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Sizing

Sizing of Safety Valves

Acc. to AD-Merkblatt 2000-A2, DIN 3320, TRD 421, ISO 4126

Using the formula in accordance with the rules mentioned above, the smallest flow area Ao shall be calculated to
discharge the required mass flow. The flow area selected shall be equal to or larger than the required one. A substantial
over sizing shall be avoided e.g. by fitting a lift stopper.
We have the equation,
(i) Capacity calculation for (saturated or
superheated) steam at critical flow
Qm = 0.2883 C A Kdr Po
n

Capacity calculations for wet steam


The following equation is applicable only to homogenous wet steam of dryness fraction of 90% and
over.
Po
0.2883 C A Kdr n
Qm =
x

(ii) Capacity calculations for gaseous media


a) Capacity calculations for gaseous media at critical
flow
Qm = Po C A Kdr M = 0.2883 C A Kdr Pno
ZTo
A=

Qm
M
ZTo

Po C Kdr

Qm

0.2883 C Kdr

Po
n

b) Capacity calculations for gaseous media at subcritical


flow
Qm = Po C A Kdr Kb M = 0.2883 C A Kdr Kb
ZTo
See equation in 8.4 and Table 3 in part 7 of
EN ISO 4126-1: 2003(E).

Po
n

(iii) Capacity calculations for liquids


Symbols and Units
Symbol
A
C
Kb
Kd
Kdr
Kv
k
M
n
Po
Pb
Pc
Qm
qm
q'm
R
To
Tc
m
n
x
Z

Description
Flow area of a safety valve (not curtain area)
Function of the isentropic exponent
Theoretical capacity correction factor for subcritical flow
Coefficient of discharge*
Certified derated coefficient of discharge (Kd x 0.9)*
Viscosity correction factor
Isentropic exponent
Molar Mass
Number of tests
Relieving pressure
Back pressure
Critical pressure
Mass flow rate
Theoretical specific discharge capacity
Specific discharge capacity determined by tests
Universal gas constant
Relieving temperature
Critical temperature
Dynamic viscosity
Specific volume at actual relieving pressure and temperature
Dryness fraction of wet steam at the valve inlet at actual relieving pressure and temperature**
Compressibility factor at actual relieving pressure and temperature.
* Kd and Kdr are expressed as 0.xxx.

C = 3.948

Unit
mm

kg/kmol

bar (abs.)
bar (abs.)
bar (abs.)
kg/h
kg/(h.mm)
kg/(h.mm)

K
K
Pa.s
m/kg

2 (k + 1) / (k 1)
k+1

** x is expressed as 0.xx.

FAINGER LESER April 2006

7/01

Sizing

Sizing of Safety Valves


Acc. to ASME Sec. VIII, Div. 1/ API RP-520

The equations are used to calculate the required discharge area for a Safety Valve. The selected Safety Valve shall
have an effective (flow) area, in accordance with the corresponding orifice letter, equal to or larger than that of the
required area.
Orifice Letter
D
E
F
G
H
J
K
L
M
N
P
Q
R
T

Effective area
in
mm
0.110
71.0
0.196
126.5
0.307
198.1
0.503
324.5
0.785
506.5
1.287
830.3
1.838
1185.8
2.853
1840.6
3.600
2322.6
4.340
2800.0
6.380
4116.1
11.050
7129.0
16.000
10322.6
26.000
16774.2

Standard size *
(inlet & outlet) inches
1x2
1x2
1 x 2
1 x 3
1 x 3
2x3
3x4
3x4
4x6
4x6
4x6
6x8
6 x 10
8 x 10

NOTE

* Please refer to page 7/06 also for any revision in size due to different pressure & temperature.

A. Sizing Calculations For Vapour Service


We have the equation,
W x ZT
A = ----------------------C x K d x Kb x P M

NOTE

where,
A
W
Z
T
C
Kd
Kb
P
M

= Calculated Orifice Area, in


= Required Relieving Capacity, lb/h
= Compressibility factor = 1, if unknown
= Absolute Temp, F + 460, Rankine
= Factor based on cp/cv (k)
= Coefficient of discharge
= Back Pressure correction factor
= Absolute Pressure, psia = Set Pressure + Overpressure +14.7
= Molecular Weight

1. The derating factor of 0.9 may be considered (as stated in ASME Sec.VIII, Div. 1, UG-131) while arriving at the Orifice Area.
2. Coefficient of discharge, Kd to be considered as 0.975 as stated in ASME Sec.VIII, Div. 1.
3. Overpressure to be considered as 10% or 3 psig whichever is greater.
4. The factor C is based on cp/cv (k) and the value can be obtained from the following table:

