Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 33

474

Int. J. Productivity and Quality Management, Vol. 17, No. 4, 2016

A case study: to reduce process variability of valve


seat depth in cylinder head using Six Sigma
methodology
Tejaskumar S. Parsana*
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
V.V.P. Engineering College,
Virda-Vajdi,Rajkot 360 005, Gujarat, India
Email: tejas.parsana@gmail.com
*Corresponding author

Darshak A. Desai
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
G.H. Patel College of Engineering and Technology (GCET),
VallabhVidyanagar 388 120, Anand, Gujarat, India
Email: darshak301@yahoo.com
Abstract: The research has been carried out to introduce Six Sigma
methodology in India, particularly in manufacturing SMEs. This paper
deliberates the quality and productivity improvement in a cylinder head
manufacturing enterprise through a case study and deals with an application of
Six Sigma methodology in an industry which offers a framework to identify,
quantify and abolish sources of variation in the manufacturing process of
cylinder head, to optimise the operation variables, improve and endure
performance viz. process yield through well-executed control plans. To support
in the fulfilment of the purpose a practical DMAIC project was conducted. Six
Sigma will provide a structure and training in tools, thereby ensuring that the
tools are used at the right time and in the right way at the machining division.
Application of Six Sigma methodology has resulted in enormous financial
savings for the industry.
Keywords: case study; cylinder head; define-measure-analyse-improvecontrol; DMAIC; Indian manufacturing SMEs; Six Sigma.
Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Parsana, T.S. and
Desai, D.A. (2016) A case study: to reduce process variability of valve seat
depth in cylinder head using Six Sigma methodology, Int. J. Productivity and
Quality Management, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp.474506.
Biographical notes: Tejaskumar S. Parsana is an Assistant Professor in
Mechanical Engineering Department of V.V.P. Engineering College, Rajkot,
Gujarat, India. He is a certified Lean Six Sigma Yellow Belt and has authored
four papers in various international journals. He has completed his Master of
Engineering in Industrial Engineering from G.H. Patel College of Engineering
and Technology and Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering from
C.U. Shah College of Engineering and Technology.

Copyright 2016 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

A case study: to reduce process variability of valve seat depth

475

Darshak A. Desai is an academician with hardcore industrial experience.


Currently he is Head of the Mechanical Engineering Department of G.H. Patel
College of Engineering and Technology, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India.
He is a Certified Lean Six Sigma Black Belt. He is a reviewer of several
reputed international journals and invited editorial board member of few
international journals. He has authored 34 papers in various international and
national journals and conferences. He has also authored seven books for
diploma and degree engineering students in English and regional language. His
areas of research and interest are Six Sigma and other industrial engineering
domains such as cost of quality, lean manufacturing, and supply chain
management etc.

Introduction

Sahoo et al. (2008) existing competitive market is focusing industrial efforts on


producing high quality products with the lowest possible cost. To help this objective,
various quality improvement philosophies have been put forward in recent years and of
these Six Sigma has emerged as perhaps the most viable and efficient technique for
process quality improvement.
Deshmukh and Chavan (2012) Six Sigma has been extensively implemented in the
larger industrial units and to a relatively lesser extent in the smaller units, i.e., SMEs. It is
evident that currently there is no specific roadmap for Six Sigma implementation in
SMEs. Desai (2008)on global scenario also much is available regarding techniques of Six
Sigma and its success stories at various multinationals, but very less is reported regarding
step-by-step implementation of Six Sigma in manufacturing SMEs.
Prabhushankar et al. (2008) rapid alterations is taking place in the industry
worldwide. It is make companies to meditate about embracing the Six Sigma approach
such that they can multiply their value in all the realistically possible ways to the
maximum potential.
The Six Sigma programme was motivated by customer satisfactions, but the
entitlement of the financial saving resulted from the improved process was actually the
driving force that put the programme in practice. The aim of this paper is therefore to
capture the state of the art within the Six Sigma philosophy as well as to document
practice through a systematic implementation in manufacturing SMEs.

Literature review: Six Sigma implementation in SMEs

In order to correctly direct the research project, the authors exploited an extensive
literature survey encompassing ten books and more than 50 papers on Six Sigma
published in international journals. Many companies, such as General Electric, Allied
Signal, Raytheon and Delphi Automotive have implemented Six Sigma programmes and
claimed that these programmes have transformed their organisations.
Brun (2010) in the recent years, many papers and books has been written on the Six
Sigma methodology in manufacturing SMEs. Many papers are presenting case studies of
Six Sigma implementation. A valuable exercise was to sort out the various traits that,
according to the authors, are at the base of a successful Six Sigma implementation. Beatty

476

T.S. Parsana and D.A. Desai

(2006) stressed hard on measuring current performance of the organisation. This is in line
with Six Sigma philosophy of measure phase. Improvements can be possible only after
knowing the current performance. Summarised as whether organisations are planning on
installing a quality programme such as TQM, lean manufacturing, ISO, Six Sigma or
Baldrige, they will need a commitment and a starting point from which to examine
progress.
Reid (2006) presenting a structured framework for implementing the CI philosophy in
improving the productivity and quality of work performing processes in organisations
came out with three phase programme, which is more or less coinciding with Six Sigmas
define-measure-analyse-improve-control (DMAIC) methodology.
Antony et al. (2005) Although, Six Sigma has been implemented with success in
many large corporations, there is still less documented evidence of its implementation in
smaller organisations. Roy (2013) as the businesses are influenced by globalisation, the
competition is arising more and more and so, to sustain in the global business every
organisation needs to maintain appropriate quality level. The Six Sigma framework
provides an impetus for establishing best practice with the company.
Desai (2008) small scale jobbing industries are inherently capable of adopting Six
Sigma as breakthrough strategy but they need to show the roadmap. The multiple gains
achieved by this initial effort of Six Sigma improvement methodology on one of the
problems of the company are attractive enough for them to deploy Six Sigma
companywide. Dambhare (2013) Six Sigma is one of the simplest and most powerful
methodology used worldwide for quality and process improvement. The methodology
can be applied to find the critical causes of process variation. Hekmatpanah et al. (2008)
SMEs may have to implement Six Sigma slightly in a different way compared to large
companies with plenty of resources. Resources used for the Six Sigma projects by SMEs
should be optimised and attaining maximum organisational effectiveness.
Raghunath and Jayathirtha (2013) specifically large concerns have efficaciously tried
breakthrough improvement strategy to get clarifications in many of their ongoing
problems. But small and medium enterprises are still unknowing regarding strengths of
this improvement drive. Antony (2009) delivers an admirable source for those people
who have faith in that Six Sigma is principally intended for large organisation and also
makes an effort to eradicate one of the collective myths of Six Sigma. The upshots of his
study openly direct that Six Sigma is similarly appropriate to both large corporations and
small companies. In fact, the results are quicker and much more visible in smaller
companies than in larger corporations.
Desai (2012a) basic manufacturing sectors such as foundries and other metal
working/forming industries need breakthrough improvements in quality as well as in
productivity. Six Sigma is one of the most effective breakthrough improvement strategies
having direct impact on operational excellence of an organisation. Chakravorty (2009)
provided a model to effectively guide the implementation of Six Sigma philosophies for
reducing variation or waste from the operation. Successful implementation of this
management technique must bring huge positive impacts to the organisation. Jin (2011)
proposes a Six Sigma-based framework to deploy high product reliability commitment in
distributed subcontractor manufacturing processes, proposed model was demonstrated on
the reliability deployment of the PCB manufacturing chain in the semiconductor testing
industry.
Shafer and Moeller (2012) utilising a sample of 84 Six Sigma firms represent a wide
variety of industries and firm characteristics, utilising rigorously constructed control

