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www.elsevier.com/locate/ijhmt

Yimin Xuan a,*, Wilfried Roetzel b

a

School of Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, People's Republic of China

b

Institut fuer Thermodynamik, Unversitaet der Bunderwehr Hamburg, D-22039 Hamburg, Germany

Abstract

The nanouid is a solidliquid mixture in which metallic or nonmetallic nanoparticles are suspended. The

suspended ultrane particles change transport properties and heat transfer performance of the nanouid, which

exhibits a great potential in enhancing heat transfer. The mechanism of heat transfer enhancement of the nanouid

is investigated. Based on the assumption that the nanouid behaves more like a uid rather than a conventional

soliduid mixture, this article proposes two dierent approaches for deriving heat transfer correlation of the

nanouid. The eects of transport properties of the nanouid and thermal dispersion are included. 7 2000 Elsevier

Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Enhancement; Heat transfer; Nanouid

1. Introduction

The term ``nanouid'' is envisioned to describe a

solidliquid mixture which consists of nanoparticles

and a base liquid, and which is one of the new challenges for thermo-science provided by the nano-technology. There are several approaches to prepare

nanouids. Some auxiliary activators or dispersants

are necessary to obtain the even distributed and stabilized suspensions. The ultrane particles may be either

metallic or nonmetallic. In general, the nanouids used

for the purpose of enhanced heat transfer are dilute

multicomponent uids and the volume fractions of

nanoparticles are below 510%. The nanoparticles suspended in the nanouids can be the nanostructured

E-mail addresses: ymxuan@njust0.njust.edu.cn (Y. Xuan),

wilfried.roetzel@unibw-hamburg.de (W. Roetzel).

materials below 100 nm in diameter. Heat transfer performance of the nanouid is superior to that of the

original pure uid because the suspended ultrane particles remarkably increase the thermal conductivity of

the mixture and improve its capability of energy

exchange. Several literature [13] reveal that with low

nanoparticles concentrations (15 vol %), the thermal

conductivity of the suspensions can increase by more

than 20%. Such enhancement mainly depends upon

factors such as the shape of particles, the dimensions

of particles, the volume fractions of particles in the

suspensions, and the thermal properties of particle materials.

The nanouids have a unique feature which is

quite dierent from those of the conventional solid

liquid mixtures in which millimeter and/or micrometer-sized particles are added. As we know, the

particles of millimeter or micrometer magnitudes

settle rapidly, clog ow channels, erode pipelines,

and cause severe pressure drops, etc. All these

shortages limits the application of the conventional

0017-9310/00/$ - see front matter 7 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

PII: S 0 0 1 7 - 9 3 1 0 ( 9 9 ) 0 0 3 6 9 - 5

3702

Nomenclature

cp

dp

h

k

Nu

Pr

R

Re

q

T

u

V

r

x

diameter of particles

heat transfer coecient

thermal conductivity

Nusselt number

Prandtl number

radius of a tube

Reynolds number

heat ux

temperature

velocity

volume

radial variable

axial variable

is an innovative idea [4], although the idea about

solidliquid suspensions appeared a long time ago.

Modern technology makes it possible to produce a

variety of stabilized nanouids. Because of their

excellent characteristics, the nanouids nd wide applications in enhancing heat transfer, even for

microscale heat transfer [5]. It is expected that the

nanouid will become a new type of heat transfer

uid for thermal engineering.