7/02

FAINGER LESER April 2006

Sizing

Sizing of Safety Valves

Acc. to ASME Sec. VIII, Div. 1/ API RP-520


Value of Constant C based on cp/cv (k)
Constant
C
316
318
320
322
324
327
329
331
333
335
337
339
341

k
1.01
1.02
1.04
1.06
1.08
1.10
1.12
1.14
1.16
1.18
1.20
1.22
1.24

Constant
C
343
345
347
349
351
352
354
356
358
359
361
363
364

k
1.26
1.28
1.30
1.32
1.34
1.36
1.38
1.40
1.42
1.44
1.46
1.48
1.50

k
1.52
1.54
1.56
1.58
1.60
1.62
1.64
1.66
1.68
1.70
1.80
2.00
2.20

Constant
C
366
368
369
371
372
374
376
377
379
380
387
400
412

Back Pressure correction factor, Kb


The back pressure correction factor Kb is used in the equations for calculating the effective discharge area for gases and
vapours. The correction factor Kb is not required for Safety Valves with balanced bellows so far as the coefficient of discharge
is not reduced for reason of the pressure ratio Pao/Po. Kb is determined as follows:
Kb=1.0 for

Pao
-------Po

2
--------k+1

k
------k-1

When the above Pao ratio is exceeded then it is valid


Po
735 x F2 x (1 - r)
Kb = ----------------------- where F2 =
C

k
--------- x r
k-1

2
--k

k-1

1 - r ------Pao
x ----------- k and r = -------1-r
Po

B. Sizing Calculations For Liquid Service


We have the equation,
Wt
A = ----------------------------2407 [(P-Pd)x w] x Kd

where,
A = Calculated Orifice Area, in
Wt = Required Relieving Capacity, lb/h
P = Absolute Pressure, psia = Set Pressure + Overpressure + 14.7
Pd = Back Pressure, psia
w = Specific Weight, lb/ft.
Kd = Coefficient of discharge

NOTE
1. The derating factor of 0.9 may be considered (as stated in ASME Sec. VIII, Div. 1, UG-131) while arriving at the Orifice Area.
2. Coefficient of discharge, Kd to be considered as 0.65 as per API RP-520.
3. Overpressure to be considered as 10% or 3 psig whichever is greater.

FAINGER LESER April 2006

7/03

Sizing

Sizing of Safety Valves


Acc. to ASME Sec. VIII, Div. 1/ API RP-520

C. Sizing Calculations For Viscous Liquid Service


where,
Kv = Viscosity correction factor
A' = Selected Orifice Area, in
R = Reynold's Number
m = Absolute viscosity, centipoise
U = Viscosity, Saybolt Universal seconds.
G = Specific Gravity
Q = Relieving Capacity, lb/h OR U.S. gpm

Wt
A = ----------------------------------------2407 [(P - Pd) x w] x Kd x Kv
Q (2800 G)
R = ---------------m x A'

12700 Q
R = --------------U A'

NOTE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The derating factor of 0.9 may be considered (as stated in ASME Sec. VIII, Div. 1, UG-131) while arriving at the orifice area.
Coefficient of discharge, Kd to be considered as 0.65 as per API RP-520.
Overpressure to be considered as 10% or 3 psig whichever is greater.
The viscosity has to be specified in only ONE of the TWO above referred units.
For viscosity correction factor Kv, refer to the following graph.

Kv = Viscosity Correction Factor

1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3

101

102

103

104

105

R= Reynold's Number

D. Sizing Calculations as per Fire Exposure


There are various ways in which a pressure vessel can be subjected to heat in such a manner as to result in an unacceptably
high pressure increase. One cause of such subjection to heat is an external fire.
As the course of development of heat caused by external fire may vary considerably, depending on the cause of the fire, it is
necessary to standardise these causes under the term standard fire. The amount of heat resulting from such a standard
fire can be calculated using the formula specified in API RP-520 & 521.
First of all, the wetted surface of the vessel is required to be determined. On the basis of this value, the total heat absorption,
Q, can then be calculated using the formula from the above stated API standard. The mass flow W, which is to be
discharged by the Safety Valve is then calculated from the total heat absorption, Q, and the heat of evaporation, L.
On the basis of the determined mass flow, W, sizing of Safety Valve can then be established using standard formula as per
ASME Sec.VIII, Div. 1/API RP-520.