A case study: to reduce process variability of valve seat depth

477

groups to ensure the validity of comparisons and conclusions and investigating the impact
of adopting Six Sigma on corporate performance over a ten year period.
Desai et al. (2010) presents two real life case studies highlighting Six Sigma
implementation difficulties in Indian industries. Six Sigma was applied on to their
chronic problems keeping in view the findings of the analysis of Six Sigma
implementation barriers in Indian industries. Easton and Rosenzweig (2012) analyses
successful and failed Six Sigma improvement team projects at a Fortune 500 consumer
products manufacturer with multiple business groups.
de Mast and Lokkerbol (2012) Six Sigma methodologies provide guidelines which
could help the workers understand how to carry out the job and train them to solve
potential problems, compares critically the DMAIC method with insights from scientific
theories in the field of problem solving and highlighted the characteristics of the DMAIC
approach and its limitations, specifically from a problem solving perspective.
Chakrabortty (2013) now-a-days many leading manufacturing industry have started
to practice Six Sigma and Lean manufacturing concepts to boost up their productivity as
well as quality of products. To achieve the Six Sigma level for any manufacturing firm is
a laborious and time consuming task.
Small-scale manufacturing industries are inherently capable of adopting Six Sigma as
breakthrough strategy but they need to show the roadmap. The multiple gains achieved
by this initial effort of Six Sigma improvement methodology on one of the problems of
the company are attractive enough for them to deploy Six Sigma companywide.

Six Sigma methodology

As it is well known, Six Sigma was industrialised in the 1986s by Motorola in an


exertion to advance their quality by tumbling inconsistency in their manufacturing
process as they strived in the semiconductor industry. Six Sigma is rigorous, focused and
highly effective implementation of proven quality principles and techniques that aims for
virtually error free business performance.
The business oriented definition of Six Sigma Desai (2012b) states that it blends
correct management, financial and methodological elements to make improvement to
process and products in ways that surpass other approaches. It is an extremely wellorganised approach used to reduce the process variations to the scope that the level of
defects are radically reduced to less than 3.4 (DPMO). It is a data-driven structured
problem solving methodology for solving durable issues facing a corporate.
Sigma () is Greek letter that is used to label variability. In statistical quality control,
this means standard deviation. Kwak and Anbari (2006) Six Sigma = TQM + stronger
customer focus + additional data analysis tools + financial results + project management.
Six Sigma statistical viewpoint as a rigorous quality control concept that monitors and
improves a process of an organisation that operate at three sigma level to a six sigma
level and therefore achieves a reduction of process variation so that it will result in no
more than 3.4 DPMO in a long term.
Gupta and Bharti (2013) sigma value increases the process performance in a better
way. Another way of measure the process capability and performance by the statistical
measurements like Cp, Cpk, Pp and Ppk. Following is the Table 1 of comparison of
different sigma values at different defects part per million and capability of process.

478

T.S. Parsana and D.A. Desai

Table 1

The comparison of different sigma value

Sigma
Six sigma

DPMO

Process yield

COPQ

Capability

3.4

30.23%

< 10% of sales

World class

Five sigma

233

69.13%

10 to 15% of sales

Four sigma

6,210

93.32%

15 to 20% of sales

Three Sigma

66,810

99.9379%

20 to 30% of sales

Two Sigma

308.7700

99.97600%

30 to 40% of sales

One Sigma

697,672

99.999660%

Industry average
Non-competitive

3.1 DMAIC process


Wang (2009) DMAIC is a closed-loop process that eliminates infertile steps, often
focuses on new measurements and spread over technology for continuous improvement
as shown in Figure 1. Some papers focus on explaining the DMAIC contents, with some
authors discussing each phase of DMAIC in detail.
Figure 1

DMAIC cycle (see online version for colours)

Gupta and Bharti (2013) DMAIC is a systematic Six Sigma project management practice
inspired by Demings plan, do, check and act (PDCA) cycle. The process consists of the
five phases called define, measure, analyse, improve and control.
The define phase concentrates on forming the team, defining the projects goals,
mapping the process, identifying customers and identifying the high impact
characteristics or the critical to quality (CTQs).
The Measure phase consists of defining and executing a systematic data collection
plan for the key measures (CTQs) for the targeted process. Data collected in the measure
phase are analysed in the analyse phase to identify the root causes behind the gap
between the current performance and the goals identified in the first phase by defining the

A case study: to reduce process variability of valve seat depth

479

main type of wastes embedded within the production processes and the root causes for
these wastes. The improve phase focuses on identifying expected solutions, suggest set of
alternative solutions to enhance performance and implement some of these solutions
according to the available budget and the expected cost for each alternative.
The control phase concentrates on creating and implementing monitoring and
response plans for sustaining improvements, spread out the outcome and the
methodology for the whole organisation, insure the establishment of a new culture within
the organisation.
DMAICs roadmap has been used as a general framework for process improvement
and lean tools have been embedded within these phases. Lin and Chen (2013) Six Sigma
DMAIC process is defined as follows:
1

define: define the core focuses that will involve clarifying the results being sought,
confirming value to the business, establishing boundaries and resources,
communicating goals and plans and identifying the customers and their needs

measure: gather data to validate and to quantify the problem/opportunity with the
aims at setting priorities and making good decisions about what criteria are needed

analyse: find the root causes by delving into the details, enhancing its understanding
of the process and problem and identifying the culprit behind the problem

improve: develop solutions and modify the problems and goal statements to reflect
the discoveries

control: ensure a long term impact on the way people work by the aids of developing
a monitoring process to keep track of the changes they have set out and created.

DMAIC empirical study

The chapter presents the DMAIC project and there are sections for each phase in the
DMAIC improvement cycle. This section presents the results of the DMAIC project
concerning the C cylinder head production line. Each phase of the DMAIC process
improvement cycle is presented in a subsection.

4.1 Define phase


This phase presents the define step in the DMAIC improvement project, which is the
empirical part of the paper. Define is the first step and lays the underpinning for what will
be done later, after the define phase, everyone involved should have a good
understanding of why the project is needed, what impact it is intended to have and how it
will be implemented.
One way to generate improvement projects is to analyse the customer complaints
records in a company. By implementing the define phase it becomes absolutely clear that
we need to pronounce the problem the best way otherwise there will be no chance that we
can solve it. The team concluded the define phase by completing: project charter, a CTQ
tree, a process map and a SIPOC diagram. These were all tools to clearly scope the
project and identify the current problems.

480

T.S. Parsana and D.A. Desai

The customer complaints records at the machining unit of company are reviewed and
the 15 complaints received, until august 2013, are distributed over the different
production channels as shown in Table 2. The table also describes the increase of
customer complaints of C cylinder head over the last three years.
Table 2

No. of customer complaints in the different production line

Production line

Number of customer complaints


2011

2012

2013 (August)

5
4
4
3
16

4
2
6
4
16

3
3
7
2
15

A
B
C
D
Total

Source: Internal records of company


Figure 2

Pareto chart illustrating the customer complaints in 2013 (august) (see online version
for colours)
Customer complaints during 2013
16

100

14

No. of Complaint

10

60

8
40

6
4

Percent

80

12

20

2
0
Production Line
No. of Complaint
Percent
Cum %

7
46.7
46.7

3
20.0
66.7

3
20.0
86.7

2
13.3
100.0

Production line C contributes with seven of the 15 customer complaints. This is further
illustrated by forming a Pareto chart over the customer complaints in the different
channels. In Figure 2 it is obvious that C cylinder production line has received the largest
number of customer complaints during 2013. The authors decided, in deliberation with
personnel concerned, to take a closer look at the customer complaints in C cylinder head
production channel. The following Pareto chart, illustrated in Figure 3, shows the
identified reasons for the seven customer complaints stated in the internal complaint
records at the C channel.
Four of the seven customer complaints in C cylinder head production channel are
caused by the valve seat parameter. This indicates that valve seat is a problem area in the
production process in C channel.
The production technicians of production section C is sources of knowledge about the
different processes. They also pointed out the quality problems in the C cylinder head as
a possible candidate for a Six Sigma project.

