STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS2
UNIT 1
FIXED BEAMS
Fixed Beam is an indeterminate beam having
indeterminacy equal to 2.
D.O.R = 42
=2
Let us choose Ma and Mb as the redundant forces.
Release the redundant forces.
EI =
EI =
( = Slope; d = Deviation; x = Distance of C.G of
B.M.D of fixed beam. =0 and d =0 at the ends.)
So,
=0
=0
Now,
=0
A1 +A2 = 0 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _((1))
A1 = Area of free B.M.D = [(1/2)*(L)*(WL/4EI)]
A2 = Area of fixed B.M.D = [(M/EI)*(L)]
M=
D.O.R = 42
=2
Choose Ma and Mb as the redundant forces.
(v)
Ma +Mb = Wab/L_ _ _ _ _ _ _
And,
=0
Ma +3Mb = [Wab(L+a)]/L2 _ _ _ _ _ _
Ma =
And
Mb =
=0
Then,
U=
So in flexural or bending sections
U=
dx
=0
D.O.R = 32
=1
Let Rc be the redundant force.
The value of the redundant force would be such that,
=0
Portion
Origin
Mx
CB
Rc.x0.25x2
(Rc.x0.25x2).x/EI
BA
Rc.x0.25x210.(x8)
(Rc.x0.25x210(x8)).x/EI
So,
dx +
) dx = 0
Rc = 8.1 KN
******************************************
MOMENT
DISTRIBUTION METHOD
MOMENT DISTRIBUTIOIONN METHOD
This method was introduced by an officer Hardy Cross in
1924 during his acadimic work.Moment Disribution
method is the greatest contribution ever made to the
indeterminate structure theory.This method has been
proved to be a powerful tool for analysing the
contineous beams and frames.
SOME IMPORTANT TERMS:ABSOLUTE STIFFNESS: It is represented by S and is
equal to the moment per unit displacement.
S=
=
S=
S=
or S =
So, Moa =
*M
Mob =
*M
Moc =
*M
Mod =
*M
In general,
Mij =
*M
Where,
= Distribution Factor
Hence,
D.F =
(i) Lock all the joints and evaluate the fixed end moments
similar to slope deflection method.
So,
FEMAB = 40 KNm
FEMBA = 40 KNm
FEMBC = 20 KNm
FEMCB = 20 KNm
(ii) Find Distribution factor using the following table:
Joint
Member
BA
0.5
BC
0.5
B.M.D
Lock all the joints and find the fixed end moments
FEMab = 15 KNm
FEMba = 15 KNm
FEMbc = 52.08 KNm
FEMcb = 52.08 KNm
Find Distribution factor using the following table:
Joint
Member
BA
BC
=0
Then,
U=
So in flexural or bending sections
U=
dx
=0
(i)
(ii)
D.O.R = 32
=1
Let Rc be the redundant force.
The value of the redundant force would be such
that,
=0
Portion
Origin
Mx
CB
Rc.x0.25x2
(Rc.x0.25x2).x/EI
BA
Rc.x0.25x210.(x8)
(Rc.x0.25x210(x8)).x/EI
So,
dx +
) dx = 0
Rc = 8.1 KN
Portal Frame
The strain energy method becomes laborious for its
applictation when the load system on the frame is
not simple and when the end the coloumns are fixed
and the different component have different section .
The of method moment distribution can be
conveniently applied in the analysis of portal frame.
From the point of view of analysis , portal farme may
be classified into
(1)NON SWAY TYPE FRAME
(2)SWAY TYPE FRAME
(1) NON SWAY TYPE FRAMEIn this cse thetwo
coloumn of the frame are identical with identical end
condition and the loading on the frame is
symmectrical such that the frame doesnot sway to
any side.
Q
A
I1
I2
Fig(a)
B
C
A
Fig(b)
D
The following case are aries.
I2
L2
I1
L1
D
A
(1)
(2)
L1
I!
L2
I2
MAB=MBA=6EI1/L12
(1)
(2)
we get
MBA/MCD=(2I1/L12)/(I2/L22)
(3)
NO SWAY CONDITION
SLOPE DEFLECTION
METHOD:This method was developed by axel Bandier in
Germany in 1914. This method is applicable to both
for determinate and indeterminate structures live
continuous
beam
and
frames.
This
method
is
of
simultaneous
each
member
equations
with
yields
set
of
displacements
as
relationship
to
members
and
all
possible
UNIT 2
YALLABUS MullerBreslaus Principal and its application for drawing influence
lines for Indeterminate beams. Analysis of two hinged arches.Influence line
diagrams for maximum bending moment,shear force and thrust.
MULLERBRESLAUS PRINCIPLE
INTRODUCTION: The mullerbreslaus principal or mullerbreslaus influence
line theorem is the most important tool in obtaining influence lines for statically
determinate as well as statically indeterminate structures.The method is based
Remove the unit load as well as the redundant reaction R B,and place a
downward unit load at B.The beam will deflect under the unit load as shown in
fig.(c).
Let
RB=YXB/YBB
Thus ,the reaction at B Due to unit load at any point X is proportional to the
deflection at point X due to the load acting at B.
In other words,the deflection curve shown in fig(c),represent ,to some scale,the
I.L. for RB.
I.L.FOR MA :
Let the unit load be at X .Remove the fixed sopport at A and introduced a
hinge.The beam will deflect as shown in fig.(b),when unit load is applied at X Let
AX be the rotation at A due to the unit load at X.