Compared with the existing techniques for enhancing heat transfer, the nanouids show a great

potential in increasing heat transfer rates in a variety of application cases, with incurring either little

or no penalty in pressure drop. Although the nanouids have great potential for enhancing heat transfer, research work on the concept, enhancement

mechanism, and application of the nanouids is still

in the primary stage. Several existing published

articles are mainly focused on prediction and

measurement techniques of thermal conductivity of

the nanouids. To our knowledge, there are only

few references involved in describing heat transfer

performance of the nanouids. A complete understanding about the heat transfer performance of the

nanouids is necessary for their practical application

to heat transfer enhancement. In nature, the nanouids are multicomponent uids, even the dispersed

particles are ultrane. Three fundamental motions of

multicomponent materials, sedimentation, shearing

ow, and wave motion, may coexist in ow of the

nanouids. It is dicult to establish any formulated

theory that could predict the ow of a dispersed

multicomponent material [6]. Such an approach may

a

f

m

r

thermal diusivity

volume fraction of the nanoparticles

viscosity

density

Subscripts

d

f

m

nf

r

s

x

dispersion eect

uid

mean value

nanouid

radial direction

solid

axial direction

nanouids to heat transfer enhancement.

It is expected that heat transfer coecient (Nusselt

number) of the nanouid depends upon a number of

factors such as thermal conductivity and heat capacity

of both the base uid and the ultrane particles, the

ow pattern, the viscosity of the nanouid, the volume

fraction of the suspended particles, the dimensions and

the shape of these particles as well as on the ow

structure. Therefore, the general form of the Nusselt

number yields

Nunf f Re, Pr,

ks rcp s

,

, f,

kf rcp f

!

1

So far we have found no published literature on deriving the convective heat transfer correlation of the

nanouid from either theoretical or experimental

approach.

The purpose of this article is to analyze heat transfer

performance of the nanouids and to derive some fundamental correlations for predicting convective heat

transfer of the nanouids with two dierent

approaches. One is the conventional way to treat the

nanouids as the single-phase uids and another is to

account for the multiphase feature of the nanouid

and the dispersed nanoparticles.

2. The conventional approach

From various sources, one may nd a variety of

convective heat transfer correlations of single-phase

ow for dierent application cases. Whether these relations are applicable for predicting heat transfer performance of the nanouids invokes a researchers'

interest. If the answer is positive, it will be convenient

to extend the available correlations of the conventional

single-phase uids to the corresponding applications of

the nanouids since there are no published correlations

for the nanouid application. On certain assumptions,

such extension may be feasible. The nanouids used

for the purpose of heat transfer enhancement are

usually dilute solidliquid mixtures. Since the solid

particles are ultrane (< 100 nm) and they are easily

uidized, these particles can be approximately considered to behave like a uid. Under the assumptions

that there exist no motion slip between the discontinuous phase of the dispersed ultrane particles and the

continuous liquid and the local thermal equilibrium

between the nanoparticles and the uid, the nanouid

can be treated as the common pure uid. All the

equations of continuity, motion, and energy for the

pure uid are directly extended to the nanouid.

Under the assumption of constant thermal properties,

for example, the energy equation for the incompressible ow of a pure uid without viscous dissipation

@T

r uT r af rT

@t

the nanouid. It means that the solutions for the

single-phase uid is also valid for the nanouid in the

identical application cases. However, it must be

emphasized that the thermal properties appearing in

Eq. (2) refers to those of the nanouid.

Thus, the dimensionless correlations of heat transfer

of the pure uid are applicable for the nanouid. For

example, the following relations

Nu 3:66

fully developed laminar flow, tube, Tw const

Nu 0:023Re0:8 Pr1=3

3a

3b

nanouid owing in a tube in the laminar region and

turbulent region, respectively. A similar approach was

introduced by Nield and Bejan [7] for comparing the

dimensionless expressions of fully developed heat

transfer in a channel without and with a porous

matrix. However, one must pay attention in selecting

the suitable thermal properties and transport properties. While applying the existing dimensionless relations

for pure uids to the nanouid, one needs to use the

properties corresponding to the nanouid. Three main

parameters involved in calculating heat transfer rate of

3703

conductivity, which may be quite dierent from those

of the original pure uid. For the synthesized nanoparticleliquid suspension, the parameter rcp nf of the