A case study: to reduce process variability of valve seat depth


Figure 3

481

Pareto chart for customer complaints in C production line (see online version
for colours)
C - Cylinder Head
7

100
80

5
4

60

40

20

1
0

Types of complaint

ve
al
V

at
Se

pt
De

h
To

t
gh
ei
H
l
ta

z
No

e
zl

pt
De

No. of complaint
Percent
Cum %

Table 3

Percent

No. of complaint

3
42.9
42.9

2
28.6
71.4

ve
al

Se

at

1
14.3
85.7

e
et
am
i
D

1
14.3
100.0

DMAIC project charter

DMAIC project charter


Project title: to reduce process variability of valve seat depth in cylinder head using Six Sigma
methodology
Project start date: August 2013

Project location: Varun Metacraft Pvt. Ltd.,


Gondal Road, Rajkot

Completion date: April 2014


Business case

Opportunity statement

To increase quality of product

The way to improve product and customer


satisfaction is to improve quality of cylinder
head by reducing valve seat depth variation.

To improve customer satisfaction


To increase productivity/output
Goal statement

Project scope

Improvement in valve seat depth machine


Product C cylinder head
process yield will reduce quality inconsistency,
Focus on valve seat depth variation
customer complaints which will lead to
improvement in quality, productivity and
Research on reduction of quality
company health.
inconsistency
Project plan

Team
Start

Define

End

Dr. XYZ(black Belt)

September 13

October13

Mr. ABC(yellow Belt)

Measure

October 13

November 13

Mr. EFG (industry supervisor)

Analyse

November 13

January 13

Mr. XUV

Improve

January 13

February 13

Mr. SFG

Control

March 13

and other concern employees

482

T.S. Parsana and D.A. Desai

4.1.1 Project charter


To formalise the project the authors decided to use the project charter tool. This tool is
useful for creating a shared understanding about the project and the project goal. The
charter documents the project mission, the problem statement, possible gains of the
project, constraints and assumptions, important persons, key dates during the project and
the project status. The charter is revised throughout the life of the project.

4.1.2 SIPOC diagram


SIPOC is a way to record key process information at a high level using a structured
method and identify the key elements of a process improvement project before work
begins. The purpose of a SIPOC diagram is to define and document the suppliers,
inputs/requirements, key process steps, outputs/requirements, customers and critical-toquality elements of a business process. It also gives a high level understanding of the
process, the process steps and their correlation to each other. Table 4 describes the
transformation process of inputs from suppliers to output.
Table 4

SIPOC diagram

Supplier

Input

Process

Output

Customer

Foundry
store
utility

C.I. casting head

Machining
operation,
cleaning,
inspection,
packing

Cylinder head

Oil engine/diesel
engine
manufacturer

Machine
Man
Tool insert
Fixture measurement
gages, etc.
Compressed air
Power

To understand the problem clearly and to identify all the relevant elements of this study,
SIPOC diagram was used. After focusing on the operations in cylinder head
manufacturing unit, machining process is found as pain area where process variation was
occurred.

4.1.3 Voice of the customer


Voice of customer can be defined as a systematic approach for incorporating the needs of
customers into the design of customer experiences. Process improvement projects,
usually, have to deal with internal as well as external customers. We would rather use the
direct contact methods like interviews at the point of provision instead of the indirect
method of collecting feedback comments on the pre-dispatch inspection (PDI) report
submitted by the production supervisor.

A case study: to reduce process variability of valve seat depth


Figure 4

483

CTQ tree for C cylinder head

4.1.4 Process mapping


A tool often used in the define phase is process mapping, which is important for a greater
understanding of the process. First a process overview with the whole process from
supplier to customer was made. An overview of the production line with high level
process mapping is given in the Figure 5. The maps were made with assistance from
production line technicians and supervisor.
Figure 5

Process map for C cylinder head (see online version for colours)

484

T.S. Parsana and D.A. Desai

4.1.5 Problem discussion


The baseline data collection of customer complaints from two months has showed that
nearly 1.5% of the cylinder head rejections are due to inlet and exhaust port leakage
which in turn causes loss of combustion gases and hence power, reducing the engine
efficiency.
Process variability in depth of inlet and exhaust valve seat in engine cylinder head
makes quality inconsistency which in turn causing complaints from the customers.
Solving of this problem or finding out the root cause for the leakage needs a systematic
approach and Six Sigma tools and methodology would efficiently serve the purpose.
From the internal data found out that customer complaints are addressing to the problem
of inlet and exhaust valve seat depth variation in cylinder head.

4.2 Measure phase


The measure phase builds upon the existing data available (introducing new data
collection and measurements, if necessary) in order to fully fathom the historical
behaviour of the process.
This phase is concerned with selecting appropriate product characteristics, studying
the measurement system, making necessary measurements, recording the data and
establishing a baseline of the process capability or sigma level for the process. Table 5
shows operations/process, measuring parameters and gage used.
Table 5

Process specification limit

Operation/process

Measuring gage

Specification limit(mm)

Inlet valve seat bore

Bore dial gage

57 + 0.025

Exhaust valve seat bore

Bore dial gage

54 + 0.025

Inlet valve seat depth

Depth dial gage

11.60 + 0.10

Exhaust valve seat depth

Depth dial gage

11.60 + 0.10

Inlet valve guide

Bore dial gage

18 + 0.018

Exhaust valve guide

Bore dial gage

18 + 0.018

Nozzle depth

Nozzle depth dial gage

17.5 0.20

Total height

Height gage

110 0.050

4.2.1 Sampling plan


Data was collected from the August to September PDI report of C cylinder head. PDI
report contains data of all CTQ tree parameter. Sampling plan is prepared based on
simple random sample size calculation and sample size of five cylinder head is taken
from every day PDI report.
Sample size for a simple random sample calculation for known population

A case study: to reduce process variability of valve seat depth

485

Confidence level 95%, z = 1.96,


Population proportion P = 75%,
Margin of error = 4%,
Population = 50 cylinder heads / PDI
n = ( z 2 * p * q ) + ME 2 / [ ME 2 + z 2 * p * q / N ]

n = [ (1.96)2 * 0.75* 0.25 + 0.0016] / [ 0.0016 + (1.96) 2 *0.75*0.25 / 50]


n = (0.7203 + 0.0016) / (0.0016 + 0.144)
n = 4.958
n5

Collected data are placed in the Minitab statistical software analysis.


Figure 6

X and S chart of inlet valve seat depth sample data (see online version for colours)
Inlet valve seat depth Xbar-S Chart
11.73

U C L= 11.7271

Sample M ean

11.70
_
_
X= 11.6721

11.67
11.64

LC L= 11.6170

11.61
1

15

22

29

36
Sa m p le

43

50

57

64

U C L= 0.08060

Sample StDev

0.08
0.06

_
S = 0.03858

0.04
0.02
0.00

LC L= 0
1

Figure 7

15

22

29

36
Sa m p le

43

50

57

64

X and S chart of exhaust valve seat depth sample data (see online version for colours)
Exhaust Valve seat Depth Xbar-S Chart

Sample M ean

11.73

U C L= 11.7243

11.70
_
_
X= 11.6712

11.67
11.64

LC L= 11.6182

11.61
1

15

22

29

36
S a m p le

43

50

57

64

Sample StDev

0.08

U C L= 0.07764

0.06
_
S = 0.03716

0.04
0.02
0.00

LC L= 0
1

15

22

29

36
S a m p le

43

50

57

64

486

T.S. Parsana and D.A. Desai

As shown in the Figures 6 and 7graph the process mean is stable, no subgroup is out of
control on either X or S chart. There is no need to be concerned about the precision limit
because 100 or more data points are included in calculation. If the data are correlated you
may see increase number of false alarm. Because less than 2% of sub group are outside
the control limit on the x chart, the correlation test is not needed.