Now remove the unit load at X and apply unit moment at A.The beam will deflect
as shown in fig(c).
Where
YXA =deflection at section X due to unit moment at A and
AA = rotation at A due to unit moment at A.
From method of consistent deformationMA.AA =AX
But from reciprocal theoremAX=YXA
So MA.AA=YXA
MA = YXA/AA
The above relation suggest that MA is proportional to Y XA.In other word the
deflection curve of fig(c) gives ,to some scale, the I.L.for M A.
I.L. FOR MD:
Let the unit load be at X.We want to plot the influence line for bending moment
MD at the point D.According to Muller Breslau principle,the internal stress
component for which the influence line is to be plotted is first removed.For the
present case, this is accomplished by inserting a pin at D.The beam will deflect
under the unit load at X.as shown in above fig.(b).
Let DX be the rotation at D, due to unit load at X,and
apply a pair of unit moments at D as shown in fig.(c).Let DD be the resulting
rotation at D and Y XD be the resulting deflection at X.
From method of consistent deformation,
MD.DD = DX
But from reciprocal theorem,
DX=YXD
MD.DD=YXD
Or
MD=YXD/DD
The above relation shows that MD is proportional to Y XD.In other words,the
deflected curve of fig.(c) gives to some scale ,the I.L. for M D .If DD is selected as
unity the deflection curve will directly give the I.L. for M D.
I.L.FOR FD:
Let us now plot the I.L. for shear at D. Let the unit load be at X {fig.(a)} in
order to remove the internal stress component , i.e. shear F D at D,assume
that the beam is cut at D and that a slide device is inserted in such a way that
it permits relative transverse deflection between the two parts of the cut,as
shown in fig(b)but which at the same time,maintain a common slope at both
the ends of the cut. Let YDX be the relative linear deflection at D due to unit
load at X.
Now remove the unit load from X and apply a pair of unit loads at D.The
beam will like shown in fig(c),where YDD is relatve linear deflection at D due to
pair of unit loads at D and YXD is the corresponding deflecton at X.
Now from consistent deformation ,
FD.YDD=YDX
But from reciprocal theorem,
YDX=YXD
So
FD.YDD=YXD or FD=YXD/YDD
Thus ,FD is proportional to YXD ,n other words the deflection curve of fig.(c)
gives the I.L. for FD to some scale.
Let the unit load roll on the span ABC. At any instant, let it be at a point X.We
want to plot the influence line for bending moment M D at the point D. According to
MullerBreslau principle the internal stress component, for which the influence
line is to be plotted, is first removed .For the present case ,this is accomplished
by inserting a pin at D . The beam will then deflect , under the unit load at X , as
shown in figure (b).
Let DX be the rotation at D , due to unit load at X, and apply a pair of unit
moments at D, as shown in figure (c),
Let DD=rotation at D ,due to unit couple at D .
YXD = deflection at X due to unit couple at D.
From method of consistent deformation, we have MD.DD=DX
Where MD =bending moment at D due to unit load at X.
MD=DX /DD
But from reciprocal theorem, DX=YXD
MD=YXD/DD
MD is proportional to y XD. In other words, the deflection curve of figure (c) gives to
some scale, the influence line for MD. If however,DD is selected to be
unity, the deflection at any point X will give the bending moment at D.
I.L. D.FOR SHEAR FORCE
Let us now studythe applicability of the mullerbrslau principle for plotting the
influence line for the shear force at any point D of a continuous beam ABC in fig.
(a).Let the unit load be at any point X. In order to remove the internal stress
components,i.e. shear FD at D,assume that the beam is cut at D and that a slice
device inserted in such a way that it permits relative transverse deflection
between the two parts of the cut,as shown in fig.(b),but which at the same
time,maintains a common slope at both the ends of the cut.
Now remove the unit load from X,and apply a pair of unit loads(shear) at D. the
beam will deflect as shown in fig.(c).
Let FD=shear force at D
YDX=Relative deflection at D due to linear unit load at X
YDD=Relative deflection at D due to pair of unit load (shear) at D.
FD.YDD=YDX or FD=YDX/YDD
But from the reciprocal theorem,
YDX=YXD
FD=YXD/YD
Thus, FD is proportional to YXD. In other words, the deflection curve of fig.(c) gives
the influence line for shear at D,to some scale. If, however, YDD is taken as unity,
the deflection at any point X of fig. (c) give that the shear at D due to unit vertical
load at X.
A
RCHES
INTRODUCTION:An arch may be looked upon as a curved girder,either a solid rib or
braced,supported at its ends and carrying transverse loads which are frequently
vertical.Since the transvers loading at any section normal to the axis of the girder
is at an angle to the normal face.
Depending upon the number of hinge,arch may be divided into following types
A two hinged arch is a statically indeterminate to single degree , since there are
four reaction components to be determined while the number of equations
available from static equilibrium is only three .
Considering H to be the redundant reaction .
Condition of deformation at B B +BBH =0
H=  B / BB
From Unit Load Method B= M.m.ds/EI
BB = m2 .ds/EI
H=  (M.m.ds/EI) / (m2.ds/EI)
m=1 .y = y
ds=(dx).sec
H=  (M.y.dx.sec / EIc sec ) / ( y2 dx sec / EIc sec )
Consider a two hinged parabolic arch of horizontal span L and central rise h,
subjected to a point load W at a distance nL from the left support.
