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30/09/2016

WhatisSynchronousImpedanceMethodmeasurement,calculation&assumptionsCircuitGlobe

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SynchronousImpedanceMethod
TheSynchronousImpedanceMethodisbasedontheconceptofreplacingtheeffectof
armaturereactionbyanimaginaryreactance.Forasynchronousgeneratorfollowingarethe
equationgivenbelow.

Where,

Forcalculatingthesynchronousimpedance,ZsismeasuredandthenthevalueofEaiscalculated.
FromthevaluesofEaandV,thevoltageregulationiscalculated.
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Contents:
DCresistancetest
OpenCircuitTest
ShortCircuitTest
CalculationofSynchronousImpedance
AssumptionsintheSynchronousImpedanceMethod

MeasurementofSynchronousImpedance
Themeasurementofsynchronousimpedanceisdonebythefollowingmethods.Theyareknownas
DCresistancetest
Opencircuittest
Shortcircuittest

DCresistancetest
Inthistest,itisassumedthatthealternatorisstarconnectedwiththeDCfieldwindingopenas
showninthecircuitdiagrambelow.

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ItmeasurestheDCresistancebetweeneachpairofterminalseitherbyusinganammeter
voltmetermethodorbyusingtheWheatstonesbridge.Theaverageofthreesetsofresistance
valueRtistaken.ThevalueofRtisdividedby2toobtainavalueofDCresistanceperphase.
SincetheeffectiveACresistanceislargerthantheDCresistanceduetoskineffect.Therefore,the
effectiveACresistanceperphaseisobtainedbymultiplyingtheDCresistancebyafactor1.20to
1.75dependingonthesizeofthemachine.Atypicalvaluetouseinthecalculationwouldbe1.25.

OpenCircuitTest
Intheopencircuittestfordeterminingthesynchronousimpedance,thealternatorisrunningat
theratedsynchronousspeed,andtheloadterminalsarekeptopen.Thismeansthattheloadsare
disconnected,andthefieldcurrentissettozero.Thecircuitdiagramisshownbelow.

Aftersettingthefieldcurrenttozero,thefieldcurrentisgraduallyincreasedstepbystep.The
terminalvoltageEtismeasuredateachstep.Theexcitationcurrentmaybeincreasedtoget25%
morethantheratedvoltage.AgraphisdrawnbetweentheopencircuitphasevoltageEp =Et/3
andthefieldcurrentIf.ThecurvesoobtainiscalledOpenCircuitCharacteristic(O.C.C).The
shapeissameasnormalmagnetizationcurve.ThelinearportionoftheO.C.Cisextendedtoform
anairgapline.
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WhatisSynchronousImpedanceMethodmeasurement,calculation&assumptionsCircuitGlobe

TheOpenCircuitCharacteristic(O.C.C)andtheairgaplineisshowninthefigurebelow.

ShortCircuitTest
Intheshortcircuittestthearmatureterminalsareshortedthroughthreeammetersasshownin
thefigurebelow.

Thefieldcurrentshouldfirstbedecreasedtozerobeforestartingthealternator.Eachammeter
shouldhavearangegreaterthantheratedfullloadvalue.Thealternatoristhenrunat
synchronousspeed.Sameasinanopencircuittestthatthefieldcurrentisincreasedgraduallyin

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stepsandthearmaturecurrentismeasuredateachstep.Thefieldcurrentisincreasedtoget
armaturecurrentsupto150%oftheratedvalue.
ThevalueoffieldcurrentIfandtheaverageofthreeammeterreadingsateachstepistaken.A
graphisplottedbetweenthearmaturecurrentIaandthefieldcurrentIf.Thecharacteristicso
obtainediscalledShortCircuitCharacteristic(S.C.C).Thischaracteristicisastraightlineas
showninthefigurebelow.

CalculationofSynchronousImpedance
Thefollowingstepsaregivenbelowforthecalculationofthesynchronousimpedance.
Theopencircuitcharacteristicsandtheshortcircuitcharacteristicaredrawnonthesame

curve.
DeterminethevalueofshortcircuitcurrentIscandgivestheratedalternatorvoltageper

phase.
ThesynchronousimpedanceZ Swillthenbeequaltotheopencircuitvoltagedividedbythe

shortcircuitcurrentatthatfieldcurrentwhichgivestheratedEMFperphase.

Thesynchronousreactanceisdeterminedas

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Thegraphisshownbelow.

FromtheabovefigureconsiderthefieldcurrentIf=OAthatproducesratedalternatorvoltageper
phase.Correspondingtothisfieldcurrent,theopencircuitvoltageisAB
Therefore,

AssumptionsintheSynchronousImpedanceMethod
ThefollowingassumptionsmadeinthesynchronousImpedanceMethodaregivenbelow.
ThesynchronousImpedanceisconstant

ThesynchronousimpedanceisdeterminedfromtheO.C.CandS.C.C.Itistheratiooftheopen
circuitvoltagetotheshortcircuitcurrent.WhentheO.C.CandS.C.Carelinear,the
synchronousimpedanceZSisconstant.
Thefluxundertestconditionsisthesameasthatunderloadconditions.
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Itisassumedthatagivenvalueofthefieldcurrentalwaysproducesthesameflux.This
assumptionintroducesconsiderableerror.Whenthearmatureisshortcircuited,thecurrentinthe
armaturelagthegeneratedvoltagebyalmost90degreesandhencethearmaturereactionis
almostcompletelydemagnetizing.
Theeffectofthearmaturereactionfluxcanbereplacedbyavoltagedropproportionaltothe

armaturecurrentandthatthearmaturereactionvoltagedropisaddedtothearmature
reactancevoltagedrop.
Themagneticreluctancetothearmaturefluxisconstantregardlessofthepowerfactor.

Foracylindricalrotormachine,thisassumptionissubstantiallytruebecauseoftheuniformair
gap.Regulationobtainedbyusingasynchronousimpedancemethodishigherthanthatobtained
byactualloading.Hence,thismethodisalsocalledthePessimisticmethod.
Atlowerexcitations,ZSisconstant,sincetheopencircuitcharacteristicscoincidewiththeairgap
line.ThisvalueofZSiscalledthelinearorUnsaturatedSynchronousImpedance.However,
withincreasingexcitationtheeffectofsaturationistodecreaseZSandthevaluesbeyondthe
linearpartoftheopencircuitcalledasSaturatedValueoftheSynchronousImpedance.

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RelatedTerms:
1.MMFMethodofVoltageRegulation
2.SynchronousReactanceandSynchronousImpedance
3.VoltageRegulationofaSynchronousGenerator
4.ShortCircuitRatioofaSynchronousMachine
5.PotierTriangleorZeroPowerFactorMethod

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