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Linking w ords

B Conjunctions (and prepositions)


Most of the words in this table are conjunctions and join two clauses. The words
marked (P), however, are prepositions, and are followed by either a noun or a
gerund (-ing form).
Time
aftcr+
after Il;h ich

ant!
as
as IOllg as
as soo" as
at which (point)
hefore+
by the time
hardly*
110 sooncr*
Ilme (that)
once
since
the moment
then
til/ +
II 11 til+
ichen
ichenccer
icliereupon

lchile
Result
awl
and so
else
or else
otliertcise
so
so thai

C o n tr a st,
C o ncessio n ,
Alt e rnati ve s
although
apart from (1')
hilt

despite (1')
ceCil

if

cccn though
except that
ill spite of (1')
or
mucl: as

Purpose
in case
in order that
ill order to
so
so as to
so that
to
Conditional
as long as

1101'

no t

[ ust in case
Ofl account of (P)
seeing as I that
since

tlutt

though
icliereas
while

erell

dliist
yet
Reason
as
as a resul t of (1')
because
beca use of (1')
c(!1Isiderillg

ducto

for
ill case
ill cieu:

if

if

nnrcli as
the lcay

condition that
procided (that)
pnn;idillg (that)
so hmg as
Il II less
ichet lier . . . or

OIl

Addition

and"
as !cell as (1')
besides (1')
besides Ichich
in additio/l to (P)
not 01l/Y*

Manner
as
as

if

Giving examples
for instance (P)
for example (P)
in particular ( P)

as though
ill a lUlU
ill the lcal)
just as

like

Inver sion - not e the word orde r afte r these words whe n the y hegill
the sente nce.

we had ha rdly left th e grou lld iclven the storm broke.


Hardll) had ice left th e ground ichen the storm broke .
The plane had no sooner taken off than 1 regretted not taking the
trai n.
No sooner had the plane taken off tlutn I regretted not taking th e
train.
Th ese words can act as either prepo sitions or conju nct ions.
H e teen! to hed after midnight . (preposition)
lie scent to hed after he fuu / fi llished h is book. (conjunction)

ofthe fact

tha t

The sentences below illustrate many of the linking words


in the table. Note that many co njunctions can be used
either in the middle of a sentence

I would n' t have told th e police even


(sent ences 1- 9)

if 1 had known.

b unpleasan t once I got used to


c unpleasan t, eecll if the
3 Th e tiger s ran away from the
a Englishwoman as if she
h Englishwo man th e Ical)

or at the beginning.
Ev en if I had known, 1 wouldn' t have told the police .
(sentences 10-1 2)

Complete the sentences by adding any appropriate word


or phrase : note which conjunctions are used with
commas in the examp les.

1 \Ve are advised to do this exercise very


a carefully, athericisc we will make a lot of
h carefull)'U ich i! ou r teac he r
_
c carefully, eeell though it looks
_

2 Mv weeks in captivity weren't too


a un pleusant f.l con~'ideri/lg the te rrihlo reputation of my

c Englishwo man the

III011lCllt

_
was terrihie.
_
run away from a

th ey saw

4 Her Olympic gold medal was


_
a re markable , though mallY people
b re mark able, not thai she didn 't deserve -c,-- - c remarkable ill cieic (~f the fact that she had just

Writing sub-skills

21

Linking words

Sen te n ce uclver-bials

Ti me

After a iclnle
After that
Aft en cflnls (1, 2,4)
As yet (1, 4)
At first (I , 2, 4 )
At last (1, 2, 4)
At ollce
At present (1,3, 4) (F)
At the 11I0 111elif
At the same li me
Bef ore that I then, etc.