The equation of arch is y=4h.n.(Lx) / L2
now
.(1)
/L4
H=5.W.(nL).(n32n2+1) /8h
(1)
n=0 : H=0
At B,
n=1
At C,
n=1/2
H=25L /128h
: H=0
IL for Np and Fp :Influence line for normal thrust and radial shear at P can be obtained exactly
In the same manner as that for a three hinged arch except for the distance that
the Hsin and Hcos diagram will be curved.The influence line for Fp and Np
are shown in figure (D) and (E).
The arch carrying the load W at D so that the radius OD makes an angle with the
horizontal . Let the horizontal thrust be H at each support . Let the vertical reactins at A
and B be V1 and V2 respectively.
Hence if the arch is subjected to two loads of the same magnitude W one at D and the
other at E,the horizontal thrust at each support will be 2H and each vertical reaction will
be W. We will analyse the arch for this condition .
We know that
sin2.Rd
H=Wsin2 /
CABLES
AND
SUSPENSION
BRIDGES
 (15.1)
L
Where MB = Sum of moments of all external loads about B.
Consider any point X at a horizontal distance x from A. Evidently, X 1, X2 = x
tan
Assuming that the cable is perfectly flexible so that the bending moment at
any point on the cable is zero, the sum of moments (MX) of all external
forces to the left of point X is zero.
Therefore
 H (X X1) VA x + Mx = 0
or
where
X X2
x + Mx = 0
H y x MB + MX = 0
or
H y x MB  MX
Or
Fig. 15.3 Shows a cable uniformly distributed load of intensity p per unit length.
From the general cable theorem derived in the previous article we have
H y = x MB  MX
L
where
y = XX2 = vertical ordinate between the line A, B and chord at
the point X.
MB = pL. L = pL2
2
Mx = px. x
2
= p x2
Hy = x. pL2 p x2
L
Hd = p L L P L2
2 2
2 2
= p L2
Hence
H =p
L2
Eq. gives the expression for the horizontal H and is valid whether the cable chord is
inclined or horizontal.
TA = V2A + H2
and
V2B + H2
TB =
(15.5)
Knowing H from Eq. 15.4 and VA from Eq. 15.1 the cable tension T A or TB can
be easily calculated. When the cable is horizontal,
VA = VB = pL. Hence
2
TA = TB = T = pL
2
+ pL2
8d
T = pL 1 + L2
2
16d2
..(15.6)
T = H 1 + 16d2
L2
..( 15.7)
y = 4dx (L x)
This is, thus, the equation of the curve with respect to the cable chord. The cable, thus,
takes the form of a parabola when subjected to uniformly distributed load.
15.4. ANCHORS CABLE
The suspension cable is supported on either size on the supporting tower.
The anchor cable transfers the tension of the cable to the anchorage
consisting of huge mass of concrete. There are generally to arrangement for
this. The suspension cable can either be passed over the guide pulley for
anchoring it to the other side or it can be attached to a saddle mounted on
roller. Fig. 15.6(a) and (b) show both the arrangements.
In the former case when the suspension cable passes over the guide pulley and forms the
part of the anchor cable to the other side, the tension T in the cable is the same on the
both side.
Let
If the cable is supported on the saddle mounted on the rollers, as shown in Fig. 15.6 (b),
the horizontal components of the tensions in the suspension cable and the anchor cable
will be equal since the roller do not have any horizontal reaction.
T1 sin 1 = T2 sin 2 =H
m respectively from the left hand hinge. Determine the B.M. and S.F. in the girder at
section 30 m from each end. Also, determine the maximum tension in the cable,
which has a central dip of 10 m.
Solution: To find the simply supported reactions V D and VF, takes moment
about hinges D and F. Consider the equilibrium of the girder alone.
Thus, VF =1/100 {(10x40)+(10X20)} =6 kN
VD=1/100 {(10x60)+(10X80)} =14 kN
In order to find H, take moments the central hinge E. Thus
ME = 0 =E Hd
E = (+6 x 50), and d = 10 m
ME = (+6 x 50)  10 H = 0
H = 3 kM
or
The equation of parabola is
Y = 4d x (L x) = 4 x 10 x (100 x) or
L2
At
x = 30 m,
100 x 100
y = 4x (100 x)
1000
Y = 4x (100 x) = 4 x 4x2
1000
10
1000
dy = tan = 4 8x
dx
10 1000
Now
H = pL2
8d
p = 8d .H = 8 x 10 x 30 = 0.24 kN/m
L2
100 x 100
Example: 2. A suspension bridge of 250 m span has two three hinged stiffening
girders suspended by two cables having a central dip of 25 m. the width of the
roadway is 8 m. the roadway carries a dead lode of kN per sq. meter extending
over the whole span, and a live lode of 1 kN per sq. meter extending over the left
hand half of the bridge. Find the B.M. and S.F. at point 60 and 200 m from the left
hinge. Also, calculate the maximum tension in the cable .
Solution: The free body diagrams for the cable and the stiffening girder are
shown in 15.17. since there is no B.M. and S.F. any where in the girder due to uniformly
distributed dead loads, only live load has been shown.
Live load per meter run by girder
= w = [8 x 1 x 1] = 4 kN/m
VF = 1
250
VD = (4 x 125) 125 = 375 kN
ME = 0 =
Hy
(125 x 125) 25 H = 0
or H =125 x 125 = 625
25
dy = tan = 250 2x
therefore
dx
At x = 60 m,
625
and
and
625
18.25)
kN
F200 = ( 125) (625) (0.24) = +25 kN.