4.2.2 Current process capability


Process capability refers to the evaluation of how well a process meets specifications.
Capability studies are the primary tool for managing variation reduction. They act as the
scorecard. Capability studies help characterise the type of problem (unstable, off-target,
excessive variation) guiding which tools and strategies to apply.

4.2.2.1 Interpreting the results


On both the X chart and the R chart, the points are randomly distributed between the
control limits, implying a stable process. The points on the run chart make a random
horizontal scatter, with no trends or shifts also indicating process stability.
On the capability histogram, the data approximately follow the normal curve. On the
normal probability plot, the points approximately follow a straight line. These patterns
indicate that the data are normally distributed.
Figure 8

Six pack Minitab analysis of inlet valve seat depth sample data (see online version
for colours)

Inlet valve seat depth capability Sixpack analysis


Sample Mean

Xbar Chart

Capability Histogram

11.72

UCL=11.7271

11.68

_
_
X=11.6721

LSL

Specifications
LSL 11.6
USL 11.7

11.64
LCL=11.6170
1

15

22

29

36

43

50

57

64

.55 .58 .61 .64 .67 .70 .73 .76


11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11

Sample Range

R Chart

Normal Prob Plot

0.2

UCL=0.2019

0.1

_
R=0.0955

0.0

AD: 2.138, P: < 0.005

LCL=0
1

15

22

29

36

43

50

57

64

11.5

Last 25 Subgroups
Within
StDev 0.04105
Cp
0.41
Cpk
0.23
PPM
287587.93

11.68
11.60
50

55

60
Sample

11.6

11.7

11.8

Capability Plot

11.76
Values

USL

65

70

Within
Overall
Specs

StDev
Pp
Ppk
Cpm
PPM

Overall
0.04104
0.41
0.23
*
287510.72

487

A case study: to reduce process variability of valve seat depth

But from the capability plot, you can see that the process tolerance falls above the upper
specification limit. This means sometimes see valve seat depth that encounters the upper
specification of 11.7 mm.
Ppk is similar to the Cpk statistic and a value of 0.23 indicates that this process is not
capable for the longer term. Figure 8, as per calculation the values obtained for inlet
valve seat depth process capability are Cp = 0.41, and Cpk = 0. 23. It can be seen that
the process uses up more than the specification band. It can also be deciphered that the
process is off-centred, but capable. From the measurement phase it is observed that
current sigma level is 2.06, defects per million are 287,587.93, process yield 71.24%.
Figure 9

Six pack Minitab analysis of exhaust valve seat depth sample data (see online version
for colours)

Exhuast Valve Seat Depth Capability Sixpack Analysis


Capability Histogram

Sample Mean

Xbar Chart
11.72

UCL=11.7243

11.68

_
_
X=11.6712

LSL

USL

Specifications
LSL 11.6
USL 11.7

11.64
LCL=11.6182
1

15

22

29

36

43

50

57

64

11.58 11.61 11.64 11.67 11.70 11.73 11.76

Normal Prob Plot

Sample Range

R Chart
0.2

UCL=0.1945

0.1

_
R=0.0920

AD: 2.165, P: < 0.005

LCL=0

0.0
1

15

22

29

36

43

50

57

64

11.5

Values

Within
StDev 0.03954
Cp
0.42
Cpk
0.24
PPM
269207.67

11.68
11.60
55

60
Sample

11.7

11.8

Capability Plot

Last 25 Subgroups
11.76

50

11.6

65

70

Within
Overall

StDev
Pp
Ppk
Cpm
PPM

Overall
0.03955
0.42
0.24
*
269344.23

Specs

Figure 9, as per calculation the values obtained for inlet valve seat depth process
capability are Cp = 0.42, and Cpk = 0. 24. It can be seen that the process uses up more
than the specification band. It can also be deciphered that the process is off-centred, but
capable. From the measurement phase it is observed that current sigma level is 2.12,
defects per million are 269,207.67, process yield 73.08%.

4.3 Analyse phase


The goal of the analyse phase is to understand how the process actually works, identify
the root causes of the process variation and to confirm those causes using appropriate
data analysis tools. In the analyse phase, data is gathered according to the improvement

488

T.S. Parsana and D.A. Desai

project. Objectives are defined, the independent variables are identified and sources of
variation are analysed.

4.3.1 Gage R&R


While calculating the variation in whole process it is really needed to find how much of
this variation is due to the measurement system and how much the measurement system
is reliable. Answering these questions it is needed to use gage R&R.

4.3.1.1 Data collection


Ten cylinder head were randomly sampled across all major sources of process variation
(machine, time and shift, job change) to be representative of those typically produced.

Gage R&R study worksheet

Parts: ten

Operators: two

Replicates: three

Total runs: 60

Gage R&R study ANOVA method

4.3.1.2 Interpreting result


Gage R&R for depth
Gage name:

Depth dial gauge

Date of study:

20 February 2014

Reported by:

Tejas S. Parsana

Tolerance:

0.1

The result coming from analysing is in below. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was
used to calculate variance components:
Source

DF

SS

MS

Parts

0.083544

0.0092827

94.5068

0.000

Operators

0.000704

0.0001760

1.7919

0.152

Parts*operators

36

0.003536

0.0000982

1.1162

0.355

0.0000880

Repeatability

50

0.004400

Total

99

0.092184

Alpha to remove interaction term = 0.25


Source

VarComp

%contribution (of VarComp)

Total gage R&R

0.0000965

9.50

Repeatability

0.0000923

9.09

Reproducibility

0.0000042

0.41

0.0000042

0.41

Operators

489

A case study: to reduce process variability of valve seat depth


Part-to-part

0.0009190

90.50

Total variation

0.0010155

100.00

Source

Std dev (SD)

Study var (6 * SD)

% study var (%SV)

Total gage R&R

0.0098217

0.058930

30.82

Repeatability

0.0096062

0.057637

30.14

0.0020460

0.012276

6.42

0.0020460

0.012276

6.42

Reproducibility
Operators
Part-to-part

0.0303157

0.181894

95.13

Total variation

0.0318670

0.191202

100.00

Figure 10 Gage R&R graphically (see online version for colours)

Gage R&R (ANOVA) for depth


Gage name:
Date of study:

Reported by: Parsana Tejas S.


Tolerance:
0.1
Misc:

Depth dial gauge


20-2-2014
Components of Variation

depth by Parts

100

% Contribution

Percent

% Study Var

50

11.70
11.65
11.60

Gage R&R

Repeat

Reprod

Part-to-Part

Sample Range

R Chart by Operators
1

10

depth by Operators

0.050

11.70

0.025

UCL=0.02091
_
R=0.0064
LCL=0

0.000
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910

11.65
11.60

Parts

Xbar Chart by Operators


2

11.70

_
_
UCL=11.6716
X=11.6596
LCL=11.6476

11.65
11.60
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910

Parts

3
Operators

Parts * Operators Interaction


Average

1
Sample Mean

5
6
Parts

Operators

11.70

1
2
3
4

11.65

11.60
1

5 6
Parts

10

The gage R&R study produces six graphs shown in Figure 10. A component of variation
graph provides bars for each of the variance components including gage R&R,
repeatability, reproducibility and part-to-part variation.
Estimate the percent variation due to the measuring system. The percent variation
appears in the gage R&R table. 90.5% of the total variation in the measurements is due to
the part-to-part variation. When % contribution for part-to-part is high, the system is able
to distinguish between parts. Using %study variation when interested in comparing the
measurement system variation to the total variation is always recommended.

490

T.S. Parsana and D.A. Desai

Gage R&R study shows total gage R&R %contribution is 9.50 and repeatability
% contribution is 9.09 means gage system is unacceptable. New depth dial gage is
introduced for measurement of cylinder head valve seat depth.