nanouid is expressed as

rcp nf 1 frcp f frcp s

the existing relations for the two-phase mixture. Drew

and Passman [6] introduced the well-known Einstein's

formula for evaluating the eective viscosity meff of a

linearly viscous uid of viscosity mf containing a dilute

suspension of small rigid spherical particles. The formula yields:

meff mf 1 2:5f

f < 0:05: Einstein's equation was extended by Brinkman [8] as

meff mf

1

1 f 2:5

of the two-phase mixture in the literature [6,9]. Each

relation has its own application limitation. The direct

and reliable access to obtaining the apparent viscosity

of the nanouid is by experiment. Xuan and Li [10]

have experimentally measured the apparent viscosity of

the transform oilwater nanouid and of the water

copper nanouid in the temperature range of 20508C.

The experimental results reveal relatively good coincidence with Brinkman's theory.

The apparent thermal conductivity is the most important parameter to indicate the enhancement potential of the nanoparticleliquid suspension. Research

has shown that the thermal conductivity of the nanouid is a function of thermal conductivity of both the

base uid and the nanoparticle material, the volume

fraction, the surface area, and the shape of the nanoparticles suspended in the liquid, and distribution of

the dispersed particles. There are no theoretical formulas available yet for predicting the thermal conductivity of nanouids. Some existing theoretical models

for thermal conductivity were proposed for the solid

liquid mixtures with relatively large particles of the

order of micrometers or millimeters, in which the

apparent thermal conductivity of the suspensions

depends only upon the volume fraction and shape of

the suspended particles, not upon the size and distribution of the particles. Application of these models to

the nanouids is limited. One should experimentally

determine the thermal conductivity of the nanouids.

The transient hot-wire method can be adopted for this

purpose [13].

3704

In the absence of experimental data and suitable theory for the thermal conductivity of the nanouid,

some existing formulas for predicting the thermal conductivity of solidliquid suspensions with relatively larger particles may be extended approximately to

estimate that of the nanouid. For solidliquid mixtures in which the ratio of conductivity of two phases

is larger than 100, Hamilton and Crosser [11] developed the following model:

kp n 1 k f n 1 f k f k p

keff

kf

kp n 1 kf f kf kp

n

3

c

surface area of a sphere with a volume equal to that of

the particle to the surface area of the particle. Their

experimental results showed satisfactory coincidence

between the theoretical predictions and the experimental data for spherical particles in the range of volume

fraction up to 30%. For particles of other shapes, the

shape factor n can be allowed to vary from 0.5 to 6.0.

An alternative expression for calculating the eective

thermal conductivity of solidliquid mixtures was

introduced by Wasp [12]:

kp 2kf 2f kf kp

keff

kf

kp 2kf f kf kp

the latter is a special case with the sphericity 1.0 of the

former.

The HamiltonCrosser model was used by Xuan

and Li [3] to obtain a rough estimation of the thermal

conductivity of the nanouids with dierent values of

c from 0.5 to 1.0 and the results from the model corresponding to c 0:7 are close to their experimental

data. Lee et al. [1] pointed out that the predicted thermal conductivity ratios for spherical particles c 1

from this model are in good agreement with their experimental results of Al2O3 nanouids. Thus, this

model may be used for approximation. However, it

must be emphasized that such a primitive estimation

gives no warranty and the accurate and reliable formulas as well as experimental data are needed for

determining the eective thermal conductivity of the

nanouid.

According to the above description, one learns that

the conventional approach of nding heat transfer

coecient of the nanouids is through a method in

which the existing heat transfer coecient correlations

for the pure uid are directly extended to the nano-

transport parameters of the nanouids for those of the

pure uids. Here a supercial conclusion could be that

heat transfer enhancement of nanouids is realized by

increasing the eective thermal conductivity of nanouids. The augmentation eect of heat transfer can approximately be indicated by the ratio

c

hnf nanofluid

knf

0

10

hf base fluid

kf

where the exponent c is a constant which depends on

the ow pattern. For example, c 2=3 for the turbulent ow. By means of this formula, one can approximately estimate heat transfer enhancement of the

nanouid by enlargement of its thermal conductivity.