Again, the equivalent U.D.L. transferred to the cable due to the live load
= 8d H = 8 x 25 x 625 = 2kN/m
L2
240x 250
(b) Maximum Cable tension: From fig 15.13 (C), the maximum value
of H, due to point lode occurs when the load is on the central hinged,
its value being
H = W L = 10 x 100 = 25 kN
4d
4 x 10
8 x 10
H = 25 + 50 = 75 kN
Tmax = V2 + H2
kN
= H 1 + 16d2 = 75 1+ 16 x 100 = 76
L2
100 x 100
He = beam moment
( x/l ) x l/2
=
dc
Hl = x
where x = 0, He = 0.
X = l/2, He = l/4dc
dc
He = ( l x ) x l = l x
for We
I.L.D for
l
2dc
dc
x = l to l.
2
8dc
We = 8dc x He
L2
= 8dc x x
l2
2dc
2dc
MG = x ( l a ) He.l
l
= (x) ( la ) ( l ) . l
l
4dc
Valid for x = 0 to a.
S = x  We (l  2a)
l
= x 4x . (l 2a)
l
l2
S = ( l x )  2 ( l x ) ( l 2a) for x = a to l.
l
l2
(1)Cable analysis
VA = VB = Wl
2
Girder Analysis
He = We l2
8dc
Eqn of parabola
Y = 4dc x( l x )
I.L.D
for We
We = 1
L
1/l
I.L.D. for We
VA =VB = 1 x l = Wel = 1
l
1/2
ILD for H
We = 1
l
H = Wel2
8dc
L/8dc
ILD for BM at any section :When unit load is left of the section
MG = ( x ) (l a) Hb
l
= ( x ) (l a) ( l ) b  (1)
l
8dc
8d c
b = 4dc a ( l a)
l2
ILD for shear force at any section G on girder :When the unit load is left of the section
S = Sx H tanG
= x l . 4dc (l 2a)
l 8dc l2
[ therefore y = 4dc ( l.x x2 )
l2
l2
(x = a)
a (l a) x W
2l
d ( Mmax +ve ) = l 2a = 0
da
=a=l
2
W x l/2.l/2 = Wl
8 x 40
UNIT 4
Flexibility and its converse, knows as stiffness, are important properties which
characterize the response of the force displacement relationship. In a general
sense, the flexibility of a structure is defined as the displacement caused by a
unit force and the stiffness is as the forced required for a unit displacement.
Considered first, a structural element with a single degree of a freedom. The
spring AB, shown
In Fig (a), is fixed at end A and has a single degree of freedom at end B along
coordinate 1. The flexibility of spring is defined as displacement 1 at
coordinate 1.
Flexibility = 1/P1= 11
Similarly, the stiffness of spring is defined as the force k11 required for a unit
displacement at coordinate 1.
FLEXIBILITY MATRIX
May include all or some of the forces acting on the structure . Let the system
of forces p1, p2 pn. Produce displacements 1, 2.n
at coordinates 1,2n. using the principle of superposition discussed in
sec.2.2, displacements 1,2..n may be expressed by the equations
[ ] = [] [P]
(4.23)
STIFFNESS MATRIX
eq. (4.25)
[P] = [K][]
Where [K] = A square matrix of order n, is known as stiffness matrix.
The use of flexibility and stiffness matrix provides systematic method for the
analysis of larg structure with the high de4gree of static or kinematics
indeterminacy . The solution using matrix approach usually involve the
inversion of either the flexibility or stiffness matrix which is a common sub
routine of modern digital computer. There are two main methods of structure
analysis using the matrix approach.
FORCE METHOD
1 = 1l + 1r
2 = 2l + 2r
.
.
j = jl + jr
.
.
n = nl + nr
[] = [l] + [r]
Substituting form eq (2.5) into eq (4.38),
(4.39)
(4.40)
(4.41)
(4.42)
[P] = [][ l]
It may be noted that the force method is actually the method of consistent
deformation.
Displacement method
This method is also known as stiffness method. In this method the degree of
kinematics indeterminacy of the structure is determined and a coordinate is
assigned to each independent displacement component.
P1 = P1 + P1
P2 = P + P2
.
(4.44)
.
Pn = Pn + Pn
Esq. (4.44) may be expressed in matrix form
(4.45)
(4.46)
(4.47)
[] = [k] {[P][p]}
(4.48)
It is similar to esq. (4.42) except that force and displacement have been
interchanged.
If the external forces act only at the coordinate, the term P1,P2,P;n.
vanish.
In case esq. (4.48) takes the form
[] = [k] [P]
On the other hand, if there are no external force at the coordinates,
P1 = P2 = . = Pn = 0
In this case esq. (4.42) takes the form
[] =  [k][P]
(4.50)
Example 1
Calculate the support reactions in the continuous beam (see Fig. 9.6a) having constant
flexural rigidity ABCEI throughout, due to vertical settlement of the support Bby 5m as
shown in the figure. E=200 Gpa and
_4 4
I = 4X10
m.
first column of flexibility matrix is evaluated by first applying unit load along the
redundant and determining deflections a11 and a21 respectively as shown in Fig. 9.6b.