4.3.2 Cause and effect diagram


A cause and effect diagram is a tool that helps identify, sort and display possible causes
of a specific problem or quality characteristic. The cause and effect diagram was used in
this phase to detect causes to the problems with the valve seat depth variation. The
improvement group developed a diagram with brainstorming.
Validation of root causes that were fixed was done based on the discussions with
chief of the operations and other involved in the process. This was purely based on their
experience and perceptions. Brainstorming sessions need to be conducted for the same,
but looking at number of root causes, time proved to be the major constraint. Apart from
this, each root fixed could not be examined for its occurrence frequency and therefore its
impact on the problem.
Figure 11 Cause and effect diagram (see online version for colours)
Measuremen

Material

Personnel

Hardne ss

Calibaration
e rror
Lack of
inspe ction

Unsk ille d

Burrs on e dge

Lack of
instrum e nt

Ine x pe rie nce

Too l inse rt life


(we ar)

Square ne ss

P re vious
m achining
variatio n follow

Environment

Im prope r Fix ture


se tup proce ss
Fix ture palte
fla te ne ss
irre gularitie s

Method

Valve
seat
depth
variation

Incapability
W ork table
fla te ne ss

W rong param e te r
se le ction

Machine

4.3.3 Multi-voting
By design, brainstorming generates a long list of ideas. However, also by design, many
are not realistic or feasible. The multi-voting activity allows a group to narrow their list
or options into a manageable size for sincere consideration or study. It allows all
members of the group to be involved in the process and ultimately saves the group a lot
of time by allowing them to focus energy on the ideas with the greatest potential.

Wrong machine parameter selection

Lack of measuring instrument

Lack of motivation

Inexperienced operator

Machine incapability

Material hardness

12

13

14

15

Lack of training

Lack of inspection

11

Tool insert life (worn out)

Fixture setup process guideline missing

Fixture plate flatness irregularities

Worktable and vertical milling centre squareness

Measuring instrument calibration error

10

Burrs on edges

Previous machining variation follow

Cause

10

Operator 1

10

Operator 2

10

Supervisor

QC
engineer

QC head

Production
head

10

Author

15

27

29

31

32

33

35

41

42

47

48

51

54

61

63

Total

Table 6

Rank

A case study: to reduce process variability of valve seat depth


Priorities causes through multi-voting tool

491

492

T.S. Parsana and D.A. Desai

4.3.4 Regression analysis


Regression is a powerful tool for determining if two variables have a linear relationship;
that is, when one increases, the other increases or decreases proportionally. Previous
machining, bottom side turning on CNC-1 variation vary height of cylinder, which is
followed by valve seat depth on VMC-2. Depth of valve seat is measured with reference
to bottom side surface. As shown in Figure 12, fixture loaded with three cylinder head
and machined in one time pellet change. Due to the fixture plate irregularities, valve seat
depth variation of these threee cylinder head, is observed from continues inspection data.
Figure 12 Cylinder head fixture plate (see online version for colours)

Table 7
X1

Inlet valve seat depth and cylinder height regression data sheet
Z1

X2

Z2

X3

Z3

11.66

110.04

11.67

110.03

11.70

110.02

11.64

110.00

11.65

109.99

11.70

110.03

11.65

110.02

11.66

110.02

11.70

110.01

11.67

110.03

11.68

110.02

11.71

110.03

11.66

110.02

11.67

110.02

11.70

110.00

11.65

110.02

11.67

110.02

11.70

110.02

11.64

110.01

11.66

110.01

11.69

109.99

4.3.4.1 Regression analysis of inlet valve seat depth and cylinder height

Regression analysis: X1 versus Z1

The regression equation is


X 1 = 65.4 + 0.700 Z1
S = 0.00711136 R-sq = 66.0% R-sq(adj) = 59.2%

Regression analysis: X2 versus Z2

The regression equation is


X 2 = 53.0 + 0.588 Z 2
S = 0.00685994 R-sq = 58.8% R-sq(adj) = 50.6%

493

A case study: to reduce process variability of valve seat depth

Regression analysis: X3 versus Z3

The regression equation is


X 3 = 20.4 + 0.292 Z 3
S = 0.00408248 R-sq = 58.3% R-sq(adj) = 50.0%

4.3.4.2 Regression analysis of exhaust valve seat depth and cylinder height

Regression analysis: Y1 versus Z1

The regression equation is


Y 1 = 65.4 + 0.700 Z1
S = 0.00625643 R-sq = 71.5% R-sq(adj) = 65.7%

Regression analysis: Y2 versus Z2

The regression equation is


Y 2 = 90.3 + 0.926 Z 2
S = 0.0139009 R-sq = 46.3% R-sq(adj) = 35.6%

Regression analysis: Y3 versus Z3

The regression equation is


Y 3 = 67.4 + 0.719 Z 3
S = 0.0112639 R-sq = 52.8% R-sq(adj) = 43.3%

Xi inlet valve seat depth


Yi exhaust valve seat depth
Zi cylinder head

1,2,3 (cylinder head)

Table 8
Y1

Exhaust valve seat depth and cylinder height regression data sheet
Z1

Y2

Z2

Y3

Z3

11.65

110.04

11.68

110.03

11.70

110.02

11.62

110.00

11.63

109.99

11.70

110.03

11.64

110.02

11.63

110.02

11.70

110.01

11.64

110.03

11.65

110.02

11.71

110.03

11.65

110.02

11.66

110.02

11.70

110.00

11.64

110.02

11.65

110.02

11.70

110.02

11.63

110.01

11.65

110.01

11.69

109.99

S is called the standard error or the standard error of the estimate. The smaller the value
of S implies the stronger the linear relationship.
In this model, the R-sq interpretation is that almost % of the variability in the valve
seat depth is explained by the height of cylinder head.

XYZ PVT. LTD.

Drill dia. and depth then


specification
Drill dia. and depth then
specification
Drill dia. and depth then
specification
Drill dia. and depth then
specification
Drill dia. and depth then
specification
Drill dia. and depth then
specification
Drill dia. and depth then
specification
Drill dia. and depth then
specification
Drill dia. and depth then
specification

Top side bolt


hole finish

Rocker
mounting hole

Spot face

Bolt Hole
finish

Dowel finish

Push rod hole

Valve guide
hole

Valve seat bore

Water direction
hole

Bottom
side

Drill dia. and depth then


specification

Top side dowel


hole finish

Top side

Potential failure mode

Process
description

Operation
no.

Other details (if any):

Leakage problem

Improper setting,
improper tool select

Improper setting,
improper tool select

OCC

2
Improper setting, tool
wear, improper
process parameters

Improper setting, tool


wear, improper
process parameters

Improper setting, tool


wear, improper
process parameters

Potential causes

Fitment problem and


functional problem at
customer end

Fitment problem and


functional problem at
customer end

Fitment problem and


functional problem at
customer end

Functional problem at
customer end

Functional problem at
customer end

Fitment problem and


functional problem at
customer end

Fitment problem and


functional problem at
customer end

SEV

Core team: ****

Customer name (if any): ****

Potential effect of failure

Key contact: ****

Part/product description: engine cylinder head

Setup VMC
program,
process
drawing, work
instruction, first
piece inspection

Setup VMC
program,
process
drawing, work
instruction, first
piece inspection

Current control
prevention

Revision date:

Rev. no.:

Doc. no.:

In-process
inspection

In-process
inspection

In process
inspection
(100%)

In-process
inspection

In-process
inspection

Current
control
detection

24

36

36

12

36

36

36

DET RPN

Table 9

Customer drawing no. (if any): ****

Key contact person: ***

Part/product no.: C-cylinder head

Process failure mode and effect analysis

494
T.S. Parsana and D.A. Desai

Process FMEA

A case study: to reduce process variability of valve seat depth

495

R-squared adjusted is the version of R-squared that has been adjusted for the number of
predictors in the model. R-squared tends to overestimate the strength of the association,
especially when more than one independent variable is included in the model.

