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# PLTW Engineering Formula Sheet 2015 (v15.

0)
1.0 Statistics

Mode

Mean
xi

(1.1a)

x=

## Place data in ascending order.

Mode = most frequently occurring value

xi

(1.4)

(1.1b)

N
n
= population mean
x = sample mean
xi = sum of all data values (x1, x2, x3, )
N = size of population
n = size of sample

## If two values occur with maximum frequency the data

set is bimodal.
If three or more values occur with maximum
frequency the data set is multi-modal.
Standard Deviation

Median

## Place data in ascending order.

If N is odd, median = central value
If N is even, median = mean of two central values

(1.2)

N = size of population
Range (1.5)
Range = xmax - xmin

(1.3)

## xmax = maximum data value

xmin = minimum data value

s=

xi -

N
xi - x

(Population)

(1.5a)

(Sample)

(1.5b)

n 1

## = population standard deviation

s = sample standard deviation
xi = individual data value ( x1, x2, x3, )
= population mean
x = sample mean
N = size of population
n = size of sample

2.0 Probability
Independent Events
P (A and B and C) = PAPBPC
Frequency

fx =

nx

(2.1)

## fx = relative frequency of outcome x

nx = number of events with outcome x
n = total number of events

n!(pk )(qn-k )
k!(n-k)!

## P (A and B and C) = probability of independent

events A and B and C occurring in sequence
PA = probability of event A
Mutually Exclusive Events
P (A or B) = PA + PB

(2.4)

## P (A or B) = probability of either mutually exclusive

event A or B occurring in a trial
PA = probability of event A

Binomial Probability
(order doesnt matter)

Pk =

(2.3)

(2.2)

## Pk = binomial probability of k successes in n trials

p = probability of a success
q = 1 p = probability of failure
k = number of successes
n = number of trials

Conditional Probability

(2.5)

+ ~ ~

## P (A|D) = probability of event A given event D

P(A) = probability of event A occurring
P(~A) = probability of event A not occurring
P(D|~A) = probability of event D given event A did not occur

IED POE

DE

CEA

AE

BE

CIM EDD

v15.0

## 3.0 Plane Geometry

Ellipse

Rectangle

2b

Perimeter = 2a + 2b (3.9)

Circle

2a

Area = a b (3.8)

Area = ab

(3.10)

Circumference =2 r (3.1)

Area = r2

(3.2)

Triangle (3.6)
Parallelogram

Area = bh
h

Area = bh

a = b + c 2bccosA
2
2
2
b = a + c 2accosB
2
2
2
c = a + b 2abcosC
2

(3.3)

c =a +b
sin =

Area = n

(3.4)

a
b

(3.12)
(3.13)

(3.14)

tan = ab

ns2
4tan(

(3.15)

180
)
n

n = number of sides

(3.6)

s(12 f)

(3.5)

cos =

Regular Polygons

Right Triangle
2

(3.11)

(3.7)

a
h

Trapezoid
Area = (a + b)h

h
h

(3.16)

b
h

## 4.0 Solid Geometry

Cube

Sphere

Volume = s

Surface Area = 6s

(4.1)
2

Volume = r
(4.2)

(4.8)

Surface Area = 4 r

(4.9)

Rectangular Prism
Cylinder
Volume = wdh

(4.3)

Volume = r h

(4.10)

(4.11)

Volume =

r2 h

Irregular Prism

(4.5)

(4.6)

Volume = Ah

(4.12)

A = area of base
Pyramid
Volume =

Ah
3

(4.7)

A = area of base

## 2014 Project Lead The Way, Inc.

PLTW Engineering Formula Sheet 2014

5.0 Constants
2

## g = 9.8 m/s = 32.27 ft/s

-11
3
2
G = 6.67 x 10 m /kgs
= 3.14159
IED POE

DE

CEA

AE

BE

CIM EDD

v15.0

6.0 Conversions
Mass/Weight (6.1)
1 kg
1 slug
1 ton
1 lb

Pressure (6.8)