3
.a11= 5= 125
3EI 3EI
.a21= 125 + 25 X5 = 625
3EI 2EI
6EI
(1)
Simply by applying the unit load in the direction of redundant, one could evaluate
flexibility coefficients a12 and a22 (see Fig. 9.6c).
.a12 = 625
6EI
(2)
.a11R1 + a12R2 = 5 X 10
.a21R1 + a22R2 = 0
(3)
_3
(4)
0 }
_3
{R1} =
{R2}
3EI
[1000
27343.75 [312.5
312.5 ] X {5X10 }
125 ]
(5)
Substituting the values of E and I in the above equation, the redundant reactions are
evaluated.
R1=43.885kN
and
R2 = 13.71kN
R1 acts downwards and R2 acts in the positive direction of the reaction i.e. upwards.
The remaining two reactions and are evaluated by the equations of equilibrium.
Fy =0 => R1+R2+R3 = 0
Hence R3 = 30.175 kN
MA=0 => R4+5XR1+10XR2=0
Solving for R4,
EI, L
Figure 1.0
Solution : assign the coordinate, figure 1.1
1
2
EI, L
Figure 1.1
K 21
= 1 Unit
K 11
EI, L
Figure 1.2
K 22
K 12
Unit
Figure 1.3
 (1)
P2 = K21 . D1 + K22 . D2
 (2)
P1
P2
K11 K12
D1
x
K21 K22
D2
 (3)
simply P = K . D
This stiffness matrix K has the following elements for the structure of
figure 1.0
K =
K11 K12
=
K21 K22
EI
L
12 E I / L 6E I / L
2
6E I / L 4E I / L
12 / L
6 / L
6 / L
4
 (4)
2. Flexibility matrix
EI, L
Figure 2.0
1
2
EI, L
Figure 2.1
D2
P1
F21
D1
F 11
P2
EI, L
EI, L
Figure  2.2
Figure  2.3
F22
F 12
1
EI, L
Figure  2.4
F11 = L3 / 3 EI , F11 = L2 / 2 EI
F21 = L2 / 2 EI , F22 = L / EI
D1 = F11 . P1 + F12 . P2
 (5)
D2 = F21 . P1 + F22 . P2
 (6)
D1
D2
F 11 F 12
P1
x
F 21 F 22
P2
 (7)
Simply D = F.P.
F =
F 11 F 12
=
F 21 F 22
L
EI
L/3EI
2
L/2EI
2
L/3 L/2
L/2
1
L/2EI
L/EI
 (8)
3. Prove that [ K] [F] = I (Identity matrix)
Solution
Multiply stiffness matrix to flexibility matrix for cantilever structure OR
Multiplying Equation (4) to (8) we have
[K][F] =
L
EI
L/3 L/2
L/2
1
EI
L
1
0
0
1
= I Matrix
12 / L 6 / L
6 / L
4
3L
Figure  3.0
3L
Figure  3.1
Apply a unit load upper direction at coordinates 1 only Figure 3.2
F11
1
L / EI
F21
F31
Figure  3.2
F22
F12
F32
1
2L / EI
Figure  3.3
F23
F13
1
3L / EI
F33
1
Figure  3.4
F =
F 11 F 21 F 31
F 12 F 22 F 32 =
F 13 F 23 F 33
L
F =
6EI
K = F
K =
1
3EI
3
13 L
2
5
8
L/3EI
5L / 6 E I 4L / 3 E I
3
3
3
5L / 6 E I 8L / 3 E I 14L / 3 E I
3
3
3
4L / 3 E I 14L / 3 E I 9L / E I
5 8
16 28
28 54
6EI
3
2
5
8
5 8
16 28
28 54
1
80 46 12
46 44 16
12 16 7
36 kN
3m
A
48 kN
3m
B
6m
C
8m
Figure  4.0
Solution : Let F1 & F2 are the redundant forces
6m
8m
Figure  4.1
F21
F11
1 Unit
6 / EI
6m
8m
Figure  4.2
B
A
F22
F12
1
14 / EI
6m
8m
Figure  4.3
1 Unit
F =
F 11 F 12
F 21 F 22
72/ E I 216/ E I
216/ E I 2744/ 3E I
(1)
F =
72/ E I 216/ E I
216/ E I 2744/ 3E I
1
72
216
216 2744
0.0476 0.0112
0.0112 0.0037
F =
6858/ E I
23490/ E I
6858
23490
6858
23490
63.35
10.10
36 + 48 = RA +63.35 + 10.10
RA = 10.55 kN
MA 36 x 3 + 63.35 x 6 48 x 9 + 10.1 x 14
MA = 18.5 KNM
36 kN
3m
36 kN
3m
48 kN
A
3m
D1
D2
MA
48 kN
B
3m
MB
6m
6m
8m
R A = 10.5
R B = 63.35
Figure  4.4
18.5 kNm
144 / EI
108 / EI
A 
90 kNm
54 kNm
+
B

6m
6m
8m
8m
Figure  4.5
36 kN
3m
R C = 10.1
Figure  4.6
432 / EI
8m
48 kN
3m
B
6m
C
8m
Figure  5.0
Solution : Find K . I = 02
36 kN
3m
48 kN
B
3m
F1
F2
6m
8m
Figure  5.1
Lock the displacement along the coordinates & also find out the restrained
Force
= 56.25 27 = 29.25 KN
F2 = (48 x 32 x 5) / 82
= 33.75 KN
Generate the stiffness matrix for the assigned coordinates in figure 5.2
C
2E I /8
4E I /6
4E I /6
2E I /6
6m
K21 = 2E I /8
8m
Figure  5.2
So,
K11
= 4EI /6+4EI/8=7EI/6
K21
B
K12 = 2E I /8
K22 = 2E I /4
6m
8m
Figure  5.3
Now , K12
