at a point X.We
want to plot the influence line for bending moment M D at the point D. According to
Muller-Breslau principle the internal stress component, for which the influence
line is to be plotted, is first removed .For the present case ,this is accomplished

by inserting a pin at D . The beam will then deflect , under the unit load at X , as
shown in figure (b).
Let DX be the rotation at D , due to unit load at X, and apply a pair of unit
moments at D, as shown in figure (c),
Let DD=rotation at D ,due to unit couple at D .
YXD = deflection at X due to unit couple at D.
From method of consistent deformation, we have MD.DD=DX
Where MD =bending moment at D due to unit load at X.
MD=DX /DD
But from reciprocal theorem, DX=YXD
MD=YXD/DD
MD is proportional to y XD. In other words, the deflection curve of figure (c) gives to
some scale, the influence line for MD. If however,DD is selected to be
unity, the deflection at any point X will give the bending moment at D.
I.L. D.FOR SHEAR FORCE
Let us now studythe applicability of the muller-brslau principle for plotting the
influence line for the shear force at any point D of a continuous beam ABC in fig.
(a).Let the unit load be at any point X. In order to remove the internal stress
components,i.e. shear FD at D,assume that the beam is cut at D and that a slice
device inserted in such a way that it permits relative transverse deflection
between the two parts of the cut,as shown in fig.(b),but which at the same
time,maintains a common slope at both the ends of the cut.
Now remove the unit load from X,and apply a pair of unit loads(shear) at D. the
beam will deflect as shown in fig.(c).
Let FD=shear force at D
YDX=Relative deflection at D due to linear unit load at X
YDD=Relative deflection at D due to pair of unit load (shear) at D.

YXD=Deflection at X due to pair of unit load (shear) at D.

Then, from compatibility of deformation at D,we have

FD.YDD=YDX or FD=YDX/YDD
But from the reciprocal theorem,
YDX=YXD
FD=YXD/YD
Thus, FD is proportional to YXD. In other words, the deflection curve of fig.(c) gives
the influence line for shear at D,to some scale. If, however, YDD is taken as unity,
the deflection at any point X of fig. (c) give that the shear at D due to unit vertical

A
RCHES
INTRODUCTION:An arch may be looked upon as a curved girder,either a solid rib or
braced,supported at its ends and carrying transverse loads which are frequently
vertical.Since the transvers loading at any section normal to the axis of the girder
is at an angle to the normal face.
Depending upon the number of hinge,arch may be divided into following types-

ANALYSIS OF TWO HINGED ARCH:-

A two hinged arch is a statically indeterminate to single degree , since there are
four reaction components to be determined while the number of equations
available from static equilibrium is only three .
Considering H to be the redundant reaction .
Condition of deformation at B B +BBH =0
H= - B / BB
From Unit Load Method B= M.m.ds/EI

BB = m2 .ds/EI
H= - (M.m.ds/EI) / (m2.ds/EI)

m=1 .y = y
ds=(dx).sec
H= - (M.y.dx.sec / EIc sec ) / ( y2 dx sec / EIc sec )

Expression for horizontal reaction of two hinge parabolic arch : -

Consider a two hinged parabolic arch of horizontal span L and central rise h,
subjected to a point load W at a distance nL from the left support.
The equation of arch is y=4h.n.(L-x) / L2
now

.(1)

The numerator(N)= M.y.dx

=
Putting, y=4h.x(L-x) /L2 this value in above equation
N=

Solve by above expression,We get

N=WhL2n(n3-2n2+1) /3
The denominator(D)=
Putting, y=4h.x(L-x) /L2 this value in above equation
D=

/L4

Solve by above expression,We get

D=8h2L /15
Substitute the value of numerator and denominator in equation (1),We get
H= -5W(nL)(n3-2n2+1) /8h
MOVING LOADS ON TWO HINGE ARCHES
I.L. FOR H :Let us consider a unit point load at adistance nLfrom A. The vertical
reaction at A will be (1-n) while the vertical reaction at B will be equal to n. for this
load position the vertical thurst, as proved earlier, is given by

H=5.W.(nL).(n3-2n2+1) /8h

(1)

Since n is a variable, it is clear that equation (1) is a fourth degree

polynomial. The influence line for H can very easily be plotted by given n different
values,
At A,

n=0 : H=0

At B,

n=1

At C,

n=1/2

H=25L /128h

: H=0

I.L.FOR B.M. :The B.M. at any point P distance x from A is given by

Mp =(M-Hy)
Thus ,I.L. for MP can be obtained by superimposing the IL for Mp on the IL for
Hy.The I.L. ,for M will have maximum ordinate of x(L-x) /L under P.
The IL for Hy will be similar I.L. for H ,with maximum ordinate of 25L /128h
Under the crown . The I.L. for Mp shown in figure

IL for Np and Fp :Influence line for normal thrust and radial shear at P can be obtained exactly
In the same manner as that for a three hinged arch except for the distance that
the Hsin and Hcos diagram will be curved.The influence line for Fp and Np
are shown in figure (D) and (E).

EXPRESION FOR H:-

The arch carrying the load W at D so that the radius OD makes an angle with the
horizontal . Let the horizontal thrust be H at each support . Let the vertical reactins at A
and B be V1 and V2 respectively.
Hence if the arch is subjected to two loads of the same magnitude W one at D and the
other at E,the horizontal thrust at each support will be 2H and each vertical reaction will
be W. We will analyse the arch for this condition .
We know that

Solve by above expression,We get

N=WR3sin2
The denominator (D)=

sin2.Rd

Solve by above expression,We get

D=R3 /2
2H= WR3sin2 /( R3 /2)

H=Wsin2 /

CABLES
AND
SUSPENSION
BRIDGES

Equilibrium of light cables: General Cable Theorem:

Fig. shows a light cable or cord suspended from two points A and B and
subjected to a number of point loads W 1, W2 Wn. Let L be the horizontal pan
of the cable and be the inclination of the line AB, with the horizontal..
Evidently, the difference in the elevation B, is equal to L tan .
Let VA and VB the be the vertical components of reactions at A and B.
Since there no horizontal loading on the cables, the horizontal reactions (H)
at the ends A and B will be equal to in magnitudes but opposite in directions.
Since the cable is in equilibrium, it will take the shape of a funicular polygon
for the lode system and will, therefore, deform as shown
In order to find the vertical dedication VA take moments about B:

-VA .L-H.L tan + MB = 0

or VA = MB - H tan

-------- (15.1)

L
Where MB = Sum of moments of all external loads about B.
Consider any point X at a horizontal distance x from A. Evidently, X 1, X2 = x
tan
Assuming that the cable is perfectly flexible so that the bending moment at
any point on the cable is zero, the sum of moments (MX) of all external
forces to the left of point X is zero.
Therefore

- H (X X1) VA x + Mx = 0

or

where
X X2

Substituting the value of VA from Eq. 15.1, we get

-H (x tan - y) MB H tan

x + Mx = 0

H y x MB + MX = 0

or

H y x MB - MX

Or

Eq. is the general cable theorem.