7/04

FAINGER LESER April 2006

Sizing

Sizing of Safety Valves

Acc. to ASME Sec. VIII, Div. 1/ API RP-520

In the formula for determining the total heat absorption, the thickness of the refractory insulation is represented by the
environment factor, F.
where:
Formula Used,
Q = Total heat absorption, Btu/h
F = Environment factor for the insulation thickness
0.82
Q = 21000 x F x A 3
= 1.0 for Bare Vessel
Q
= 0.3 for vessel with 25mm insulating thickness
W = -------= 0.15 for vessel with 50mm insulating thickness
L
= 0.075 for vessel with 100 mm insulating
thickness
= 0.03 for Earth covered vessel above ground
= 0.0 for underground storage vessel
A3 = Total wetted surface of vessel, ft
W = Mass flow to be discharged by Safety Valve,

E. Sizing Calculations For Steam Service


We have the equation,

where,
A = Calculated Orifice Area, in
W = Flow rate, lb/h
P = Absolute Pressure, psia = Set Pressure + Overpressure + 14.7
Kd = Coefficient of discharge = 0.975
KSH =1, for saturated steam.
(Correction factor for Superheated steam: to be obtained from table)

W
A = -----------------------51.5 x P x Kd x KSH

Superheat Correction Factor KSH


Set pressure

psi g
15
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
300
350
400
500
600
800
1000
1250
1500
1750
2000
2500
3000

300
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

FAINGER LESER April 2006

400
0.98
0.98
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.99
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

500
0.93
0.93
0.93
0.93
0.93
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.95
0.95
0.95
0.95
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.97
1.00
1.00
1.00

600
0.88
0.88
0.88
0.88
0.88
0.89
0.89
0.89
0.89
0.89
0.89
0.89
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.91
0.92
0.92
0.95
0.96
0.97
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

Pound/Inch units
Temperature in F
700
800
0.84
0.80
0.84
0.80
0.84
0.81
0.84
0.81
0.84
0.81
0.84
0.81
0.84
0.81
0.85
0.81
0.85
0.81
0.85
0.81
0.85
0.81
0.85
0.81
0.85
0.81
0.85
0.81
0.85
0.81
0.85
0.81
0.86
0.82
0.86
0.82
0.86
0.82
0.87
0.82
0.88
0.83
0.89
0.84
0.91
0.85
0.93
0.86
0.94
0.86
0.95
0.86
0.95
0.85
1.00
0.82

900
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.80
0.81
0.81
0.80
0.78
0.74

1000
0.74
0.74
0.74
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.76
0.76
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.76
0.73
0.69

1100
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.73
0.73
0.73
0.73
0.74
0.74
0.73
0.72
0.69
0.65

1200
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.71
0.71
0.71
0.70
0.69
0.66
0.62

7/05

Sizing

Sizing of Safety Valves


Acc. to ASME Sec. VIII, Div. 1/ API RP-520

Valve Sizes / Flange Rating w.r.t. Set Pressure & Temperature (acc. to API 526)
Set Pressure & Flange Rating for Temp. up to

REVISED

Set Pressure & Flange Rating for

Temp. up to
Sl.
No.

API Standard
100 F
450 F
800 F
1000 F
Orifice
Size
Flange (37.8 C) (232.2 C)(426.7 C) (538 C)
Letter inches Rating
Set press. Set press. Set press. Set press.
kg/cm2(g) kg/cm2(g)kg/cm2(g) kg/cm2(g)

D, E

1X2
1X2
1X2
1.5 X 2
1.5 X 2
1.5 X 2
1.5 X 3
1.5 X 3
1.5 X 3
1.5 X 3
1.5 X 3
1.5 X 3

AXA
BXA
CXA
AXA
BXA
CXA
AXA
BXA
CXA
DXB
AXA
BXA

20.04
52.04
104.07
20.04
52.04
104.07
20.04
52.04
104.07
156.02
20.04
20.04

13.01
43.25
86.85
13.01
43.25
86.85
13.01
43.25
86.85
129.75
13.01
20.04

5.62
35.86
71.38
5.62
35.86
71.38
5.62
35.86
71.38
107.24
5.62
20.04

----15.82
31.29
----15.82
31.29
----15.82
31.29
47.12
---------

2X3
2X3

AXA
BXA

20.04
20.04

13.01
20.04

5.62
20.04

---------

3X4
3X4
3X4
3X4
3X4

AXA
BXA
CXA
AXA
BXA

20.04
20.04
104.08
20.04
20.04

13.01
43.25
86.85
13.01
20.04

5.62
35.86
58.02
5.62
20.04

----15.82
15.82
---------

10

11

12

13

AXA
BXA
CXA
----AXA
BXA
CXA
DXA
AXA
BXA
CXA
DXA
AXA
BXA
CXA
AXA
BXA
AXA
BXA

20.04
52.04
77.35
----20.04
52.04
70.32
---20.04
36.92
70.32
----11.60
21.10
42.19
7.03
7.03
4.57
21.10

13.01
43.25
71.15
----13.01
43.25
70.32
----13.01
36.92
70.32
----11.60
21.10
42.19
7.03
7.03
4.57
21.10

5.62
35.86
58.02
77.35
5.62
35.86
58.02
70.32
5.62
35.86
58.02
70.32
5.62
21.10
42.10
5.62
7.03
4.57
21.10