Area (6.4)
2

1 acre = 4047 m
2
= 43,560 ft
2
= 0.00156 mi

= 2.205 lbm
= 32.2 lbm
= 2000 lb
= 16 oz

1 atm

Volume (6.5)
Length (6.2)
1m
1 km
1 in.
1 mi
1 yd

1L

= 3.28 ft
= 0.621 mi
= 2.54 cm
= 5280 ft
= 3 ft

1mL

1psi

Time (6.3)
= 24 h
= 60 min
= 60 s
= 365 d

= 1 C
= 1.8 F
= 1.8 R

1W

1 hp

## 7.0 Defined Units

= 3.412 Btu/h
= 0.00134 hp
= 14.34 cal/min
= 0.7376 ftlbf/s
= 550 ftlb/sec

1J
1N
1 Pa
1V
1W
1W
1 Hz
1F
1H

1J

= 0.239 cal
-4
= 9.48 x 10 Btu
= 0.7376 ftlbf
1kW h = 3,600,000 J

= 0.225 lb
= 1,000 lb

= 60 rpm

Energy (6.10)

Force (6.7)
1N
1 kip

1 Hz

Power (6.9)

Temperature Unit
Equivalents (6.6)
1K

1d
1h
1 min
1 yr

= 0.264 gal
3
= 0.0353 ft
= 33.8 fl oz
3
= 1 cm = 1 cc

## Rotational Speed (6.11)

= 1.01325 bar
= 33.9 ft H2O
= 29.92 in. Hg
= 760 mm Hg
= 101,325 Pa
= 14.7 psi
= 2.31 ft of H2O

= 1 Nm
= 1 kgm / s2
= 1 N / m2
=1W/A
=1J/s
=1V/A
= 1 s-1
= 1 As / V
= 1 Vs / V

8.0 SI Prefixes
Numbers Less Than One
Power of 10
Prefix
Abbreviation
10-1
10-2
10-3
10-6
10-9
10-12
10-15
10-18
10-21
10-24

decicentimillimicronanopicofemtoattozeptoyocto-

Power of 10
Prefix
Abbreviation
101
102
103
106
109
1012
1015
1018
1021
1024

d
c
m

n
p
f
a
z
y

9.0 Equations

Temperature

## Mass and Weight

TK = TC + 273

(9.4)

m = VDm

(9.1)

TR = TF + 460

(9.5)

W = mg

(9.2)

W = VDw

(9.3)

V = volume
Dm = mass density
m = mass
Dw = weight density
W = weight
g = acceleration due to gravity
2014 Project Lead The Way, Inc.
PLTW Engineering Formula Sheet 2014

TF =

9
5

Tc + 32

decahectokiloMegaGigaTeraPetaExaZettaYotta-

da
h
k
M
G
T
P
E
Z
Y

## Force and Moment

F = ma

(9.6)

TK = temperature in Kelvin
TC = temperature in Celsius
TR = temperature in Rankin
TF = temperature in Fahrenheit

M = Fd (9.7b)

(9.7a)

F = force
m = mass
a = acceleration
M = moment
d= perpendicular distance
Equations of Static Equilibrium
Fx = 0

Fy = 0

MP = 0 (9.8)

## Fx = force in the x-direction

Fy = force in the y-direction
MP = moment about point P
IED POE

DE

CEA

AE

BE

CIM EDD

v15.0

## 9.0 Equations (Continued)

W = F d

(9.9)

W = work
F = force parallel to direction of
displacement
d = displacement

p=
V1
T1
p1
T1

(9.10)

P=

(9.11)

P = power
E = energy
W = work
t = time
= torque
= angular velocity

V2

=T

(Charles Law)

(9.17)

= T2 (Gay-Lussancs Law)
2

Efficiency (%) =

Pout
Pin

100% (9.12)

## Pout = useful power output

Pin = total power input

(9.13)

U = potential energy
m =mass
g = acceleration due to gravity
h = height

K = kinetic energy
m = mass
v = velocity

Energy: Thermal
Q = mcT

(9.15)

## Q = change in thermal energy

m = mass
c = specific heat
T = change in temperature

## 2014 Project Lead The Way, Inc.

PLTW Engineering Formula Sheet 2014

RT (parallel) =

(9.19)