BeforelwlId
By the n I tliat time ( 1, 3, 4)
Earlier (1, 4 )
Ecelltually* (1, 2, 4)
Ecerst ncc ttlien] (1, 3, 4 )
Fillfllh;* ( 1, 2)
First*
From then 011 0 , 4 )
Hithert o (1, 4) (F)
l m me d iatelt] (1, 2, 4 )
Illitifllly (I , 2, 4 )
[ II 110 time
Illstfl utly (1, 2, 4)
I II the cu d (I, .3, 4)
I II the mefllltime (1, 3, 4)

Lastly
Later Oil ( 1, 4)
M emnchi!
Nex t"
Now*
Preciously (I , 2, 4 )
Si I l l lllttlll C( )/IS! Y
Sillce tlicn (1, 3, 4 )
So [ar (1, 2,4)
SOOIl (1, 2, 4)
Suhsell'lClltly (1, 2, 4 )
Snddcnli] (1, 2)
1'1ICII*
Ulltil the n (1,3, 4)

At the same tim e


Be that as it may

Better s/ill
Blit*
B'} comparison (1, 3)

BIf contrast (1, 3) (F)


By the same token
Conoe rselq (F)
Despite this
Equalh] (1, 2)
Even so
Hoicece r (1, .3 )
In comparison 0 ,3)

In spite of this
In the same [cay
Instead (1, 4)
Likewise (1, 2)
Mind you (INF )
Nevertheless (F)
Nonethe less (F)
Of course (1, 3)
On the co ntrary
Oil the one tum d
all the other IWlld (1, 3)
01"*

Similflrllf ( 1, 2 )
Still
Then again
Though (3, 4)
Tm e
Yet*
OrdCl;ng points;
adding information
Above fill
Additiollfllllf
Again
Also
A/lI/* (I NF)
Alld then (INF )
As Ice sha ll see [aiel"

'Vithi1l milllltes / day s

As ,cell (4)
As icel! as tlutt

Comparing &
contras tin g ;
alte rnative s;
co ncessio ns

Besides

Admittedly
All the sflme (1, 3)
Alt ernnt ively
Antl Ifet*

First(llf) I Second(llf) etc.


First of all
Fillalllf
For one I another thing
Furthermore (F)
In addition

In the first place (F)

Last(ly )
More I most importantly
Moreover (F)
Next
On top of that
\Vlw t is nlOre

I IIdeed

Conc luding,
summarizing;
generalizing
All i ll all
Altogether
As a rule
Basicalllf (1, 2 )
Broadly speaking (1, 3)
By am/large
Esselltialllf (1, 2)
Generally (1, 2)
III brief (l , 3)
In conclusion (1,3)
In general (1, .3)
I II other icords (1, 3)
In short (1, 3)
Mostllf ( 1, 2 )
all average (1, 3)
On balance (1, 3)
a ll the tellOle (1, 3)
Overall
50* (IN F )
Then (3)

Changing subject;

To som e ext ent (1, 3)


To sum up
Ultimateli; (1, 2)

Giving examples ;
focusing
AIIUlIlg others (1, 3)
For example (1, 3, 4)
For instanc e ( 1, 3, 4 )
Inparticular (1, 2, 3)
Mfl illilf ( 1, 2)
Particlliar/If (1, 2)
Primarillf (1, 2)
Principally (1, 2)
Specificalllf (1, 2)

III [act (1, 2, 3 )


III other iconls (1, 4)
Rather 1 01' rather
That is (to sflY)
To put it another {em}

re fe rring to suhj ect


Anlfhow (I NF)
Alllflcay (I NF)
As f ar as

is con cerned

As f or
I As to .
As regards.
At anlf rate (1, 3) (I N F)
BIf the ,calf (1, .3) (I NF)
Illcidelltalllf (1, 3 )
Noic jor .
Heganling .
Speak ing of.

Talkillg about . . . (I NF)


That brings me on
to . . . (F)
That rem inds me (IN F )
To tum to .
With reference to . .. (F)
Ca use & e ffect;
re ason & re sult ;
inferen ce
Accordingllf (F)
As a result
Becallse of ti l is
CO llsequentllf (F)
For this / thai rcasoll
Hen ce " (F)
If not
If so
In that case
Otli encise
50* (I NF)
That's why*
Then" (1, .3)
Thlls* (F)
Theref ore* (F)

Refo nnulating;

clarifying
Actually (1, 4)
At least
I mean (I N F)

Writing sub-skills

23