4.3.5 Failure mode effect analysis (process-FMEA)


FMEA can be used as a standalone project tool. However, it is strongly recommended
that you use it to generate corrective action in a process improvement project. An FMEA
is not a trivial tool rather it requires significant effort from a diverse team.
Su and Chou (2008), FMEA is used to identify and assess the risks of either existing
or proposed controls in a process. For each potential failure mode, we consider the
potential causes that might cause the failure and rate their severity (SEV), their
occurrence (OCC) and their likelihood of detection (DET). Then a risk priority number
(RPN) is calculated for each potential failure by multiplying the severity by occurrence
by detection.
Analyse the outputs of the process and take into account the potential failure effects,
causes and controls of each one potential failure mode. Table 9 illustrates the FMEA for
process.

4.4 Improve phase


On the basis of a clear knowledge of the root causes of the problem, need to implement
different improvement solutions and evaluate how these address the problem identified
during the previous phase. The best solution needs to be verified (pilot trial) for its
effectiveness.

4.4.1 Action plan


In this phase detailed discussions and brainstorming sessions were carried out. Solutions
were identified for all root causes described below.

Machine

Machine parameter like speed feed depth of cut of drilling operation on CNC-VMC
optimise for cast iron cylinder head through design of experiment but due to some
limitation not performed. Machine is enough capable for cylinder head parts
production. Worktable and vertical milling centre of machine squareness test
suggested to management and in future it will check and correct by Seller
Companys technician.

Fixture

A fixture plate misalignment or flatness irregularity is removed by milling operation


of plate on automatic vertical milling centre. Fixture setup process guideline is
charted and strictly monitored by trained technician.

Measurement

As %studyvar for gage R&R is 30.82 and since %contribution is 9.50 then totally it
shows that the system is unacceptable. Running gage of R&R can help us to find the
error of every measuring apparatus and every operator. The conclusion may result in

496

T.S. Parsana and D.A. Desai

changing or calibration of each measuring apparatus or training of operators. All


calibration reports summery is regularly updated to notice board.

Environment

As shown in Figure 14, Previous machine variation is controlled by facilitating


personal measuring table and digital height gage near to that machine so operators
can measure each cylinder height to keep an eye on variation, if exist refer control
plan. In-process inspection method is implemented and all the operation/process
parameters measures and fill in the given inspection report continuously.

Material

Burrs on edges remove manually by trained operator through fine grits grinding
wheel and cleaned by pressurised air gun. Material hardness test performs for each
lot of casting cylinder head and high grade tool insert ordered for increase tool life in
continuous operation.

Person

Operators and production technician are sufficient experienced and trained. So for
motivation, new incentive wage scheme will work satisfactory and suggestions are
made to top management for quality circle and employee welfare.
Figure 13 Depth dial gage (see online version for colours)

Figure 14 Height gage provided to CNC machine (see online version for colours)

497

A case study: to reduce process variability of valve seat depth

4.4.2 Process capability after improvement


This phase aims at adjusting the process mean on target. Process mean can be adjusted on
target by improving the factors that have significant effects on the mean. During
improvement phase statistical process control (SPC) is used as a monitoring tool. The
objective of SPC was to control the variations in the process reduce the rejections and
improve the process capability.
Figure 15 Improved inlet valve seat depth six pack analyses (see online version for colours)

Improved inlet valve seat depth Process Capability Sixpack


Sample Mean

Xbar Chart

Capability Histogram

11.68

UCL=11.68320

11.66

_
_
X=11.655

LSL

USL

Specifications
LSL 11.6
USL 11.7

11.64
LCL=11.62680
1

11

13

15

17

19

11.60 11.62 11.64 11.66 11.68 11.70

Sample Range

R Chart

Normal Prob Plot

0.10

UCL=0.1034

0.05

_
R=0.0489

0.00

AD: 1.367, P: < 0.005

LCL=0
1

11

13

15

17

19

11.60

Last 20 Subgroups

Values

Within
StDev 0.02102
Cp
0.79
Cpk
0.71
PPM 20573.44

11.65

11.60
10
Sample

11.70

11.75

Capability Plot

11.70

11.65

15

20

Within
Overall

Overall
StDev 0.02163
Pp
0.77
Ppk
0.69
Cpm *
PPM 24215.34

Specs

To illustrate Figures 15 and 16 represents liner specifications are in control limits after
rectification of assignable causes. As per calculation, the values obtained for inlet valve
seat depth process capability are Cp = 0.79, and Cpk = 0. 71 and the values obtained for
Exhaust valve seat depth process capability are Cp = 0.82, and Cpk = 0. 72. It can be
seen that the process uses the small specification band. It can be make out that the
process is slightly off-centred, but capable. It is observed that improved sigma level is
3.54, defects per million are 20573.44, process yield 97.44% and improved sigma level is
3.64, defects per million are 16046.56, process yield 98.4% for inlet and exhaust valve
seat depth respectively.

498

T.S. Parsana and D.A. Desai

Figure 16 Improved exhaust valve seat depth six pack analyses (see online version for colours)

Improved Exhaust valve seat depth Process Capability Sixpack


Sample Mean

Xbar Chart

Capability Histogram
UCL=11.68343

11.68

LSL

USL

Specifications
LSL 11.6
USL 11.7

_
_
X=11.6563

11.66
11.64

LCL=11.62917
1

11

13

15

17

19

11.60 11.62 11.64 11.66 11.68 11.70

Sample Range

R Chart

Normal Prob Plot

0.10

UCL=0.0995

0.05

_
R=0.0470

AD: 1.861, P: < 0.005

LCL=0

0.00
1

11

13

15

17

19

11.60

Values

Within
StDev 0.02022
Cp
0.82
Cpk
0.72
PPM 18046.56

11.65

11.60
10
Sample

11.70

11.75

Capability Plot

Last 20 Subgroups
11.70

11.65

15

20

Within
Overall

Overall
StDev 0.02121
Pp
0.79
Ppk
0.69
Cpm *
PPM 23646.91

Specs

4.5 Control phase


The control phase aims at ensuring that the improvements achieved will be sustained in
the long term. For this reason, there must be an ongoing measurement system so that we
are able to see the process continues to be both capable and stable. Certainly, we must
make use of visual management to communicate the results of the project. Also, it would
be useful to apply the lessons learnt from a specific project to different areas within an
organisation through appropriate knowledge management. The Project team members
executed strategic controls by an ongoing process of reviewing the goals and progress of
the targets. The team met periodically and reviewed the progress of improvement
measures and their impacts on the overall business goals.
In process inspection will be performed to measure the valve seat depth of the
cylinder head as well as all other operation/process parameter. Control chart will be
plotted of the valve seat depth data to monitor the improved process. Implementing all
improvement measures during the improve phase, periodic reviews of various solutions
and strict adherence on the process yield is carried out.
A control plan was established based on the analysis of process variables under
changed practice for continual monitoring of the processes. This control plan served as
guide line for operators to follow the process and process control team to ensure smooth
working with good and consistent quality of output stock. A control plan for C cylinder
head top and bottom setup is presented in Table 10.

Date: January 4, 2014

Supplier/plant: *****

Top
side
setup

Part/
process
number

C/1SET/FP/01

20.00 mm

Hole dia.

Drill ( 6.75)

Rocker
cover
mount. hole

6.75 mm

20.00 mm

Hole depth
Hole dia.

8.50 mm

Hole dia.

Drill ( 8.5)

32.50 mm 0.500 mm

Rocker
support
mount. hole

42.80 mm

Hole depth

End mill (
42.8)

Vernier (no.
VM-VC-001)

Vernier (no.
VM-VC-001)

Vernier (no.
VM-VC-001)

mm Plug Gage (no.


VM-SF-E0843)

Vernier (no.
VM-VC-001)

0.050 mm

Vernier (no.
VM-VC-001)

0.050 mm Plug Gage (no.


VM-PG-03)

0.050 mm

0.050 mm Plug Gage (no.