Although the nanouid behaves more like a uid

than the conventional soliduid mixtures in which

relatively larger particles with micrometer or millimeter

orders are suspended, it is a two-phase uid in nature

and has some common features of the soliduid mixtures. In view of either microscale or macroscale, however, it may be questionable whether the theory of the

conventional two-phase ow can be applied in describing the ow characteristics of the nanouid. Because

of the eects of several factors such as gravity, Brownian force, and friction force between the uid and

ultrane solid particles, the phenomena of Brownian

diusion, sedimentation, dispersion may coexist in the

main ow of a nanouid. This means that the slip velocity between the uid and the particles may not be

zero, although the particles are ultrane. Irregular and

random movement of the particles increases the energy

exchange rates in the uid, i.e., thermal dispersion

takes place in the ow of the nanouid. The thermal

dispersion will atten the temperature distribution and

make the temperature gradient between the uid and

wall steeper, which augments heat transfer rate

between the uid and the wall. Therefore, the enhancement mechanism of heat transfer by the nanouid can

be explained from the following two aspects: one is

that the suspended particles increase the thermal conductivity of the two-phase mixture and another is that

the chaotic movement of the ultrane particles, the

thermal dispersion, accelerates the energy exchange

process in the uid. There is no question that the thermal dispersion plays an important role in heat transfer

enhancement. In their work on the dispersed solid

liquid two-phase ow, Sohn and Chen [13] treated the

soliduid mixture as a uid to investigate microconvective thermal conductivity in two-phase mixtures and

proposed a formula in which the total thermal conduc-

The particles of 0.3 mm diameter were used in their experiment.

The aforementioned approach takes the rst factor

into account, but neglects the second. To account for

both the factors, the dispersion model can be adopted.

Assume that irregular movement of the ultrane particles induce small perturbations of both the temperature and velocity of the nanouid, i.e., T 0 and u 0 ,

respectively. Thus, the intrinsic phase averages are

given as

T hTif T

11a

u huif u 0

11b

where

one has hTif V1f Vf T dV, huif V1f Vf u dV,

1

0

Vf Vf T dV 0: In the light of the procedure described

by Kaviany [14] and by assuming that the boundary

surface between the uid and the particles is so small

that can be neglected, one obtains the following expression from Eq. (2)

@ hTif

huif rhTif

rcp nf

@t

r knf rhTif rcp nf rhu 0 T 0 if

12

The second term on the right-hand side of Eq. (12) indicates the eect of the thermal dispersion resulting

from chaotic movement of the nanoparticles in the

ow. By means of an analogy with the treatment of

turbulence, the heat ux induced by the thermal dispersion in nanouid ow can be expressed as

qd rcp nf hu 0 T 0 if kd rhTif

13

where kd is the tensor of the dispersed thermal conductivity. Eq. (12) can be rewritten as

@ hTif

huif rhTif

@t

"

r

kd

anf I

rc

p nf

#

f

rhTi

14

can be given as

knf I

rcp nf

1 fDd

15

diusivity tensor which includes both the molecular

eect and the eect of the thermal dispersion. Here

16

function of the ow pattern, properties of both the

base uid and the nanoparticles, the dimensions and

shape of the nanoparticles, and the volume fraction of

the nanoparticles suspended in the mixture.

For the ow of the nanouid inside a tube, the

energy equation may be simplied as

!

"

#

@T

@T

1 @

kd, r

@T

r

u

anf

17

@t

@x

r @r

@r

rcp nf

with accounting for the thermal dispersion in the radial

direction or

!

"

#

@T

@T 1 @

kd, r

@T

r

u

anf

@t

@x r @r

@r

rcp nf

@

@x

"

anf

kd, x

rcp nf

@T

@x

#

18

axial directions. Here the radial and axial dispersed

thermal conductivity may be dierent from each other.