## Kirchhoffs Current Law

1 1
1
+ + +
R1 R2
Rn

(9.21)

IT = I1 + I2 + + In
n
or IT = k=1 Ik

P = Qp

(9.22)

## Kirchhoffs Voltage Law

VT = V1 + V2 + + Vn
n
or VT = k=1 Vk

p = absolute pressure
F = force
A = area
V = volume
T = absolute temperature
Q = flow rate
v = flow velocity
P = power

V = voltage
VT = total voltage
I = current
IT = total current
R = resistance
RT = total resistance
P = power

Mechanics

Thermodynamics

s=

v=

a=
X=

(9.24)

P = Q = AUT
P = Q' =

(9.25)

t
vf vi

U=
(9.26)

P=

vi 2 sin(2)

(9.27)

-g

v = vi + at

(9.14)

## RT (series) = R1 + R2+ + Rn (9.34)

A1v1 = A2v2

(9.28)

d = di + vit + at

K = 12 mv2

(9.33)

Q = Av

Energy: Kinetic

P = IV

(9.20)

Energy: Potential
U = mgh

(9.32)

(9.18)

## absolute pressure = gauge pressure

+ atmospheric pressure (9.23)

Efficiency

V = IR
(9.16)

## p1V1 = p2V2 (Boyles Law)

Power
E

Ohms Law

Fluid Mechanics

Energy: Work

P=

Electricity

(9.29)

v = vi + 2a(d di)

(9.30)

= dFsin

(9.31)

s = average speed
v = average velocity
v = velocity
vi = initial velocity (t =0)
a = acceleration
X = range
t = time
d = change in displacement
d = distance
di = initial distance (t=0)
g = acceleration due to gravity
= angle
= torque
F = force

1
R

(9.35)

(9.36)

(9.37)

(9.38)

Q
t

(9.39)

=L

(9.40)

kAT

(9.41)

A1v1 = A2v2

(9.42)

(9.43)

k=

PL

(9.44)

AT

## P = rate of heat transfer

Q = thermal energy
A = area of thermal conductivity
U = coefficient of heat conductivity
(U-factor)
T = change in temperature
t = change in time
R = resistance to heat flow ( R-value)
k = thermal conductivity
v = velocity
= 5.6696 x 10

-8

m2 K4

e = emissivity constant
L = thickness
T1, T2 = temperature at time 1, time 2
POE 4 DE 4

AE 4

CIM 4

v15.0

## 10.0 Section Properties

y

Moment of Inertia

Ixx =

bh3

x=

(10.1)

12

x=

Ai

and y =

and y =

(10.3)

b
3

and y =

(10.4)

x
y

Semi-circle Centroid

x=

## Ixx = moment of inertia of a rectangular section

xi Ai

Rectangle Centroid

x = r and y =

yi Ai

(10.2)

Ai

## x = x-distance to the centroid

y = y-distance to the centroid
xi = x distance to centroid of shape i
yi = y distance to centroid of shape i
Ai = Area of shape i

4r
3

(10.5)
x

## x = x-distance to the centroid

y = y-distance to the centroid

## 12.0 Structural Analysis

11.0 Material
Properties

Beam Formulas
Reaction

Stress (axial)
F

Moment
(11.1)

= stress
F = axial force
A = cross-sectional area

L0

Reaction

RA = RB =

Reaction

= strain
L0 = original length
= change in length

E=

## (F2 -F1 )L0

2 1 )A

(at center)

(12.5)

(at center)

(12.6)

RA = RB = P

(12.7)
(12.8)

Deflection

Pa
max = 24EI
(3L2 -4a2 )

(12.9)

Deflection

E = modulus of elasticity
= stress
= strain
A = cross-sectional area
F = axial force
= deformation

Mmax = Pa

Moment

(11.3)

(11.4)

(12.4)

5L4
384EI

(12.3)

(at center)

Modulus of Elasticity

L2

Mmax =
max =

(12.2)

Moment

Reaction

E=

PL3
48EI

max =

Deflection
(11.2)

Mmax =

(12.1)

PL

Deflection

Moment

Strain (axial)