VM-PG-02)

+0.500

Methods
Evaluation/
measurement
techniques

mm Plug Gage (no.


VM-SF-E0842)

30.50 mm

Hole depth

End mill (
30.50)

+0.500

15.50 mm 0.200 mm

0.500 mm

Hole depth

20.00 mm

Hole depth

mm

Tolerance
+0.027

Drill ( 15.50)

16.00 mm

Specification

Dowel dia.

Hole depth

VMC

Stud hole

Reamer (
16.00)

Process

End Mill (
32.0)

VM 05

Location
dowel finish

Product

Production:

Pre-Launch:

Prototype:

Revision no. 00 Date:

6 Then follow the


regular
Inspection

5 Inspect 100% till


you get Ok piece
in presence of
the supervisor

4 Reset the m/c/


tooling/jig
fixture as
required by the
supervisor

3 Inform the
supervisor

Every five Inspection 1 Hold production


report
(stop m/c)
VMPL/Q 2 Segregate
A/00
suspect products

100%

Reaction plan

Frequency

Size

Control
method

Other customer requirements (if any): final inspection report to be sent with each lot.

Product/process

Other approval date: ***


Characteristics

Spot facing
and drilling

Machine
no.

Process
name

Jigs, fixture,
tooling reqd,
for mfg.

Core team: ***

Original rev. no.: N.A.

Last change level: N.A.

Supplier code: ****

Key contact no.:***

Drawing no: P 1242441


Customer quality approval/date:

Customer engineering approval/date:

Table 10

Product approval date: ***

Control plan no.:VMPL/%%/##/01


Key contact person:***

Part name/no.: C-cylinder head

XYZ PVT. LTD.

Control plan

A case study: to reduce process variability of valve seat depth

499

Control plan

Bottom
side
setup

Part/
process
number

VM 06

VMC

Location
dowel
reaming,
finish

Valve seat
and valve
guide bore

Process
name

56.5 mm
11.6 mm
57.00 mm

Hole depth
Depth
Hole dia.
Hole depth

Rough boring
bar 56.5

Finish boring
bar 57.0
Drill ( 15.50)

11.6 mm

54.00 mm

Hole dia.

Finish boring
bar 54.0

53.5 mm

Hole depth

Rough boring
bar 53.5

Specification
16.00 mm

Process

Hole dia.

Product

Production:

Pre-Launch:

Prototype:

Revision no. 00 Date:

Size

Frequency

Control
method

Reaction plan

+0.10

mm

0.03 mm

Depth Dial
(VM-DG-01)

Bore gage
(VM-B.G.-1)

Vernier (no.
VM-VC-001)

+0.10

mm

Vernier (no.
VM-VC-001)

Bore gage
(VM-B.G.-1)

0.10 mm

0.03 mm

5 Inspect 100% till


you get ok piece
in presence of
the supervisor

4 Reset the
m/c/tooling/jig
fixture as
required by the
supervisor

3 Inform the
supervisor

mm Plug Gage (no. 100% Every five Inspection 1 Hold production


VM-SF-E(stop m/c)
report
0843)
VMPL/
QA/00 2 Segregate
0.10 mm
Vernier (no.
VM-VC-001)
suspect products

+0.027

Tolerance

Evaluation/
measurement
techniques

Methods

Other customer requirements (if any): final inspection report to be sent with each lot.

Product/process

Other approval date: ***


Characteristics

Reamer (
16.00)

Jigs, fixture,
tooling reqd,
for mfg.

Supplier/plant: *****

Machine
no.

Core team: ***

Original rev. no.: N.A.


Date: January 4, 2014

Last change level: N.A.

Supplier code: ****

Key contact no.:***

Drawing no: P 1242441


Customer quality approval/date:

Customer engineering approval/date:

Product approval date: ***

Control plan no.:VMPL/%%/##/01


Key contact person:***

Part name/no.: C-cylinder head

XYZ PVT. LTD.

Table 10

Control plan

500
T.S. Parsana and D.A. Desai

Control plan (continued)

Bottom
side
setup

Part/
process
number

Eccentric
and
concentric
chamfer
Chamfer 45

C/2SET/FP/01

Chamfer 120

Drill ( 19.0)

Water holes

Chamfer 45

10.00 mm

Hole depth

Chamfer 120

8.00 mm

Hole dia.

Drill ( 8.50)

mm
Plug gage (no.
VM-PG-E8982)

Bore gage
(VM-B.G.-1)

0.200 mm

Vernier (no.
VM-VC-001)

mm Plug gage (no.


VM-PG-01)

mm

+0.036

+0.10

+0.021

Tolerance

Methods
Evaluation/
measurement
techniques

R32.50
R32.48

Vernier (no.
VM-VC-001)

19.00 mm 0.200 mm Plug gage (no.


VM-PG-E7484)

15.50 mm

Gasket
mounting
dowel hole

Drilling of
stud hole
Hole dia.

Specification
18.00 mm

Drill ( 15.50)

Process

Production:

Pre-Launch:

Prototype:

Revision no. 00 Date:

Size

Frequency

Control
method

6 Then follow the


regular
inspection

Reaction plan

Other customer requirements (if any): final inspection report to be sent with each lot.

Product/process

Reamer (
18.00)

Product

Characteristics

Other approval date: ***

Hole dia.

Process
name

Jigs, fixture,
tooling reqd,
for mfg.

Date: January 4, 2014

Supplier/plant: *****

Machine
no.

Core team: ***

Original rev. no.: N.A.

Last change level: N.A.

Supplier code: ****

Key contact no.:***

Drawing no: P 1242441


Customer quality approval/date:

Customer engineering approval/date:

Table 10

Product approval date: ***

Control plan no.:VMPL/%%/##/01


Key contact person:***

Part name/no.: C-cylinder head

XYZ PVT. LTD.

Control plan

A case study: to reduce process variability of valve seat depth

501

Control plan (continued)

502

T.S. Parsana and D.A. Desai

Figure 17 Notice board for visual quality and production update (see online version for colours)

Conclusions

There is research on Six Sigma implementation in manufacturing sector carried out and
finds the roadmap/framework for medium scale manufacturing sector to implement Six
Sigma successfully. Top management should focus on integrating Six Sigma with
implemented quality management systems and linking with selected suppliers. Linking
Six Sigma for rewards/ recognition to employees will help to encourage them to improve
self-satisfaction and motivated team work with zeal and enthusiasms.
During the implementation of the DMAIC approach, it became obvious that a Six
Sigma project needs resources and top management commitment. Although support from
top management is critical, the role of line management employees is vital too. For this
reason, training on world class performance concepts needs to be provided as well as
appropriate visual management has to take place in order to encourage employees
involvement and participation. Actually the paper written is the mixture of analysis and
practical experience in this technical and advanced world. The implementation of the
various tools and brainstorming sessions has resulted in the improvement of the
manufacturing process and also on the firm as a whole.
Small-scale manufacturing industries are inherently capable of adopting Six Sigma as
breakthrough strategy but they need to show the roadmap. The multiple gains achieved
by this initial effort of Six Sigma improvement methodology on one of the problems of
the company are attractive enough for them to deploy Six Sigma companywide. The
effective way can be project-by-project application of Six Sigma to strengthen their
understanding about this strategy along with consolidating on the gains from it to achieve
overall operational excellence.