With respect to the ow of salt-solution in a tube, Aris

[15] and Taylor [16] approximately derived the thermal

diusivity coecients for the laminar and turbulent

ow, respectively,

Dd

1

Pe 2

48

af

Dd

7:14Peg1=2

af

19a

19b

and gRe is the resistance coecient. The Peclet number Pe comprehends the eects of the macroscale convective and microscale molecular diusion.

So far there is neither theoretical nor experimental

work published on the thermal diusivity coecients

of the nanouid. By reference to some publications

[17,18] about the thermal dispersion in porous media,

it is assumed that the dispersed thermal conductivity

of the nanouid may take the following form:

kd Crcp nf udp Rf

@ hTi

rcp nf hui rhTi

rcp nf

@t

rcp nf r D rhTi

3705

or

kd C rcp nf uR

20

be determined by matching experimental data. Other

forms of the dispersed thermal conductivity are also

possible, which may vary from case to case. To take

the eect of thermal dispersion into account, the surface heat ux can be expressed as

3706

@T

@T

kd, r

j

q knf

@r

@ r rR

21

procedure introduced by Nield and Bejan [7] in their

book, the dimensionless analysis of Eq. (21) formally

results in the heat transfer correlation of the nanouid

as

Nux 1 C Pe f 0 0 y 0 0 Rem

22a

and with regard to the ow pattern, it may be modied

as

Nux 1 C Pen f 0 0y 0 0Rem

22b

upon the ow pattern, and the dimensionless velocity f

and dimensionless temperature y may be dened

according to the case of application. f 0 and y 0 are the

derivatives of the dimensionless velocity and the

dimensionless temperature, respectively. Thus, the thermal dispersion increases heat transfer. What needs to

be emphasized is that experiment is necessary to determine the unknown coecient C : The case C 0

corresponds to zero thermal dispersion. This expression clearly indicates that heat transfer enhancement of the nanouid increases with the Peclet

number. For the nanouid ow over a at plate or

other forms, the Nusselt correlations similar to Eq.

(22) can be derived.

4. Discussions

The nanoparticles enhance heat transfer rate by

increasing the thermal conductivity of the nanouid

and incurring thermal dispersion in the ow, which is

an innovative way of augmenting heat transfer process.

Although there are some sophisticated theories as well

as correlations for the conventional soliduid ows

[6,1921], it is questionable and doubtful that these

theories and correlations are applicable to the nanouid. As a new type of heat transfer medium, the

nanouid behaves more like a single-phase uid

because the discontinuous phase consists of ultrane

particles, so that the heat transfer correlation for the

single-phase uid, rather than those for the conventional solidliquid two-phase ow, has been taken as

the start point. By starting from the existing theory

and correlations for the heat transfer process of pure

uids, this paper has proposed two approaches of deriving heat transfer correlation for the nanouid. To

handle the thermal dispersion resulting from irregular

movement of the nanoparticles, the dispersion model

has been used.

The nanouid appears with development of

of nanouids in enhancing heat transfer means chances

and challenges in thermal science and engineering.

Since the concept of the nanouid is newly proposed,

there are number of questions which remain unclear

and need to be solved. Besides the above-mentioned

movement modes of the ultrane particles, for

example, aggregation may take place and clusters may

be formed in the ow of the nanouid. All these

chaotic movement modes of the nanoparticles will

aect the distribution of the particles, transport properties and heat transfer performance of the nanouid.

Research on microscale is necessary to learn the microstructure of the nanouid, which would help in understanding the ow and heat transfer process of the

nanouid. Theoretical and experimental research is

needed in order to apply the nanouid for the

enhancement of heat transfer and to assess the eects

by its use.

Acknowledgements

The rst author would like to express his thanks to

the National Science Foundation of China (Grant No.

59976012) and Universitaet der Bundeswehr Hamburg

for the nancial aid.

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