RA = RB =

RA =

Pb
L

Mmax =
max =

and RB =
Pab

FL0
AE

(12.10)

## (at Point of Load) (12.11)

a a+2b
3,

(12.12)

when a>b )

Truss Analysis
(12.13)

= deformation
F = axial force
L0 = original length
A = cross-sectional area
E = modulus of elasticity

## 2014 Project Lead The Way, Inc.

PLTW Engineering Formula Sheet 2014

## Pab a+2b 3a a+2b

27EI

(at x =

Deformation: Axial

Pa

2J = M + R

(12.14)

J = number of joints
M =number of members
R = number of reaction forces

POE 5 AE 5 CEA 4

v15.0

Inclined Plane

IMA=

DE

(13.1)

DR

% Efficiency= (

AMA
IMA

) 100

AMA=

FR
FE

(13.2)

IMA=

(13.6)

(13.3)

## IMA = ideal mechanical advantage

DE = effort distance
DR = resistance distance
FE = effort force
FR = resistance force

Wedge
L

IMA=

(13.7)

Lever
1st
Class

Screw
IMA =

2nd
Class

C
Pitch

Pitch =

(13.8)

1
(13.9)

TPI

C = circumference
Pitch = distance between

3rd
Class
Compound Machines

(13.10)

## Wheel and Axle

Gears; Sprockets with Chains; and Pulleys
with Belts Ratios
Effort at Axle

GR =
dout
din

Nout
Nin

dout

out

in
out

din
in

in
out

out

(pulleys)

in

(13.11)
(13.12)

Compound Gears

Effort at Wheel

GRTOTAL = (

) (C)

(13.13)

Pulley Systems
IMA = total number of strands of a single string
supporting the resistance
(13.4)
IMA =

DE (string pulled)
DR (resistance lifted)

## 2014 Project Lead The Way, Inc.

PLTW Engineering Formula Sheet 2014

(13.5)

GR = gear ratio
in = angular velocity - driver
out = angular velocity - driven
Nin = number of teeth - driver
Nout = number of teeth - driven
din = diameter - driver
dout = diameter - driven
in = torque - driver
out = torque - driven
POE 6

v15.0

## 14.0 Structural Design

Steel Beam Design: Shear

Va

Vn
v

Vn = 0.6FyAw

Ma

(14.3)

(14.2)

Mn = FyZx

(14.4)

## 15.0 Storm Water Runoff

Storm Water Drainage
C1 A1 + C2 A2 +
A1 + A2 +

(14.5)

(14.6)

ft

## Ma = internal bending moment

Mn = nominal moment strength
b = 1.67 = factor of safety for
bending moment
Fy = yield stress
Zx = plastic section modulus about
neutral axis

Q = CfCiA

q=

## Va = internal shear force

Vn = nominal shear strength
v = 1.5 = factor of safety for shear
Fy = yield stress
Aw = area of web

Cc =

Mn

(14.1)

(15.1)
(15.2)
3

## Q = peak storm water runoff rate (ft /s)

factor
C = runoff coefficient
i = rainfall intensity (in./h)
A = drainage area (acres)
Runoff Coefficient
Return
Period
Cf
1, 2, 5, 10 1.0
25
1.1
50
1.2
100
1.25

## 2014 Project Lead The Way, Inc.

PLTW Engineering Formula Sheet 2014

## Rational Method Runoff Coefficients

Categorized by Surface
Forested
0.0590.2
Asphalt
0.70.95
Brick
0.70.85
Concrete
0.80.95
Shingle roof
0.750.95
Lawns, well drained (sandy soil)
Up to 2% slope
0.050.1
2% to 7% slope
0.100.15
Over 7% slope
0.150.2
Lawns, poor drainage (clay soil)
Up to 2% slope
0.130.17
2% to 7% slope
0.180.22
Over 7% slope
0.250.35
Driveways,
0.750.85
walkways
Categorized by Use
Farmland
0.050.3
Pasture
0.050.3
Unimproved
0.10.3
Parks
0.10.25
Cemeteries
0.10.25
0.20.40
Playgrounds
0.20.35
(except asphalt
or Districts
concrete)
Neighborhood
0.50.7
City (downtown)
0.70.95
Residential
Single-family
0.30.5
Multi-plexes,
0.40.6
detached
Multi-plexes,
0.60.75
attached
Suburban
0.250.4
Apartments,
0.50.7
condominiumsIndustrial
Light
0.50.8
Heavy
0.60.9