(A) EXPRESSION FOR HORIZONTAL REACTION

Fig. 15.3 Shows a cable uniformly distributed load of intensity p per unit length.
From the general cable theorem derived in the previous article we have
H y = x MB - MX
L
where
y = XX2 = vertical ordinate between the line A, B and chord at
the point X.

MB = pL. L = pL2
2
Mx = px. x

2
= p x2

Hy = x. pL2 p x2
L

At the mid- span , x = L/2 and

y = d = dip of the cable.
Therefore

Hd = p L L P L2
2 2

2 2

= p L2
Hence

H =p
L2

Eq. gives the expression for the horizontal H and is valid whether the cable chord is
inclined or horizontal.

(b) Expression for cable tension at the ends

The cable tension T at any end is the resultant of vertical and
horizontal reactions at the end. Thus

TA = V2A + H2

and

V2B + H2

TB =

------(15.5)

Knowing H from Eq. 15.4 and VA from Eq. 15.1 the cable tension T A or TB can
be easily calculated. When the cable is horizontal,

VA = VB = pL. Hence
2

TA = TB = T = pL
2

+ pL2

8d

T = pL 1 + L2
2

16d2

..(15.6)

T = H 1 + 16d2
L2

..( 15.7)

It should be remembered that the horizontal component of cable tension at

any point will be equal to H.

(C) SHAPE OF THE CABLE

Let us now determine the shape of the cable under the uniformly distributed
load. Substituting the value of H (Eq. 15.4) in Eq. 15.3, we get
PL2 y = pLx px2
8d

y = 4dx (L x)

This is, thus, the equation of the curve with respect to the cable chord. The cable, thus,
takes the form of a parabola when subjected to uniformly distributed load.
15.4. ANCHORS CABLE
The suspension cable is supported on either size on the supporting tower.
The anchor cable transfers the tension of the cable to the anchorage
consisting of huge mass of concrete. There are generally to arrangement for
this. The suspension cable can either be passed over the guide pulley for
anchoring it to the other side or it can be attached to a saddle mounted on
roller. Fig. 15.6(a) and (b) show both the arrangements.

In the former case when the suspension cable passes over the guide pulley and forms the
part of the anchor cable to the other side, the tension T in the cable is the same on the
both side.
Let

1= inclination of the suspension cable, with vertical.

2= inclination of the anchor cable, with vertical.

Pressure on the top of pier = Vp= T cos 1 + T cos 2

=T ( cos 1 + cos 2 )
(15.14)
Horizontal force on the top of the pier
=T sin 1 T sin 2 = =T (sin 1 + sin 2 )
This horizontal force will cause bending moment in the tower.

If the cable is supported on the saddle mounted on the rollers, as shown in Fig. 15.6 (b),
the horizontal components of the tensions in the suspension cable and the anchor cable
will be equal since the roller do not have any horizontal reaction.
T1 sin 1 = T2 sin 2 =H

The vertical pressure on the peir is given by

Vp = T1 cos 1 + T2 cos 2

Example 1. The three-hinged stiffening girder of a suspension bridge of 100 m span

is subjected to two points loads of 10 kN each placed at each placed at 20 m and 40

m respectively from the left hand hinge. Determine the B.M. and S.F. in the girder at
section 30 m from each end. Also, determine the maximum tension in the cable,
which has a central dip of 10 m.
Solution: To find the simply supported reactions V D and VF, takes moment
about hinges D and F. Consider the equilibrium of the girder alone.
Thus, VF =1/100 {(10x40)+(10X20)} =6 kN
VD=1/100 {(10x60)+(10X80)} =14 kN
In order to find H, take moments the central hinge E. Thus
ME = 0 =E Hd
E = (+6 x 50), and d = 10 m
ME = (+6 x 50) - 10 H = 0
H = 3 kM
or
The equation of parabola is
Y = 4d x (L x) = 4 x 10 x (100 x) or
L2

At

x = 30 m,

100 x 100

y = 4x (100 x)
1000

Thus at point G and H, distant 30m from D and F respectively y = 8.4 m.

The B.M. at any point is given by
M = x Hy
MG = {(14x30)-(10X10)}
-

and MH = (6x30) (30 x 8.4)

= -72 kN-m
The S.F. at any point is given
by
Fx = x H tan
Now

Y = 4x (100 x) = 4 x 4x2
1000

10

1000

dy = tan = 4 8x
dx

10 1000

Similarly, at x = 70 m (i.e. 30 m from R.H.)

Tan = -0.16 (i.e. anticlockwise)
Hence

FG = ( 14 10) ( 30 x 0.16 ) =- 0.8 kN

FH = (-6)-(30)(-0.16) = -1.2 kN

Now

H = pL2
8d
p = 8d .H = 8 x 10 x 30 = 0.24 kN/m
L2

100 x 100

Vertical reaction at the ends of the cables = pL = 0.24 x 100

=12kN
2
Therefore Maximum tension in the cables = (12)2 +
(30)2 = 32.4 kN

Example: 2. A suspension bridge of 250 m span has two three hinged stiffening
girders suspended by two cables having a central dip of 25 m. the width of the
over the whole span, and a live lode of 1 kN per sq. meter extending over the left
hand half of the bridge. Find the B.M. and S.F. at point 60 and 200 m from the left
hinge. Also, calculate the maximum tension in the cable .
Solution: The free body diagrams for the cable and the stiffening girder are
shown in 15.17. since there is no B.M. and S.F. any where in the girder due to uniformly
Live load per meter run by girder

= w = [8 x 1 x 1] = 4 kN/m

VF = 1

(4 x 125 x 62.5) = 375 kN

250
VD = (4 x 125) 125 = 375 kN

ME = 0 =

Hy

(125 x 125) 25 H = 0
or H =125 x 125 = 625
25

dy = tan = 250 2x

therefore

dx

At x = 60 m,

625

625

and

and

625

18.25)

M60 = - H y = {(+ 375 x 60) (4 x 60 x 60)} (625 x

2
= + 3894 kN m
M200= (+125 x 50) (625 x 16) = -3750 kN m
F60 = 60 H tan = (375 60 x 4) (625 x 0.208) = + 5

kN
F200 = (- 125) (625) (0.24) = +25 kN.
Again, the equivalent U.D.L. transferred to the cable due to the live load
= 8d H = 8 x 25 x 625 = 2kN/m
L2

240x 250

Example 3. A suspension cable, stiffened with a three

hinged girder, has 100m span and 10 m dip. The
girder carries a lode of 0.4kN/m. a live lode of 10 kN
roles from left to right. Determine (i) the maximum
B.M. any were in the girder, (ii) the maximum tension
in the cable.
Solution
(a) Maximum B.M.: from fig 15.13, the absolute maximum positive B.M.
due to point load in the girder occurs at x =0.211 L = 0.211 x 100 =
21.1 m from either end, it value begin:
(+) MMax.Max = 0.096 WL = 0.096 x 10 x 100 = 96kN-m
the absolute maximum negative B.M. occurs at x = 0.25 = L = 25 m
from either end, its value begin:
(+) MMax.Max = 0.0625 WL = 0.0625 x 10 x 100 = 62.5 kN-m

Greatest B.M. + 96 kN M at 21.1m from either ends. It should be

noted that there will be no B.M. anywhere in the girder due to U.D.L
covering the whole span.