= 2EI /8=EI/4
12.24 kNm
K22
A 
= 4EI /8=EI/2
90 kNm
54 kNm
+

+
C
B
6m
8m
K =
K11 K12
=
K21 K22
K = E I / 12
14 3
3 6
7EI/6 EI/4
EI/4
EI/2
(1)
 (2)
D1
D2
D1
D2
F 11
F 21
= 12 / E I
14 3
3 6
= 12 / 75 E I
6
3
= 12 / 75 E I
6x29.25  3x33.75
29.25
x
3x29.25 +14x33.75
33.75
M AB = M FAB + (2 E I / L) (D1)
= 27 + (2 E I / 6) (44.28 / E I)
M AB = 12.24 KNM
M BA = M F BA + (2 E I / L) (2D1)
= 27 + (2 E I / 6) (2 x 44.28 / E I)
Check,
MBC = M FBC + (2 E I / L) (2D1 + D2)
29.25
33.75
3
29.25
x
14
33.75
44.28/ E I
89.64 / E I
M BA = 56.52 KNM
7. Flexibility method
I)
D I = 42 = 2
II) Let redundant forces are F 1 & F2 Figure 6.0 & 6.1
F3
F1
F2
F4
Figure  6.0
A
F1
F2
Figure  6.1
III) Determine D1 & D2
IV) Generate flexibility matrix
Apply unit load at coordinate 1 only in any direction figure 6.2
D2
C
D
Figure  6.2
F21
F22
C
1 Unit
Figure  6.3
F11
F21
1 Unit
Figure  6.4
F12 = F21
F22 = moment of the area of triangle 2 about coordinate at 2
F = flexibility coefficient
Now , Joint 1
D1 + f11 x F1 + f21 x F2 = 0  (1)
Now , Joint 2
D2 + f21 x F1 + f22 x F2 = 0  (2)
D1
D2
F 11 F 12
F 21 F 22
F1
F2
D1
D2
D3
F 11 F 12 F 13
F 21 F 22 F 23
F 31 F 32 F 33
= 0
Show in General
[ D] + [ f ] [ F ] = 0
[ F ] =  [ f ]1 [ D ]
This is the derivation for unknown forces.
48 KN
C
A
E I = Constant
2m
4m
Figure  10.0
12. Analysis the Problem both by flexibility & stiffness method figure
11.0 Below :
48 KN
EI
2m
2EI
4m
Figure  11.0
w / Unit Length
E I = Constant
L1
L2
Figure  12.0
13. Differentiate between flexibility method to stiffness method
15. Generate the stiffness matrix & flexibility matrix for figure 13.0
& 13.1 below:
1
EI
1
2
2EI
EI
2EI
3
2m
4m
Figure  13.0
3m
3m
Figure  13.1
TRUSS
Introduction
The truss is said to be statically indeterminate when the total number of reactions
and member axial forces exceed the total number of static equilibrium equations.
In the simple planar truss structures, the degree of indeterminacy can be
determined from inspection. Whenever, this becomes tedious, one could use the
following formula to evaluate the static indeterminacy of static planar truss.
I=(m + r)  2j
where j, m and r are number of members, joints and unknown reaction
components respectively. The indeterminacy in the truss may be external,
internal or both. A planar truss is said to be externally indeterminate if the number
of reactions exceeds the number of static equilibrium equations available (three
in the present case) and has exactly (2j3) members. A truss is said to be
internally indeterminate if it has exactly three reaction components and more
than (2j3) members. Finally a truss is both internally and externally
indeterminate if it has more than three reaction components and also has more
than (2j3) members.
The basic method for the analysis of indeterminate truss by force method is
similar to the indeterminate beam analysis discussed in the previous lessons.
Determine the degree of static indeterminacy of the structure. Identify the number
of redundant reactions equal to the degree of indeterminacy. The redundants
must be so selected that when the restraint corresponding to the redundants are
removed, the resulting truss is statically determinate and stable. Select
redundant as the reaction component in excess of three and the rest from the
member forces. However, one could choose redundant actions completely from
member forces. Following examples illustrate the analysis procedure.