P
A

(14.7)

## qnet = net allowable soil bearing

pressure
qallowable = total allowable soil
bearing pressure
pfooting = soil bearing pressure
due to footing weight
tfooting = thickness of footing
q = soil bearing pressure
A = area of footing

## 16.0 Water Supply

Hazen-Williams Formula

hf =

1.85

10.44LQ

1.85 4.8655

(16.1)

## hf = head loss due to friction

(ft of H2O)
L = length of pipe (ft)
Q = water flow rate (gpm)
C = Hazen-Williams constant
d = diameter of pipe (in.)
static head = change in elevation
between source and
discharge

## 17.0 Heat Loss/Gain

Heat Loss/Gain
Q = AUT

U=

1
R

(17.1)
(17.2)

Q = thermal energy
A = area of thermal conductivity
U = coefficient of heat
conductivity (U-factor)
T = change in temperature
R = resistance to heat flow (Rvalue)

CEA 5

v15.0

## 19.0 Equivalent Length of (Generic) Fittings

Pipe Size

Screwed Fittings

1/4

3/8

1/2

3/4

Elbows

Regular 90 degree
Regular 45 degree

2.3
1.5
0.3

3.1
2.0
0.5

3.6
2.2
0.7

4.4
2.3
0.9

5.2
2.7
1.3

6.6
3.2
1.7

7.4
3.4
2.1

8.5
3.6
2.7

9.3
3.6
3.2

11.0
4.0
4.0

13.0
4.6
5.5

Tees

Line Flow
Branch Flow

0.8
2.4

1.2
3.5

1.7
4.2

2.4
5.3

3.2
6.6

4.6
8.7

5.6
9.9

7.7
12.0

9.3
13.0

12.0
17.0

17.0
21.0

Return Bends

## Regular 180 degree

2.3

3.1

3.6

4.4

5.2

6.6

7.4

8.5

9.3

11.0

13.0

Valves

Globe
Gate
Angle
Swing Check

21.0
0.3
12.8
7.2

22.0
0.5
15.0
7.3

22.0
0.6
15.0
8.0

24.0
0.7
15.0
8.8

29.0
0.8
17.0
11.0

37.0
1.1
18.0
13.0

42.0
1.2
18.0
15.0

54.0
1.5
18.0
19.0

62.0
1.7
18.0
22.0

79.0
1.9
18.0
27.0

110.0
2.5
18.0
38.0

4.6

5.0

6.6

7.7

18.0

20.0

27.0

29.0

34.0

42.0

Strainer

Flanged Fittings
Elbows
Tees
Return
Bends
Valves

Pipe Size

1/2

3/4

10

12

14

16

18

Regular 90 degree
Regular 45 degree
Line Flow
Branch Flow
Regular 180 degree

0.9
1.1
0.5
0.7
2.0
0.9

1.2
1.3
0.6
0.8
2.6
1.2

1.6
1.6
0.8
1.0
3.3
1.6

2.1
2.0
1.1
1.3
4.4
2.1

2.4
2.3
1.3
1.5
5.2
2.4

3.1
2.7
1.7
1.8
6.6
3.1

3.6
2.7
2.0
1.9
7.5
3.6

4.4
3.4
2.5
2.2
9.4
4.4

5.9
4.2
3.5
2.8
12.0
5.9

7.3
5.0
4.5
3.3
15.0
7.3

8.9
5.7
5.6
3.8
18.0
8.9

12.0
7.0
7.7
4.7
24.0
12.0

14.0
8.0
9.0
5.2
30.0
14.0

17.0
9.0
11.0
6.0
34.0
17.0

18.0
9.4
13.0
6.4
37.0
18.0

21.0
10.0
15.0
7.2
43.0
21.0

23.0
11.0
16.0
7.6
47.0
23.0

Globe
Gate
Angle
Swing Check

1.1
38.0

1.3
40.0

1.6
45.0

2.0
54.0

2.3
59.0

18.0
10.0

18.0
12.0

4.2
120.0
2.9
38.0
38.0

5.0
150.0
3.1
50.0
50.0

5.7
190.0.
3.2