(b) Maximum Cable tension: From fig 15.13 (C), the maximum value
of H, due to point lode occurs when the load is on the central hinged,
its value being

H = W L = 10 x 100 = 25 kN
4d

4 x 10

p ( due to U.D.D.L) = 0.4 kN-m

H due to U.D.D.L = pL2 = 0.4 x 100 x 100 = 50 kN
8d
Total

8 x 10

H = 25 + 50 = 75 kN

Tmax = V2 + H2
kN

= H 1 + 16d2 = 75 1+ 16 x 100 = 76
L2

100 x 100

He = beam moment

( x/l ) x l/2
=

dc

Hl = x

valid for x =0 to l/2

where x = 0, He = 0.
X = l/2, He = l/4dc

When the unit load is right of F

dc

He = ( l x ) x l = l x
for We
I.L.D for
l

2dc

dc

He = Wel2

x = l to l.
2

8dc

We = 8dc x He
L2

= 8dc x x
l2

2dc

We = 8dc x l x
L2

2dc

l2

When unit load is left of section G.

MG = x ( l a ) He.l
l
= (x) ( l-a ) ( l ) . l
l
4dc
Valid for x = 0 to a.

When unit load is right of section G.

Mb = ( l x ) a
He.lb

S = -x - We (l - 2a)
l

= -x 4x . (l 2a)
l

l2

When unit load is right of section G.

S = ( l x ) - 2 ( l x ) ( l 2a) for x = a to l.
l

l2

We ( = We ) = Total live load on the girder

Span
= W kN/m or N/m
l

(1)Cable analysis
VA = VB = Wl
2

Girder Analysis

He = We l2
8dc

S = Sx He Sin

M = Mx - Hy

Eqn of parabola

Y = 4dc x( l x )

I.L.D

for We
We = 1
L

1/l

I.L.D. for We

ILD for VA( and VB)

VA =VB = 1 x l = Wel = 1
l

1/2

I.L.D for VA and VB

ILD for H

We = 1
l
H = Wel2
8dc

L/8dc

ILD for BM at any section :When unit load is left of the section

MG = ( x ) (l a) Hb
l
= ( x ) (l a) ( l ) b -------------------------------- (1)
l

8dc

Now unit load is right of the section.

MG = (l x)a - Hb
l
= (l - x)a l . b ----(2)
l

8d c

b = 4dc a ( l a)
l2

put this value in eq. (1)

ILD for shear force at any section G on girder :When the unit load is left of the section

S = Sx H tanG

= -x l . 4dc (l 2a)
l 8dc l2
[ therefore y = 4dc ( l.x x2 )
l2

dx

l2

(x = a)

QA suspension cable of 40m span and 4m dip is stiffened by a girder

hinged only at the ends, if a load 200kN rolls over the girder calculate the maximum
(+ve) and (-ve) B.M. in the girder.

Absolute max +ve B.M. =

Max +ve

a (l a) x W
2l

d ( Mmax +ve ) = l 2a = 0
da
=a=l
2
W x l/2.l/2 = Wl

W = 6 + 2.4 = 8.4 kN/m

VA = VB = Wl = 8.4 x 200 = 840kN
2

8dc

8 x 40

H T = H T cos

= 377.5kN
VT = V + T sin

UNIT 4

OF ANALYSIS

FLEXIBILTY AND STIFFNESS MATRICES

FLEXIBILTY AND STIFFNESS

Flexibility and its converse, knows as stiffness, are important properties which
characterize the response of the force displacement relationship. In a general
sense, the flexibility of a structure is defined as the displacement caused by a
unit force and the stiffness is as the forced required for a unit displacement.
Considered first, a structural element with a single degree of a freedom. The
spring AB, shown

In Fig (a), is fixed at end A and has a single degree of freedom at end B along
coordinate 1. The flexibility of spring is defined as displacement 1 at
coordinate 1.

Flexibility = 1/P1= 11

Similarly, the stiffness of spring is defined as the force k11 required for a unit
displacement at coordinate 1.

Stiffness = P1/1 = k11

FLEXIBILITY MATRIX

Consider a structure which satisfies the basic assumptions enumerated in

sec.2.2 let the system of forces p1,p2 pn act on the structure . The
world forces has been used here in the generalized sense so as to include
couples and reactions components. the system of forces p1, p2pn.

May include all or some of the forces acting on the structure . Let the system
of forces p1, p2 pn. Produce displacements 1, 2.n
at coordinates 1,2n. using the principle of superposition discussed in
sec.2.2, displacements 1,2..n may be expressed by the equations

1=11P1 + 12P2++ ijPj+..+iaPn

2=21P1 + 22P2 ++ 2jPj+.+ 2nPn
.
.
.
i= i1P1+ i2P2++ ijPj+ +inPn
.
.
.
n= n1P1 + n2P2+.+ njPj +.+ nnPn

In eq ij is the displacement at coordinate i due to a unit force at

coordinate j.Hence ,i1P1 is the displacement at coordinate i due to
P1.simerely , i2 P2 is the displacement at coordinate I due to all force may
be expressed as

i = i1P1+i2P2 + ..+in Pn.

This equation is the same as eq.(). This explain how eq.()_have been written
down. As explained in sec.3.6 the set of simultaneous eq (), representing the
force displacement relationship may be expressed in the following matrix
form.

[ ] = [] [P]
(4.23)

Where, [] =A column matrix of order n1 known as displacement matrix

[P]= a column matrix of order n1 ,known as force matrix
[] =a square matrix of order n, known as flexibility matrix

STIFFNESS MATRIX

Let 1, 2,..n be the system of coordinates chosen to express

the system of forces P1,P2..,Pn producing displacements 1, 2,
.,n. if a unit displacement is given at coordinate j without any

displacement at other coordinates, the required at coordinate 1, 2,

..,n may be represented by k1j ,k2j,knj respectively . these are
the forces which must act at coordinates 1, 2, ..,n to hold the structure
in this specific deformed position in which j=1 and i(ij) =0. in other
words , k1j, k2j ,,knj are the forces required at coordinates 1, 2,
..,n respectively in order to produce a unit displacement at coordinate j
and zero displacement at all other coordinates. Thus kij is the force at
coordinate i. due to unit displacement at coordinate j only. The total forces pi.
At coordinate i. due to displacement 1, 2,, n may be computed by
using the principle of superposing, sec.2.2.

P1 = K111 + K122 +. + K1jj +. + K1nn

P2 = K211 + K222 +..+ K2jj +. + K2nn
.
.
Pi = Ki11 + Ki22 ++ Kijj +..+ Kinn
.
.
Pn = Kn11 + Kn22 +..+ Knjj +. + Knnn

Equation (4.24) representing the force displacement relationship may be

expressed the following matrix form:

eq.- (4.25)

Above equation may be written in the compact form

[P] = [K][]
Where [K] = A square matrix of order n, is known as stiffness matrix.