8. Analysis the Truss by stiffness method
DOF=4
K =
K11
K21
K31
K41
U = (1 Cos
K12
K22
K32
K42
K13
K23
K33
K43
K14
K24
K34
K44
= 0
a) (Cos a) = (Cos2 a)
a)
a . Sin a)
a)
os
E
A
a
A
3
K31
Figure  7.0
A
K41
U = (1 Sin
V = (1 Sin
a) (Sin a) = (Sin2 a)
K12 = (A E / L) (Sin
a . Cos a)
K22 = (A E / L) (Sin2
a)
a . Cos a)
a) ( Figure 7.2)
U
1 Unit
displacement
Figure  7.1
K11
K12
Si
na
1 Unit
K22
K32
Figure  7.2
K42
So ,
a)
a . Sin a)
K33 = (A E / L) (Cos2
a)
K43 = (A E / L) (Cos
K23
B
A
K33
Figure  7.3
K43
Similarly
K14 = (A E / L) (Cos
a . Sin a)
a)
K34 = (A E / L) (Sin
a . Cos a)
K44 = (A E / L) (Sin2
a)
K13
(A E / L) (Cos a)
(A E / L) (Cos a . Sin a)
(A E / L) (Cos a)
(A E / L) (Cos a . Sin a)
(A E / L) (Sin a)
(A E / L) (Sin a)
(A E / L) (Cos a)
(A E / L) (Cos a)
(A E / L) (Cos a . Sin a)
(A E / L) (Sin a)
(A E / L) (Cos a . Sin a)
(A E / L) (Sin a)
K =
(Cos a)
K = (A E / L)
(Cos a . Sin a)
(Cos a)
(Cos a . Sin a)
(Cos a . Sin a)
(Sin a)
(Cos a . Sin a)
(Sin a)
(Cos a)
(Cos a . Sin a)
(Cos a)
(Cos a . Sin a)
(Cos a . Sin a)
(Sin a)
(Cos a . Sin a)
(Sin a)
If a = 0
K = (A E / L)
1
1
= 0
D4
B
D2
D3
P
90
aAB
A
D1
Figure  8.0
4m
100 cm 2
90
A
100KN
cm
200
Figure  9.0
I.)
II.)
K . I = 02
Assign the coordinates in any direction Figure 9.1
4m
B
2
1
90
Figure  9.1
K =
K11 K12
K21 K22
K = (A E / L)
(Cos a)
(Cos a . Sin a) K
(Cos a . Sin a)
(Sin a)
a =0
K = (A E / L)
(Cos a)
(Cos a . Sin a)
(Cos a . Sin a) K
(Sin a)
[ K ] AB
= (A E / L)AB
1
0
0
5 5
= 1 x 10
0
0
[ K ] AC
= (A E / L)AC
(Cos a)
(Cos a . Sin a)
Tan a = 3/4
a = Tan1 3/4 = 36.87o
0
0
(Cos a . Sin a)
(Sin a)
[ K ] AC
0.64 0.48
0.48 0.36
= 8 x 10
= 1 x 10
5.12 3.84
3.84 2.88
[K]
= 1 x 10
10.12 3.84
3.84 2.88
[ Fnet ] =
0
100
[ K ] [ D ] = [ Fnet ]
[ D ] = [ K ]1 [ Fnet ]
[D]
5
= 1 x 10
10.12 3.84
3.84 2.88
5
= (1 x 10 / 14.4)
1
2.88
3.84
3.84
10.12
5
= (1 / 14.4)
D1
D2
384 x 10
5
70.28 x 10
5
0
100
26.67 x 10
5
70.28 x 10
0
100
4m
B
D2
90
A D1
Figure  9.2
D1 = 26.67 x 105 M
D1 = 26.67 x 105 M
F AB = (A E / L) [D1 Cos 180o + D2 Sin 180o]
= 5 x 105 [ 26.67 x 105 x Cos 180o 70.28 x 105 x Sin 180o ]
FAB = 133.5 KN
FAC = 5 x 105 [ 26.67 x 105 x Cos 216.87o 70.28 x 105 x Sin 216.87o ]
FAC = 166.5 KN
FAC = 166.5 KN Compressive
Example 2
Determine the forces in the truss shown in Fig.10.1a by force method. All the
members have same axial rigidity.
The plane truss shown in Fig.10.1a is statically indeterminate to first degree. The
truss is externally determinate i.e. the reactions can be evaluated from the
equations of statics alone. Select the bar force F AD in member AD as the
redundant. Now cut the member AD to obtain the released structure as shown in
Fig. 10.1b. The cut redundant member AD remains in the truss as its
deformations need to be included in the calculation of displacements in the
released structure. The redundant (FAD) consists of the pair of forces acting on
the released structure.
To calculate displacement (L), apply external load and calculate member forces
(Pi) as shown in Fig. 10.1b and apply unit virtual load F AD along and calculate
member forces (Pv)I (see Fig. 10.1c). Thus,
L= Pi (Pv) i L
= 103.03
AE
In the next step, apply a real unit load along the redundant F AD and calculate
displacement a11 by unit load method. Thus,
2
.a11= (Pv)i
L
AE
=24.142
AE
L + a11FAD = 0
FAD=
103.03
24.142
= 4.268 KN(compressive)
Fi = Pi + FAD (PV)I
Forces in Pi (Pv) i L
the
released
(Pv)I
truss due
to unit
load(PV)i
kN
1/2
Li
AiEi
m
0
m/kN
5/2AE
75/2AE
5/2AE
BD
15
DC
1/2
5/2AE
CA
1/2
5/2AE
CB
25
25
50 /AE
5/2AE
AD
25
5/2AE
Total
1/2
103.03
AE
24.142
AE
Example 10.2
Calculate reactions and member forces of the truss shown in Fig. 10.2a by force
method. The cross sectional areas of the members in square centimeters are
shown in paraenthesis. Assume
5
E=2.0X10 N/mm2.
The plane truss shown in Fg.10.2a is externally indeterminate to degree one. Truss is
internally determinate. Select the horizontal reaction at E, Rex as the redundant.
Releasing the redundant (replacing the hinge at E by a roller support) a stable
determinate truss is obtained as shown in Fig. 10.2b. The member axial forces and
reactions of the released truss are shown in Fig. 10.2b.