63.0
63.0

7.0
260.0
3.2
90.0
90.0

8.0
310.0
3.2
120.0
120.0

9.0
390.0
3.2
140.0
140.0

11.0

17.0
7.2

3.4
94.0
2.8
285.0
27.0

10.0

15.0
5.3

2.9
77.0
2.7
22.0
21.0

9.4

15.0
3.8

2.7
70.0
2.6
21.0
17.0

3.2
160.0

3.2
190.0

3.2
210.0

## 2014 Project Lead The Way, Inc.

PLTW Engineering Formula Sheet 2014

CEA 6

v15.0

## 20.0 555 Timer Design

quaons
T = 0.693 (RA + 2RB)C

f =

## 21.A Boolean Algebra

(20.1)
(20.2)

(RA+ RB)
duty-cycle =
100%
(RA+2RB)

(20.3)

T = period
f = frequency
RA = resistance A
RB = resistance B
C = capacitance

## 21.B Resistor Color Code

Boolean Theorems

Consensus Theorems

X 0 = 0

(21.1)

X + XY = X + Y

(21.16)

X1 = X

(21.2)

X + XY = X + Y

(21.17)

X X =X

(21.3)

X + XY = X + Y

(21.18)

X X=0

(21.4)

X + XY = X + Y

(21.19)

X+0=X

(21.5)

X+1=1

(21.6)

X+X=X

(21.7)

XY = X + Y

(21.20)

X+X=1

(21.8)

X+Y = X Y

(21.21)

X=X

(21.9)

Commutative Law

DeMorgans Theorems

XY = YX

(21.10)

X+Y = Y+X

(21.11)

Associative Law
X(YZ) = (XY)Z

(21.12)

X + (Y + Z) = (X + Y) + Z

(21.13)

Distributive Law

21.C Capacitor
Code

X(Y+Z) = XY + XZ

(21.14)

(X+Y)(W+Z) = XW+XZ+YW+YZ

(21.15)

## 22.0 Speeds and Feeds

N=

CS(12in.
)
ft
d

fm = ftntN

(22.1)
(22.2)

Plunge Rate = fm
N = spindle speed (rpm)
CS = cutting speed (ft/min)
d = diameter (in.)
fm = feed rate (in./min)
ft = feed (in./tooth/rev)
nt = number of teeth

## 2014 Project Lead The Way, Inc.

PLTW Engineering Formula Sheet 2014

## G00 = Rapid Traverse

G01 = Straight Line Interpolation
G02 = Circular Interpolation (clockwise)
G03 = Circular Interpolation (c-clockwise)
G04 = Dwell (wait)
G05 = Pause for user intervention
G20 = Inch programming units
G21 = Millimeter programming units
G80 = Canned cycle cancel
G81 = Drilling cycle
G82 = Drilling cycle with dwell
G90 = Absolute Coordinates
G91 = Relative Coordinates
M00 = Pause
M01 = Optional stop
M02 = End of program
M03 = Spindle on
M05 = Spindle off
M06 = Tool change
M08 = Accessory # 1 on
M09 = Accessory # 1 off
M10 = Accessory # 2 on
M11 = Accessory # 2 off
M30 = Program end and reset
M47 = Rewind
DE 5

(23.1)
(23.2)
(23.3)
(23.4)
(23.5)
(23.6)
(23.7)
(23.8)
(23.9)
(23.10)
(23.11)
(23.12)
(23.13)
(23.14)
(23.15)
(23.16)
(23.17)
(23.18)
(23.19)
(23.20)
(23.21)
(23.22)
(23.23)
(23.24)
(23.25)

CIM 5

v15.0

24.0 Aerospace
Equations

Propulsion

Forces of Flight

CD =

2D
Av2

R e=

vl

CL =

2L

Av2

M = Fd

(24.1)

(24.2)