FORCE AND DISPALCMENT

The use of flexibility and stiffness matrix provides systematic method for the
analysis of larg structure with the high de4gree of static or kinematics
indeterminacy . The solution using matrix approach usually involve the
inversion of either the flexibility or stiffness matrix which is a common sub
routine of modern digital computer. There are two main methods of structure
analysis using the matrix approach.

FORCE METHOD

This method is also known as flexibility method or compatibility method. in

this method the degree of static indeterminacy of structure determined and
the redundant are identified . a coordinate is to assigned to each redundant .

thus ,P1,P2,P3..Pn are the redundant coordinate 1,2,3.. n . if al the

redundant are removed , the resulting structure , known as the released
structure , us statically determinate. This released structure is also known as
basic determinate structure. From the principal of superposition, the net
displacement at any point in a statically determinate structure is the sum of
the displacement in the basic determinate structure due to the applied load
and the redundant. This condition, known as compatibility condition, may be
expressed by the equations.

1 = 1l + 1r
2 = 2l + 2r
.
.
j = jl + jr
.
.
n = nl + nr

Where, j = displacement at coordinate j in the statically indeterminate

structure
jl = displacement at coordinate j in the released structure due to
jr =
the redundant.

Equation may be expressed in the matrix form

[] = [l] + [r]
Substituting form eq (2.5) into eq (4.38),

(4.39)

1 = 1l + 11P1 + 12P2 + . +1nPn

2 = 2l + 21P1 + 22P2 ++ 2nPn

(4.40)

n = nl + n1P1 + n2P23 ++ nnPn

Equation (4.40) may be expressed in the matrix form
[] = [l] + [][P]

(4.41)

Solving equation (4.41) for the redundant,

[P] = [] {[]-[L]}

(4.42)

If the net displacements at the redundant are zero,

1 = 2 = = n = 0
In the case esq.(4.42)takes the form

[P] = -[][ l]
It may be noted that the force method is actually the method of consistent
deformation.

Displacement method
This method is also known as stiffness method. In this method the degree of
kinematics indeterminacy of the structure is determined and a coordinate is
assigned to each independent displacement component.

Let 1,2,.., n be the coordinate assigned to this independent displacement

components
1,2, n.In the first instance , lock all the support and
joint obtain the restrained structure in which no displacement is is possible at
the coordinate .
Let P1, P2..Pn be the force required at coordinate 1, 2n in the restrained
structure in which the displacement 1, 2,.n are zero. Next, let support
and joint be unlocked permitting displacement 1, 2.n at the
coordinates. These displacement required forces P1, P2..Pn at
cooredinate1,2,n respectively. If P1, P2, P3 Pn are the external force at
coordinate 1,2,n then the condition of equilibrium of the structure may be
expressed by the equations.

P1 = P1 + P1
P2 = P + P2
.

(4.44)

.
Pn = Pn + Pn
Esq. (4.44) may be expressed in matrix form

(4.45)

P1 = P1 +K111 + K122 + +K1nn

P2 = P2 +K211 + K222 + +K2nn
.
.
Pn = Pn +Kn11 + Kn22 + +Knnn
Equation (4.46) may be expressed in form matrix

(4.46)

[P] = [P] + [P][]

Solving equation (4.47)
components,

(4.47)

for the unknown independent displacement

[] = [k] {[P]-[p]}

(4.48)

It is similar to esq. (4.42) except that force and displacement have been
interchanged.
If the external forces act only at the coordinate, the term P1,P2,P;n.
vanish.
In case esq. (4.48) takes the form
[] = [k] [P]
On the other hand, if there are no external force at the coordinates,
P1 = P2 = . = Pn = 0
In this case esq. (4.42) takes the form
[] = - [k][P]

(4.50)

After the computation of displacement, the bending moment in the member

of the structure may be calculated by using the slope-deflection.
NOTE- The displacement method it is not necessary to identify the redundant.
The method is applicable to statically determinate as well as indeterminate
structures. The method is known as the displacement method because in this
approach the displacement are treated as unknown.

Example 1

Calculate the support reactions in the continuous beam (see Fig. 9.6a) having constant
flexural rigidity ABCEI throughout, due to vertical settlement of the support Bby 5m as
shown in the figure. E=200 Gpa and
_4 4

I = 4X10
m.

As the given beam is statically indeterminate to second degree, choose reaction at B)

(1Rand as the redundant. In this case the cantilever beam is the basic determinate beam
(primary structure). On the determinate beam only redundant reactions are acting. The

first column of flexibility matrix is evaluated by first applying unit load along the
redundant and determining deflections a11 and a21 respectively as shown in Fig. 9.6b.
3

.a11= 5= 125
3EI 3EI
.a21= 125 + 25 X5 = 625
3EI 2EI
6EI

(1)

Simply by applying the unit load in the direction of redundant, one could evaluate
flexibility coefficients a12 and a22 (see Fig. 9.6c).

.a12 = 625
6EI

3EI

(2)

The compatibility condition for the problem may be written as,

_3

.a11R1 + a12R2 = -5 X 10
.a21R1 + a22R2 = 0
(3)

_1

_3

{ R1} = [A] {-5X10 }

{ R2}

(4)

0 }
_3

{R1} =
{R2}

3EI

[1000

27343.75 [-312.5

-312.5 ] X {-5X10 }
125 ]

(5)

Substituting the values of E and I in the above equation, the redundant reactions are
evaluated.

R1=-43.885kN

and

R2 = 13.71kN

R1 acts downwards and R2 acts in the positive direction of the reaction i.e. upwards.
The remaining two reactions and are evaluated by the equations of equilibrium.

Fy =0 => R1+R2+R3 = 0

Hence R3 = 30.175 kN
MA=0 => R4+5XR1+10XR2=0
Solving for R4,

R4 = 82.325kN.m (counter clockwise)

The shear force and bending moment diagrams are shown in figs. 9.6d and
9.6e respectively.

1. To generate the flexibility matrix for stiffness ?

EI, L

Figure -1.0
Solution : assign the coordinate, figure 1.1

1
2
EI, L
Figure -1.1

We apply unit displacement at 1 only, figure 1.2

K11 = 12EI / L3 , K21 = +EI/L2

K 21
= 1 Unit
K 11
EI, L

Figure -1.2

Now apply unit displacement at 2 only, figure 1.3

K12 = 6EI / L2 , K22 = 4EI/L2

K 22
K 12
Unit

Figure -1.3

The Force is required to produced displacements D 1 & D2 simultaneously

are obtained in Figure - 1.2 & 1.3 this yields
P1 = K11 . D1 + K12 . D2

----------- (1)

P2 = K21 . D1 + K22 . D2

----------- (2)

Expressing this in matrix form, we have

P1
P2

K11 K12
D1
x
K21 K22
D2
----------- (3)

simply P = K . D
This stiffness matrix K has the following elements for the structure of
figure 1.0

K =

K11 K12
=
K21 K22

EI
L

12 E I / L -6E I / L
2
-6E I / L 4E I / L

12 / L
-6 / L

-6 / L
4

------ (4)
2. Flexibility matrix

Figure -2 shows a cantilever beam with 2 coordinates .