503

A case study: to reduce process variability of valve seat depth

5.1 Visible results


The comparison of sigma level before and after undertaking the study is depicted in
Figure 18. Table 11 shows results before and after improvement and control.
Figure 18 Sigma level comparison (see online version for colours) (see online version for colours)

6
5.5
5
4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0

Before Improvement
After Improvement

Inlet Valve Seat Depth


Table 11

Exhaust Valve Seat Depth

Improvement after Six Sigma methodology implementation


Inlet valve seat depth

Parameter
Cp
DPMO
Process Yield
Six Sigma Level

Exhaust valve seat depth

Before
improvement

After
improvement

Before
improvement

After
improvement

0.41

0.79

0.42

0.82

287,587.93

20,573.44

269,207.67

16,046.56

71.24%

97.44%

73.08%

98.4%

2.06

3.54

2.12

3.64

5.2 Financial implication


By applying DMAIC methodology of Six Sigma improvement strategy, the cylinder head
manufacturing industry could improve quality by lowering the process variability as well
as rejection rates in C cylinder head. These resulted into savings in rework time and
rejection cost. Average production of C cylinder head is 12,000 cylinder head/annum and
selling price is Rs.3200/cylinder head. The overall financial gains by application of Six
Sigma are indicated Inlet valve seat depth and exhaust valve seat depth variability reduce
to 71% and 67% respectively in Table 12.

504

T.S. Parsana and D.A. Desai

Table 12
Sr.
no.

Overall gain by application of Six Sigma methodology


Cylinder head
parameter

Annual rejection rate (no. of


cylinder head)
Before
improvement

After
improvement

Annual
savings

Financial
saving
(million
rupees/year)

Inlet valve seat

3452

247

71%

10.256

Exhaust valve seat

3231

217

67%

9.6448

Limitation and future research direction

A complete review of the effectiveness of the DMAIC project concerning the valve seat
depth variability cannot be made yet. To do this, the measures developed in the DMAIC
project must be implemented and evaluated. Hence the control phase has to be carried out
to see if the customer complaints disappear and the efficiency increase.
DMAIC is suitable for rather extensive problem solving tasks, requiring all of the
components of problem definition, diagnosis and the design of remedies. It is less suited
for problem tasks of a smaller scope. To implement Six Sigma methodology in
manufacturing sector, the first and the foremost requirement is the quality consciousness
mind in the management of the organisation and the unconditional commitment and
constant effort by every participant of system are essentially required. The most
prominent limitation identified in this study is Six Sigmas inferior methodology for
efficient problem diagnosis. Methodological support for the identification of potential
problem causes is offered as an incoherent and poorly structured collection of techniques,
without strategic guidance to ensure efficiency of the diagnostic search.
The root causes fixed during this project can be taken up separately one by one and
their individual impact on the quality of cylinder head product can be further analysed
with tools such a as frequency distribution of occurrence of each root causes, root cause
factor analysis. DMAIC methodology can be applied to other products/processes so as to
reduce rejection rates or process variability and realise higher overall quality and
productivity. The results are applicable to other products in the same line. The findings
could also be valuable for other similar machines with a similar process. Repatriation of
DMAIC application on the same cylinder head involving more rigorous statistical tools
and thus improving the sigma levels further. Furthermore, the authors recommend Design
of Experiments on machine process parameter for cylinder head material for future work.

References
Antony, J. (2009) Can Six Sigma be effectively implemented in SMEs?, International Journal of
Productivity and Performance Management, Vol. 57, No. 5, pp.420423.
Antony, J., Kumar, M. and Mandu, C. (2005) Six Sigma in small and medium sized UK
manufacturing enterprises: some empirical observations, International Journal of Quality and
Reliability Management, Vol. 22, No. 8, pp.860874.
Beatty, J.R. (2006) The quality journey: historical and workforce perspectives and the assessment
of commitment to quality, International Journal of Productivity and Quality Management,
Vol. 1, Nos. 1/2, pp.139167.

A case study: to reduce process variability of valve seat depth

505

Brun, A. (2010) Critical success factors of Six Sigma implementations in Italian companies, Int.
J. Production Economics, Vol. 131, pp.158164.
Chakrabortty, R.K., Biswas, T.K. and Ahmed, I. (2013) Reducing process variability by using
DMAIC model: a case study in Bangladesh, International Journal for Quality Research,
Vol. 7, No. 1, pp.127140.
Chakravorty, S. (2009) Six Sigma programs: an implementation model, Int. J. Production
Economics, Vol. 119, pp.116.
Dambhare, S., Aphale, S., Kakade, K., Thote, T. and Jawalkar, U. (2013) Reduction in rework of
an engine step bore depth variation using DMAIC and Six Sigma approach : a case study of
engine manufacturing industry, International Journal of Advanced Scientific and Technical
Research, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp.252263.
de Mast, J. and Lokkerbol, J. (2012) An analysis of the Six Sigma DMAIC method from the
perspective of problem solving, Int. J. Production Economics, Vol. 139, pp.604614.
Desai, D.A. (2008) Improving productivity and profitability through Six Sigma: experience of a
small-scale jobbing industry, Int. J. Productivity and Quality Management, Vol. 3, No. 3,
pp.290310.
Desai, D.A. (2012a) Increasing bottom-line through Six Sigma quality improvement drive: case of
small scale foundry industry, Udyod Pragati, Vol. 36, No. 2, pp.114.
Desai, D.A. (2012b) Quality and productivity improvement through Six Sigma in foundry
industry, Int. J. Productivity and Quality Management, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp.258280.
Desai, D.A. and Patel, M.B. (2010) Six Sigma implementation barriers in Indian industries
survey results and case studies, Int. J. Business Excellence, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp.142162.
Deshmukh, S.V. and Chavan, A. (2012) Six Sigma and SMEs: a critical review of literature,
International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp.157167.
Easton, G.S. and Rosenzweig, E.D. (2012) The role of experience in Six Sigma project success: an
empirical analysis of improvement projects, Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 30,
pp.481493.
Gupta, N. and Bharti, P.K. (2013) Implementation of Six Sigma for minimizing the defects rate at
a yarn manufacturing company, International Journal of Engineering Research and
Applications, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp.10001011.
Hekmatpanah, M., Sadroddin, M., Shahbaz, S., Mokhtari, F. and Fadavinia, F. (2008) Six Sigma
process and its impact on the organizational productivity, Proceedings of World Academy of
Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 33, pp.375379.
Jin, T., Janamanchi, B. and Feng, Q. (2011) Reliability deployment in distributed manufacturing
chains via closed-loop Six Sigma methodology, Int. J. Production Economics, Vol. 130,
pp.96103.
Kwak, Y.H. and Anbari, F.T. (2006) Benefits, obstacles, and future of six sigma approach,
Technovation, Vol. 26, pp.708715.
Lin, C.J. and Chen, F.F. (2013) Continuous improvement of knowledge management systems
using Six Sigma methodology, Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Vol. 29,
pp.95103.
Prabhushankar, G.V., Devadasan, S.R. and Shalij, P.R. (2008) Six Sigma in Indian automotive
components sector: a survey, ICFAI Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 7, No. 3,
pp.420423.
Raghunath, A. and Jayathirtha, R.V. (2013) Critical success factors for Six Sigma implementation
by SMEs, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Vol. 4, No. 2.
Reid, R.A. (2006) Productivity and quality improvement: an implementation framework,
International Journal of Productivity and Quality Management, Vol. 1, Nos. 1/2, pp.2636.
Roy, H.N., Saha, S., Bhowmick, T. and Goldar, S.C. (2013) Improvement of a fan manufacturing
company by using DMAIC approach: a six-sigma practice, Global Journal of Researches in
Productivity Engineering & Industrial Engineering, Vol. 13, No. 4.

506

T.S. Parsana and D.A. Desai

Sahoo, A.K., Tiwari, M.K. and Mileham, A.R. (2008) Six Sigma based approach to optimize
radial forging operation variables, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 202,
pp.125136.
Shafera, S.M. and Moeller, S.B. (2012) The effects of Six Sigma on corporate performance: an
empirical investigation, Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 30, pp.521532.
Su, C-T. and Chou, C-J. (2008) A systematic methodology for the creation of Six Sigma projects:
a case study of semiconductor foundry, Expert Systems with Applications, Elsevier Ltd,
Vol. 34, pp.26932703.
Wang, H. (2009) A review of Six Sigma approach: methodology, implementation and future
research, IEEE Xplore, pp.14.