(24.3)
(24.4)

CL = coefficient of lift
CD = coefficient of drag
L = lift
D = drag
A = wing area
= density
Re = Reynolds number
v = velocity
l = length of fluid travel
= fluid viscosity
F = force
m = mass
g = acceleration due to gravity
M = moment
d = moment arm (distance from
datum perpendicular to F)

Orbital Mechanics

F N = W vj - vo

(24.5)

I = Fave t

(24.6)

Fnet = Favg - Fg

(24.7)

a=

T = 2
F=

FN = net thrust
W = air mass flow
vo = flight velocity
vj = jet velocity
I = total impulse
Fave = average thrust force
t = change in time (thrust
duration)
Fnet = net force
Favg = average force
Fg = force of gravity
vf = final velocity
a = acceleration
t = change in time (thrust
duration)

(24.9)

(24.15)

r2

v2
) =
2 1

(Ps +

v2
)
2 2

(23.16)

PS = static pressure
v = velocity
= density

Atmosphere Parameters

GMm

(24.11)

2R
m3

G = 6.67 1011 kg 2

T = 15.04 - 0.00649h
(24.12)

K = kinetic energy
m =mass
v = velocity
U = gravitational potential energy
G = universal gravitation constant
M =mass of central body
m = mass of orbiting object
R = Distance center main body to
center of orbiting object
E = Total Energy of an orbit

## 2014 Project Lead The Way, Inc.

PLTW Engineering Formula Sheet 2014

(24.14)

GM

(24.10)

E=U+K=

= 2

Bernoullis Law

Energy

GMm

a2

GMm

(Ps +

U=

a2

= eccentricity
b = semi-minor axis
a =semi-major axis
T = orbital period
a = semi-major axis
= gravitational parameter
F = force of gravity between two
bodies
G = universal gravitation constant
M =mass of central body
m = mass of orbiting object
r = distance between center of two
objects

easily confused.

K = 12 mv2

(24.13)

a2
3

(24.8)

b2

= 1-

p = 101.29
=

T + 273.1 5.256
288.08

p
0.2869 T + 273.1

(24.17)
(24.18)
(24.19)

T = temperature
h = height
p = pressure
= density

AE 6

v15.0

## Highly Organic Soils (Pt)

Color, odor, very high moisture
content, particles of plant life, fibrous.

Visual Examination.
Is soil highly organic,
coarse grained, or
fine grained?

Coarse
Grained

%G > %S

Run sieve
analysis

%S > %G

Gravel (G)
Less than
5% pass
No. 200
sieve

Well

Sand (S)
More
than 12%
pass No.
200 seive

Between 5%
and 12% pass
No. 200 sieve

Poorly

GP-GM

Less than
5% pass No.
200 sieve

Run LL and PL
on minus No.
40 sieve
material

Dual symbol
based on
plasticity

GW-GM

Below line
area on
Plasticity
Chart

Limits plot
area on
Plasticity
Chart

Well

Poorly

Above line
and
area on
Plasticity
Chart

GP

GP-GC

Between
5% and 12%
pass No.
200 sieve

More than
12% pass
No. 200
sieve

Dual
symbol
based on
and
plasticity

Run LL and
PL on minus
No. 40 sieve
material

SW-SM
SP-SM

LL 50

LL < 50
Below line
on
Plasticity
Chart or
PI < 4

Below line
area on
Plasticity
Chart

Limits plot
area on
Plasticity
Chart

Above line
and
area on
Plasticity
Chart

SM

SM-SC

SC

Limits plot in
of Plasticity
Chart

Above line
on
Plasticity
Chart and
PI> 7

Below line
on
Plasticity
Chart

Above line
on Plasticity
Chart

Color or
odor

Color or
odor

Organic

Inorganic

OL

ML

Organic

Inorganic

SW-SC

GW-GC
GW

Fine
grained
Run LL and
PL on
minus No.
40 sieve
material

GM

GM-GC

GC

SW

SP

SP-SC

ML-CL

CL

OH

MH

CEA 7

## 2014 Project Lead The Way, Inc.

PLTW Engineering Formula Sheet 2014

CH