Let us relate the forces and the corresponding displacements through the
flexibility coefficients.

EI, L

Figure -2.0

1
2
EI, L

Figure -2.1

D2

P1

F21

D1

F 11

P2
EI, L

EI, L

Figure - 2.2

Figure - 2.3
F22
F 12
1

EI, L

Figure - 2.4

We apply unit force at coordinates 1 only, figure 2.2

F11 = L3 / 3 EI , F11 = L2 / 2 EI

Now apply unit force at coordinates 2 only , Figure 2.3

F21 = L2 / 2 EI , F22 = L / EI

The displacements due to forces P1 & P2 acting simultaneously are :-

D1 = F11 . P1 + F12 . P2

----------- (5)

D2 = F21 . P1 + F22 . P2

----------- (6)

D1
D2

F 11 F 12
P1
x
F 21 F 22
P2
-------- (7)

Simply D = F.P.

The matrix F is the flexibility matrix for the structure of Figure 2.

The elements of the flexibility matrix for the structure is :-

F =

F 11 F 12
=
F 21 F 22

L
EI

L/3EI
2
L/2EI
2

L/3 L/2
L/2
1

L/2EI
L/EI

----- (8)
3. Prove that [ K] [F] = I (Identity matrix)
Solution
Multiply stiffness matrix to flexibility matrix for cantilever structure OR
Multiplying Equation (4) to (8) we have

[K][F] =

L
EI

L/3 L/2
L/2
1
EI
L

1
0

0
1

= I Matrix

12 / L -6 / L
-6 / L
4

3L

Figure - 3.0

Assign coordinates Figure 3.1

3L

Figure - 3.1
Apply a unit load upper direction at coordinates 1 only Figure 3.2

F11
1
L / EI

F21

F31

Figure - 3.2

F22

F12

F32

1
2L / EI

Figure - 3.3

F23

F13
1
3L / EI

F33
1

Figure - 3.4

The flexibility matrix is given by for the given problem

F =

F 11 F 21 F 31
F 12 F 22 F 32 =
F 13 F 23 F 33

L
F =
6EI

K = F

K =

-1

3EI
3

13 L

2
5
8

L/3EI
5L / 6 E I 4L / 3 E I
3
3
3
5L / 6 E I 8L / 3 E I 14L / 3 E I
3
3
3
4L / 3 E I 14L / 3 E I 9L / E I

5 8
16 28
28 54

6EI
3

2
5
8

5 8
16 28
28 54

-1

80 -46 12
-46 44 -16
12 -16 7

5. Analysis the continuous Beam by unit flexibility method Figure

4.0

36 kN
3m
A

48 kN
3m
B

6m

C
8m

Figure - 4.0
Solution : Let F1 & F2 are the redundant forces

6m

8m

Figure - 4.1

F21

F11

1 Unit
6 / EI

6m

8m

Figure - 4.2

B
A

F22

F12

1
14 / EI

6m

8m

Figure - 4.3

1 Unit

F22 = () (14 / EI) (14) (2/3) (14) = 2744 / 3E I

F =

F 11 F 12
F 21 F 22

72/ E I 216/ E I
216/ E I 2744/ 3E I

(1)

D1 = - [{(1/2) (108 / E I) (3) }{(2/3) (3) +(3) } +{ (144/ E I) (6) (3/2) +

{(1/2) (288 / E I) (6) (2/3) (6) }] = - 6858 / E I

D2 = - [{(1/2) (108 / E I) (3) }{(2/3) (3) +(11) } +{ (1/2)(432/ E I) (9)} {(2/3)

(9) +
(5)}] = - 23490 / E I

The matrix

[F] = -[ f ]-1 [D]

F =-

72/ E I 216/ E I
216/ E I 2744/ 3E I
-1

72
216
216 2744

0.0476 -0.0112
-0.0112 0.0037

F =

-6858/ E I
-23490/ E I

6858
23490
6858
23490

63.35
10.10

36 + 48 = RA +63.35 + 10.10
RA = 10.55 kN

MA 36 x 3 + 63.35 x 6 48 x 9 + 10.1 x 14
MA = 18.5 KN-M

MB = 18.5 KN-M

36 kN
3m

36 kN
3m

48 kN
A

3m

D1

D2

MA

48 kN
B

3m

MB
6m

6m

8m

R A = 10.5

R B = 63.35

Figure - 4.4
18.5 kN-m

144 / EI

108 / EI

A -

90 kN-m
54 kN-m
+

B
--

6m

6m

8m

8m

Figure - 4.5

6. Analysis the continuous Beam as shown in Figure 5.0

36 kN
3m

R C = 10.1

Figure - 4.6

432 / EI

8m

48 kN
3m
B

6m

C
8m

Figure - 5.0
Solution : Find K . I = 02

36 kN
3m

48 kN
B

3m

F1

F2

6m

8m

Figure - 5.1
Lock the displacement along the coordinates & also find out the restrained
Force

Net Force F1 = W ab2 / L2 Wa2b / L2

= 56.25 27 = 29.25 KN

F2 = (48 x 32 x 5) / 82

= -33.75 KN
Generate the stiffness matrix for the assigned coordinates in figure 5.2

C
2E I /8

4E I /6
4E I /6

2E I /6
6m

K21 = 2E I /8
8m

Figure - 5.2

So,

K11

= 4EI /6+4EI/8=7EI/6

K21

B
K12 = 2E I /8

K22 = 2E I /4

6m

8m

Figure - 5.3

Now , K12

= 2EI /8=EI/4

12.24 kN-m

K22

A -

= 4EI /8=EI/2

90 kN-m
54 kN-m
+
-

+
C

B
6m

8m

K =

K11 K12
=
K21 K22

K = E I / 12

14 3
3 6

7EI/6 EI/4
EI/4
EI/2
(1)

Apply the condition of equilibrium forces to compute the unknown

displacement.
[ F ] + [ K ] [ D ] = [ Fnet ] = 0

-------- (2)

D1
D2

D1
D2

F 11
F 21

= -12 / E I

14 3
3 6

= -12 / 75 E I

6
-3

= -12 / 75 E I

6x29.25 - 3x-33.75
29.25
x
-3x29.25 +14x-33.75
-33.75

M AB = M FAB + (2 E I / L) (D1)

= 27 + (2 E I / 6) (-44.28 / E I)

M AB = 12.24 KN-M

M BA = M F BA + (2 E I / L) (2D1)

= -27 + (2 E I / 6) (2 x -44.28 / E I)

Check,
MBC = M FBC + (2 E I / L) (2D1 + D2)