Now calculate the displacement L corresponding to redundant reaction in the released
structure. This can be conveniently done in a table (see Figs. 10.2b, 10.c and the table),
Hence from the table,
L= Pi (Pv)i Li
_4
=15X10 m
In the next step apply a unit load, along the redundant reaction R Ex and calculate the
displacement a11 using unit load method.
2
.a11=(PV)f Li
AiEi
_5
=4X10
The support at E is hinged. Hence the total displacement at E must vanish. Thus,
L + a11FAD = 0
_4
_5
15 X 10 + 4X10 REX =0
_4
REX=  15X10 _5
4X10
=  37.5 kN(towards left)
The actual member forces and reactions are shown in Fig. 10.2d.
Table 10.2 Numerical computation for example 10.2
Member Li
AiEi
Forces in the
released truss due to
applied loading
Pi
Forces
Pi (Pv) i L
in the
released
truss
due to
unit
load(Pv)i
Fi = Pi +
(Pv) FAD
I
(PV)I
Li
AiEi
(105
)kN
kN
kN
_4
(10)m
() 10
5
kN
m/Kn
AB
33.75
+1
3.375
3.75
BC
33.75
+1
3.375
3.75
CD
41.25
+1
4.125
3.75
DE
41.25
+1
4.125
3.75
FG
7.50
7.5
FB
0.00
GD
0.00
AF
6.25
6.25
FC
6.25
6.25
CG
6.25
6.25
GE
68.75
68.75
Total
15
Summary
In this lesson, the flexibility matrix method is used to analyse statically indeterminate planar
trusses. The equation to calculate the degree of statical indeterminacy of a planar truss is
derived. The forces induced in the members due to temperature loading and member lack of fit
is also discussed in this lesson. Few examples are solved to illustrate the force method of
analysis as applied to statically indeterminate planar trusses.
UNIT VTH
PLASTIC ANALYSIS
SHAPE
FACTOR
Zp / yZe
= Zp / Ze
Shape factor is the geometrical property of the section. It
depend on the shape of the section. Physically the value of
shape factor gives an idea of the area of the cross section
which remain under stress when, the extreme fibre reach
yield point.
I=bh3/36
The distance of extrme fibre from the elastic axis = 2h/3
Z = (bh3/36)x(3/2h)
= bh2/24
For locating the equal axis,equate the area on either side. Let the
equelarea axis be at the distance h1 fromthe apex.
Now
But
Or
So that,
b1h1 /2 = bh/4
h1/h = b1/b
b1 = bh1/h
bh1h1/2h = bh/4
Or
h1 = h2
Similarly
b1 =b/2
Now
And
y2 =(hh1)(b1+2b) /3(b1+b)
= 0.155h
Zp =A(y1+y2)/2
= 0.098bh2
S =Zp/Ze
S =2.34
/32
Zp=A(y1+y2)/2
Now,
where A= d2/4
from N.A.= 2d /3 .
Zp =
=d3/6
S =Zp/Ze
/4)(2d/3 + 2d/3 )
S =1.7
Plastic Hinge.
A plastic hinge is a zone of yielding due to flexure in a
structural member .At those section where plastic hinge
are located, the member acts as if it were hinged, except
with a constant restraining moment Mp .it is denoted by
black dot.
.
From figure .
Mp/My = L/2x
But Mp/ My=S=3/2 for a rectangular section.
3/2= L/2x
Or
x= L/3
Hence
L=L2x=L2L/3=L/3
Load Factor :The load factor is the ratio of the collapse load to the
working load :
Q=Wc/W or WL/W or Wu/W
Where Q=Load factor
Wc or WL= collapse load or limit load
W= working load
The value of load factor depends upon type of loading, the
end conditions of the supports and the crosssection of the
member.
Plastic section modulus required =Zp=Mp/y
Zp/Z= (Mp/Y)/(Mmax/ft)
=( Mp.ft)/(Mmax.y)
Mp/Mmax=Q;
Zp /Z=S
And
Q= F X S
Method of analysis:Based on the above two theorem , there are two basic
methods of plastic analysis.
(a) .Static or equilibrium method:the procedure for
application of static theorem is as follows:1. Convert the structure into statically determinate
structure by removing the redundant forces.
2. Draw free bending moment diagram for the structure.
3. Draw the bending moment diagram for the redundant
forces.
4. Draw the composite bending moment diagram in such a
way that mechanism is obtained.
5. Find out the value of collapse load by solving
equilibrium equation.
Determine the collapse load by static method:(1).fixed beam with concentrated load:
Mp+Mp=WL/4
Mp=WL/8
Wc=8Mp/L
Mp+Mp=wL2/8
Mp=wL2/16
Mp=WL/16
Wc=16Mp/L
(3.) UDL with one end fixed and other roller support:
Mx=(wLx)/2 wx2/2
=Wx/2 Wx2/2L
Mp + (Mp/L)x=Wx/2 Wx2/2L
Mp(L+x)/L = Wx(Lx)/2L
Mp=Wx(Lx)/2(L+x)
Now,
dMp/dx=0
x=0.414L
Mp=0.085WcL
Wc=11.656Mp/L
(2)kinematic method:
tan=2/L
as is very small,(L/2) =
=2/L
Mp+Mp(+)+Mp.=Wx
Wc=8Mp/L
example
1.BEAM MECHANISM:
W = 8Mp/L
2.SWAY MECHANISM:
3.COMBINED MECHANISM:
6Mp = w+w2
6Mp = wL + wL/2
So
W =4Mp/L