----15.82
31.29

4X6
4X6
4X6
DXA
4X6
4X6
4X6
4X6
4X6
4X6
4X6
4X6
6X8
6X8
6X8
6X8
6X8
8 X 10
8 X 10

----15.82
31.29
47.12
----15.82
15.82
47.12
----11.60
31.30
------------15.82

Size
For Higher
Pressure
Upto
1000 F
(538 C)

Flange
Rating

1.5 X 2
1.5 X 2
1.5 X 3
1.5 X 3
1.5 X 3
1.5 X 3
2X3
2X3
-----

DXB
EXB
FXB
DXB
EXB
FXB
EXB
FXB
-----

156.12
260.55
421.94
156.12
260.55
351.62
260.55
260.55
-----

129.75
216.61
361.11
129.75
216.61
351.62
216.61
260.55
-----

107.24
178.62
297.46
107.24
178.62
297.46
178.62
241.21
-----

47.12
78.41
130.82
47.12
78.41
130.82
78.41
130.80
-----

2X3
2X3
2X3
2X3
3X4
3X4
3X4
3X4
3X6
3X6

BXA
CXA
DXA
EXB
BXA
CXA
DXA
EXB
DXA
EXB

52.04
104.11
156.12
193.39
52.03
104.11
156.12
189.87
156.12
156.12

43.25
86.85
129.36
193.39
43.25
86.85
129.75
189.37
129.75
156.12

35.86
58.01
86.15
143.46
35.86
58.01
86.15
144.86
86.85
144.87

15.82
31.29
47.12
78.41
15.82
31.29
47.12
78.41
----78.41

4X6
4X6
4X6
4X6

BXA
CXA
DXA
EXA

52.04
70.32
105.48
-----

43.25
70.32
105.48
105.48

35.86
70.31
105.48
105.48

15.82
31.29
47.12
78.41

6 X 10
6 X 10

BXA
CXA

16.17
21.10

16.17
21.10

16.17
21.10

-----

100 F
450 F
800 F 1000 F
(37.8 C) (232.2 C) (426.7 C) (538 C)
Set press. Set press. Set press. Set press.
kg/cm2(g) kg/cm2(g) kg/cm2(g) kg/cm2(g)

NOTE
A --> ANSI 150#; B --> ANSI 300#; C --> ANSI 600#; D --> ANSI 900#; E --> ANSI 1500#; F --> ANSI 2500#.

7/06

FAINGER LESER April 2006

Sizing

Sizing of Safety Valves

Acc. to IBR 1950


For all steam service Safety Valves covered under IBR, the sizing calculations are based on IBR formula (IBR-1950,
Regulation No. 293) as under.
E x 100
A = --------------- x F
CxP

where,
A = Calculated throat/flow area, mm
= p d /4; d = Calculated throat/flow dia, mm
E = Required Relieving Capacity, kg/h
C = IBR constant
= 38 for FAINGER LESER make Safety Valves
P = Set Pressure, bar abs.
F = Superheat correction factor (F=1 for saturated steam)

2.7 Ts
1 + ---------- ,
1000

Ts is degree of superheat, C
NOTE
Using the above formula, the smallest flow Area A shall be calculated to discharge the required mass flow. The flow
area/dia selected shall be equal to or larger than the required one. Based on the selected flow area/dia, the inlet & outlet
size of the Safety Valve shall be chosen to match with the size as indicated in API 526 or as per customer requirement.

FAINGER LESER April 2006

7/07

Sizing

Standard Specification Sheet for Safety / Relief Valve

Client : M/s.
1

Sl.No./TAG No.

Qty. (Nos.)

Size, In X Out, mm

Connections

Conn. Std. & Rating

M.O.C.

Body

Bonnet

Trim

Nozzle

10

Disc

11

Spring

12

Bellow Material

13

Cap (lever) Type

14

Sizing Code

15

Set Pressure kg/cm2 g

16

Working Pressure

17

Design Pressure

18

Back Pr. Kg/cm2 g

19

Overpressure %

20

Fluid (Service)

21

Fluid State

22

Req. Rel Capacity

23

Discharge Temp.oC

24

Mol. Wt. / Sp.gr.

25

Viscosity at flow temp.

26

Cp/CV, if Gas/Vap

27

Comp. Factor (Vap)

28

Cal. Orifice Area, in2

29

Sel. Orifice Area, in2

30

Orifice Letter

31

Act. Rel. Capacity

32

Model No.

33

Valve Type

34

Inspection by

Fainger Leser Valves (P.) Ltd.


136/137, Sanjay Bldg. No. 3, Mittal Estate, Marol, Andheri (E), Mumbai - 400 059 India.
Tel : 91-22-2850 1692, 4277, 3617, 9747, 9751 l Fax : 91-22-2850 4470, 2851 0918
E-mail: info@faingerleser.com l Website: www.faingerleser.com
7/08

FAINGER LESER April 2006