29.25
-33.75

-3
29.25
x
14
-33.75

-44.28/ E I
89.64 / E I

M BA = 56.52 KN-M

MBC = +56.52 KN-M (Ok)

7. Flexibility method
I)

D I = 4-2 = 2

II) Let redundant forces are F 1 & F2 Figure 6.0 & 6.1

F3

F1

F2

F4

Figure - 6.0

A
F1

F2

Figure - 6.1
III) Determine D1 & D2
IV) Generate flexibility matrix
Apply unit load at coordinate 1 only in any direction figure 6.2

D2

C
D

Figure - 6.2

F11 = moment of the area of triangle -1 about coordinate at 1

F21 = moment of the area of triangle -1 about coordinate at 2

F21

F22
C

1 Unit

Figure - 6.3

Apply unit load at coordinate 2 only in any direction figure 6.4

F11

F21

1 Unit

Figure - 6.4

F12 = F21
F22 = moment of the area of triangle -2 about coordinate at 2
F = flexibility coefficient
Now , Joint 1
D1 + f11 x F1 + f21 x F2 = 0 ----- (1)
Now , Joint 2
D2 + f21 x F1 + f22 x F2 = 0 ----- (2)

D1
D2

F 11 F 12
F 21 F 22

F1
F2

Similarly for three degree redundancy

D1
D2
D3

F 11 F 12 F 13
F 21 F 22 F 23
F 31 F 32 F 33

= 0

Show in General
[ D] + [ f ] [ F ] = 0

[ F ] = - [ f ]-1 [ D ]
This is the derivation for unknown forces.

11. Analysis the Problem by flexibility method figure 10.0 Below :-

48 KN
C

A
E I = Constant
2m

4m

Figure - 10.0

12. Analysis the Problem both by flexibility & stiffness method figure
11.0 Below :-

48 KN
EI

2m

2EI

4m

Figure - 11.0

12. Analysis the Problem by flexibility method figure 12.0 Below :-

w / Unit Length

E I = Constant
L1

L2

Figure - 12.0
13. Differentiate between flexibility method to stiffness method

14. Explain the following terms

a) Stiffness coefficient
b) Flexibility coefficient
c) Compatibility of deformation
d) Condition of equilibrium

15. Generate the stiffness matrix & flexibility matrix for figure 13.0
& 13.1 below:-

1
EI

1
2

2EI

EI

2EI
3

2m

4m

Figure - 13.0

3m

3m

Figure - 13.1

TRUSS

Introduction
The truss is said to be statically indeterminate when the total number of reactions
and member axial forces exceed the total number of static equilibrium equations.
In the simple planar truss structures, the degree of indeterminacy can be
determined from inspection. Whenever, this becomes tedious, one could use the
following formula to evaluate the static indeterminacy of static planar truss.
I=(m + r) - 2j
where j, m and r are number of members, joints and unknown reaction
components respectively. The indeterminacy in the truss may be external,
internal or both. A planar truss is said to be externally indeterminate if the number
of reactions exceeds the number of static equilibrium equations available (three
in the present case) and has exactly (2j-3) members. A truss is said to be
internally indeterminate if it has exactly three reaction components and more
than (2j-3) members. Finally a truss is both internally and externally
indeterminate if it has more than three reaction components and also has more
than (2j-3) members.
The basic method for the analysis of indeterminate truss by force method is
similar to the indeterminate beam analysis discussed in the previous lessons.
Determine the degree of static indeterminacy of the structure. Identify the number
of redundant reactions equal to the degree of indeterminacy. The redundants
must be so selected that when the restraint corresponding to the redundants are
removed, the resulting truss is statically determinate and stable. Select
redundant as the reaction component in excess of three and the rest from the
member forces. However, one could choose redundant actions completely from
member forces. Following examples illustrate the analysis procedure.
8. Analysis the Truss by stiffness method
DOF=4

K =

K11
K21
K31
K41

U = (1 Cos

K12
K22
K32
K42

K13
K23
K33
K43

K14
K24
K34
K44

= 0

a) (Cos a) = (Cos2 a)

K11 = (A E / L) (U) = (A E / L) (Cos2

K21 = (A E / L) (V) = (A E / L) (Cos
K31 = (-A E / L) (Cos2

a)

a . Sin a)

a)

K21

os

E
A

a
A

3
K31

Figure - 7.0

A
K41

U = (1 Sin

a) (Cos a) = (Sin a . Cos a)

V = (1 Sin

a) (Sin a) = (Sin2 a)

K12 = (A E / L) (Sin

a . Cos a)

K22 = (A E / L) (Sin2

a)

a . Cos a)

a) ( Figure 7.2)

U
1 Unit
displacement

Figure - 7.1

K11

K12

Si
na

1 Unit

K22

K32

Figure - 7.2

K42

So ,

a)

K13 = (-A E / L) (Cos2

K23 = (-A E / L) (Cos

a . Sin a)

K33 = (A E / L) (Cos2

a)

a . Sin a) ( Figure 7.3)

K43 = (A E / L) (Cos

K23

B
A

K33

Figure - 7.3

K43

Similarly
K14 = (-A E / L) (Cos

a . Sin a)

K24 = (-A E / L) (Sin2

a)

K34 = (A E / L) (Sin

a . Cos a)

K44 = (A E / L) (Sin2

a)

K13

(A E / L) (Cos a)

(A E / L) (Cos a . Sin a)

(-A E / L) (Cos a)

(-A E / L) (Cos a . Sin a)

(A E / L) (Cos a . Sin a)

(A E / L) (Sin a)

(-A E / L) (Cos a . Sin a)

(-A E / L) (Sin a)

(-A E / L) (Cos a)

(-A E / L) (Cos a . Sin a)

(A E / L) (Cos a)

(A E / L) (Cos a . Sin a)

(-A E / L) (Cos a . Sin a)

(-A E / L) (Sin a)

(A E / L) (Cos a . Sin a)

(A E / L) (Sin a)

K =

(Cos a)
K = (A E / L)

(Cos a . Sin a)

(Cos a)

(Cos a . Sin a)

(Cos a . Sin a)

(Sin a)

(Cos a . Sin a)

(Sin a)

(Cos a)

(Cos a . Sin a)

(Cos a)

(Cos a . Sin a)

(Cos a . Sin a)

(Sin a)

(Cos a . Sin a)

(Sin a)

If a = 0

K = (A E / L)

-1

-1

= 0

9. Member Force in a truss

F AB = (-A E / L) [(D3 D1) Cos

D4

B
D2

D3

P
90

aAB
A

D1

Figure - 8.0

10. Determine the forces in the member of a Jib of crane as shown in

the figure Below Figure 9.0 by using stiffness method.

4m
100 cm 2

90

A
100KN

cm
200

Figure - 9.0

Take E = 2 x 105 N/mm2

Solution :

I.)
II.)

K . I = 02
Assign the coordinates in any direction Figure 9.1

4m
B

2
1

90

Figure - 9.1

III.) Generate the stiffness matrix

K =

K11 K12
K21 K22

K = (A E / L)

(Cos a)
(Cos a . Sin a) K

(Cos a . Sin a)
(Sin a)

(A E / L)AB = (100 x 10-4 ) (2 x 108) / 4

= 5 x 105 KN / M
(A E / L)AC = (200 x 10-4 ) (2 x 108) / 5
= 8 x 10 5 KN / M

Now, [ K ] = [ K ]AB + [ K ]AC

a =0

K = (A E / L)

(Cos a)
(Cos a . Sin a)
(Cos a . Sin a) K
(Sin a)

[ K ] AB

= (A E / L)AB

1
0

0
5 5
= 1 x 10
0
0

[ K ] AC

= (A E / L)AC

(Cos a)
(Cos a . Sin a)

Tan a = 3/4
a = Tan-1 3/4 = 36.87o

0
0

(Cos a . Sin a)
(Sin a)

[ K ] AC

0.64 0.48
0.48 0.36

= 8 x 10

= 1 x 10

5.12 3.84
3.84 2.88

[K]

= 1 x 10

10.12 3.84
3.84 2.88

IV) Force Matrix :

[ Fnet ] =

0
-100

[ K ] [ D ] = [ Fnet ]
[ D ] = [ K ]-1 [ Fnet ]

[D]

-5

= 1 x 10

10.12 3.84
3.84 2.88

-5

= (1 x 10 / 14.4)

-1

2.88
-3.84

-3.84
10.12
-5

= (1 / 14.4)
D1
D2

384 x 10
-5
-70.28 x 10
-5

0
-100

26.67 x 10
-5
-70.28 x 10

0
-100

4m
B

D2

90

A D1

Figure - 9.2

D1 = 26.67 x 10-5 M
D1 = 26.67 x 10-5 M
F AB = (-A E / L) [D1 Cos 180o + D2 Sin 180o]
= -5 x 10-5 [ 26.67 x 10-5 x Cos 180o -70.28 x 10-5 x Sin 180o ]
FAB = 133.5 KN

FAC = -5 x 10-5 [ 26.67 x 10-5 x Cos 216.87o -70.28 x 10-5 x Sin 216.87o ]
FAC = -166.5 KN
FAC = 166.5 KN Compressive

Example 2
Determine the forces in the truss shown in Fig.10.1a by force method. All the
members have same axial rigidity.

The plane truss shown in Fig.10.1a is statically indeterminate to first degree. The
truss is externally determinate i.e. the reactions can be evaluated from the
equations of statics alone. Select the bar force F AD in member AD as the
redundant. Now cut the member AD to obtain the released structure as shown in
Fig. 10.1b. The cut redundant member AD remains in the truss as its
deformations need to be included in the calculation of displacements in the
released structure. The redundant (FAD) consists of the pair of forces acting on
the released structure.

Evaluate reactions of the truss by static equations of equilibrium.

Rcy = -5kN (downwards)
RCX= - 5kN (downwards)
RDY= - 15kN (upwards)
(1)
Please note that the member tensile axial force is taken as positive and
horizontal reaction is taken as positive to the right and vertical reaction is taken
as positive when acting upwards. When the member cut ends are displaced
towards one another then it is taken as positive.
The first step in the force method is to calculate displacement (L) corresponding
to redundant bar force FAD in the released structure due to applied external

To calculate displacement (L), apply external load and calculate member forces
(Pi) as shown in Fig. 10.1b and apply unit virtual load F AD along and calculate
member forces (Pv)I (see Fig. 10.1c). Thus,

L= Pi (Pv) i L

= 103.03
AE
In the next step, apply a real unit load along the redundant F AD and calculate
displacement a11 by unit load method. Thus,
2

.a11= (Pv)i

L
AE

=24.142
AE

The compatibility condition of the problem is that the relative displacement L of

member AD caused by the redundant axial forces must be equal to zero i.e.

-103.03
24.142
= -4.268 KN(compressive)

Now the member forces in the members can be calculated by method of

superposition. Thus,

Fi = Pi + FAD (PV)I

The complete calculations can be done conveniently in a tabular form as shown

in the following table.
Table 10.1 Computation for example 10.1
Member Length Forces
Li
in the
released
truss
due to
applied
Pi
m
kN
AB
5
0

Forces in Pi (Pv) i L
the

released
(Pv)I
truss due
to unit

kN
-1/2

Li
AiEi

m
0

m/kN
5/2AE

75/2AE

5/2AE

BD

-15

DC

-1/2

5/2AE

CA

-1/2

5/2AE

CB

25

25

50 /AE

5/2AE

25

5/2AE

Total

-1/2

103.03
AE

24.142
AE

Example 10.2
Calculate reactions and member forces of the truss shown in Fig. 10.2a by force
method. The cross sectional areas of the members in square centimeters are
shown in paraenthesis. Assume
5
E=2.0X10 N/mm2.

The plane truss shown in Fg.10.2a is externally indeterminate to degree one. Truss is
internally determinate. Select the horizontal reaction at E, Rex as the redundant.
Releasing the redundant (replacing the hinge at E by a roller support) a stable
determinate truss is obtained as shown in Fig. 10.2b. The member axial forces and
reactions of the released truss are shown in Fig. 10.2b.
Now calculate the displacement L corresponding to redundant reaction in the released
structure. This can be conveniently done in a table (see Figs. 10.2b, 10.c and the table),
Hence from the table,

L= Pi (Pv)i Li

_4
=15X10 m

In the next step apply a unit load, along the redundant reaction R Ex and calculate the
displacement a11 using unit load method.
2

.a11=(PV)f Li
AiEi
_5
=4X10
The support at E is hinged. Hence the total displacement at E must vanish. Thus,

_4
_5
15 X 10 + 4X10 REX =0
_4
REX= - 15X10 _5
4X10
= - 37.5 kN(towards left)
The actual member forces and reactions are shown in Fig. 10.2d.
Table 10.2 Numerical computation for example 10.2
Member Li

AiEi

Forces in the
released truss due to
Pi

Forces
Pi (Pv) i L
in the

released
truss
due to
unit

Fi = Pi +
I
(PV)I
Li

AiEi

(105
)kN

kN

kN

_4

(10)m

() 10
5

kN

m/Kn

AB

33.75

+1

3.375

-3.75

BC

33.75

+1

3.375

-3.75

CD

41.25

+1

4.125

3.75

DE

41.25

+1

4.125

3.75

FG

-7.50

-7.5

FB

0.00

GD

0.00

AF

-6.25

-6.25

FC

6.25

6.25

CG

-6.25

-6.25

GE

-68.75

-68.75

Total

15

Summary
In this lesson, the flexibility matrix method is used to analyse statically indeterminate planar
trusses. The equation to calculate the degree of statical indeterminacy of a planar truss is
derived. The forces induced in the members due to temperature loading and member lack of fit
is also discussed in this lesson. Few examples are solved to illustrate the force method of
analysis as applied to statically indeterminate planar trusses.

UNIT- VTH
PLASTIC ANALYSIS

The plot from 0 to A is a straight line .The stress

corresponding to the point A is called the Limit of proportionality. A
to B, in this range the relation between the stress and strain is
non linear .The stress at B is called the elastic limit.
If the specimen is stress beyond the elastic limit ,plastic
deformation takes place .At the condition shown at C ,there is
considerable extension corresponding to decrease in load .The
stress at C is called the upper yield point.

At the condition shown at D the material offers greater

resistance to greater strain .The stress at D is called the lower
yield point.

At the condition shown at E a waist or neck is developed

.The stress corresponding to E is called the ultimate tensile
strength .As the strain is further increased the stress decreases
and the specimen breaks at the condition shown at F .The stress
F is called the stress at fracture.

SHAPE

FACTOR

It is the ratio of plastic moment to yield (elastic) moment.

S =Mp/Me
y

Zp / yZe

= Zp / Ze
Shape factor is the geometrical property of the section. It
depend on the shape of the section. Physically the value of
shape factor gives an idea of the area of the cross section
which remain under stress when, the extreme fibre reach
yield point.

Thus an I-section which has a larger part of area in flange

has a low value of shape factor of order of 1.14 and a solid
circular section subjected to bending about its dia.has a
higher value of 1.7 as larger part of area is near the centre.

EVALUATION OF SHAPE FACTOR

The shape factor is the property of a section and depends
solely on the shape of the cross section. We shall evaluate
the shape factor of some of the standard sections as
follows:(a).Rectangular section

Elastic section modulus, Ze=bd2/6

Plastic section modulus,
Zp=A(y1+y2)/2
=bxd(d/4+d/4)/2
Zp = bd2/4
S=Zp/Ze
=(bd2/4)/(bd2/6)
S=1.5
(b).Triangular section

I=bh3/36
The distance of extrme fibre from the elastic axis = 2h/3
Z = (bh3/36)x(3/2h)
= bh2/24
For locating the equal axis,equate the area on either side. Let the
equelarea axis be at the distance h1 fromthe apex.
Now
But
Or
So that,

b1h1 /2 = bh/4
h1/h = b1/b
b1 = bh1/h
bh1h1/2h = bh/4

Or

h1 = h2

Similarly

b1 =b/2

Now

y1= h1/3 =h/32 =0.234h

And

y2 =(h-h1)(b1+2b) /3(b1+b)
= 0.155h

Zp =A(y1+y2)/2
= 0.098bh2
S =Zp/Ze
S =2.34

Ze=

/32

Zp=A(y1+y2)/2

Now,

where A= d2/4

y1=y2=distance of c.g. of semi circle

from N.A.= 2d /3 .
Zp =
=d3/6
S =Zp/Ze

/4)(2d/3 + 2d/3 )

S =1.7

Plastic Hinge.
A plastic hinge is a zone of yielding due to flexure in a
structural member .At those section where plastic hinge
are located, the member acts as if it were hinged, except
with a constant restraining moment Mp .it is denoted by
black dot.

.
From figure .
Mp/My = L/2x
But Mp/ My=S=3/2 for a rectangular section.
3/2= L/2x
Or

x= L/3

Hence

L=L-2x=L-2L/3=L/3

Position of form of plastic hinge:(a).Under the concentrated or the point of maximum

bending moment.
(b).It forms under the point where the section changes its
dimensions.
(c).Its forms at fix support.

Q=Wc/W or WL/W or Wu/W
end conditions of the supports and the cross-section of the
member.
Plastic section modulus required =Zp=Mp/y
Zp/Z= (Mp/Y)/(Mmax/ft)

=( Mp.ft)/(Mmax.y)
Mp/Mmax=Q;
Zp /Z=S
And

S= Q/F
Or

Q= F X S

The above relation shows that the load factor is equal to

the shape factor multiplied by the factor of safety used in
elastic design.

Basic theorems of plastic analysis

(1).Static theorem or lower bound theorem :-the static theorem
states that for a given frame and loading if there exists any
distribution of bending moment throughout the frame which is
both safe and statically admissible ,with a set of loads W ,the
value of W must be less than or equal to the collapse load Wc .
(2).kinematic or upper bound theorem :- the upper bound theorem
states that for a given frame subjected to a set of load W, the
value of W which is found to correspond to any assumed
mechanism will always be greater than or equal to the actual

Method of analysis:Based on the above two theorem , there are two basic
methods of plastic analysis.
(a) .Static or equilibrium method:-the procedure for
application of static theorem is as follows:1. Convert the structure into statically determinate
structure by removing the redundant forces.
2. Draw free bending moment diagram for the structure.
3. Draw the bending moment diagram for the redundant
forces.
4. Draw the composite bending moment diagram in such a
way that mechanism is obtained.
5. Find out the value of collapse load by solving
equilibrium equation.

6. Check the moments to ensure that M Mp .If it is so ,

correct value of collapse load is obtained.
The method is suitable only for simple structure.
(b). Kinematic or mechanism method:-The procedure of
application of kinematic theorem is as follows:1. Determine the location of possible plastic hinges.
2. Select possible independent and composite
mechanism.
3. Solve equilibrium equation by virtual displacement
4. Check that M Mp.

Principle of virtual work:If a deformable structure in equilibrium under the action of

a system of external forces is subjected to a virtual
deformation compatible with its condition of supports ,the
work done by these forces on the displacements
associated with the virtual deformation is equal to the work
done by the internal stresses on the strains associated
with this deformation.

Mp+Mp=WL/4
Mp=WL/8
Wc=8Mp/L

(2).Fixed beam with u.d.l. :-

Mp+Mp=wL2/8
Mp=wL2/16
Mp=WL/16
Wc=16Mp/L

(3.) UDL with one end fixed and other roller support:-

Mx=(wLx)/2 wx2/2
=Wx/2 Wx2/2L
Mp + (Mp/L)x=Wx/2 Wx2/2L
Mp(L+x)/L = Wx(L-x)/2L

Mp=Wx(L-x)/2(L+x)
Now,

dMp/dx=0
x=0.414L
Mp=0.085WcL
Wc=11.656Mp/L

(2)kinematic method:-

tan=2/L
as is very small,(L/2) =
=2/L
Mp+Mp(+)+Mp.=Wx

Wc=8Mp/L

A.)Find out the number of independent

mechanism.
Independent mechanism=N r
N=number of plastic hinges.
R=degree of redundancy.

B.)Now apply the mechanisms.

a) Beam mechanism.
b) Sway mechanism.
c) Combined mechanism.

C.)Now find out the collapse load at every

mechanism by virtual work method.

example

Now in this case here are two

mechanisms.
1. BEAM MECHANISMS.
2. SWAY MECHANISMS.

1.BEAM MECHANISM:

Now by virtual work

4Mp = W
4Mp = WL/2
So

W = 8Mp/L

2.SWAY MECHANISM:

Now by virtual work

4Mp = W
4Mp = WL
W =4Mp/L

3.COMBINED MECHANISM:

6Mp = w+w2
6Mp = wL + wL/2
So

W =4Mp/L