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Section 2:

LETOURNEAU
SR POWER CONVERSION
SYSTEM

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LETOURNEAU SR POWER CONVERSION SYSTEM

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LeTourneau SR Power Conversion


System

Overview for LeTourneau SR Power Flow

SR Traction System Operation

SR Operation

Torque Production

Position Sensing

Control Logic and Signal Flow

Generator Voltage Control


o

Priming

Voltage Control Loop

Gate Pulses

Voltage Boost

VR Blown Fuse

Voltage Control in Load Bank

Voltage Control in Standby Mode

Ground Fault

Hill Hold

Activation of Hill Hold

Steering During Hill Hold

Deactivation of Hill Hold

Machine Operation During Hill Hold

Special Operational Modes


o

Load Bank Mode

Standby Power Mode

Control Logic Diagrams

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Load Bank Procedure


o

Testing Procedures

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OVERVIEW FOR LETOURNEAU SR POWER FLOW


Illustration "SR POWER FLOW DIAGRAM" shows the power flow for the L-950, D-950 AND L-1350 SR
loaders and dozers. The diesel engine mechanically drives the AC generator.

The solid lines denote power flow from the generator, through the diode bridge, creating a DC
bus, and through the SR converter to the traction wheel motors.
The dotted lines denote the reversal of power flow from the wheel motors, back through the SR
converter to the DC bus and through the chopper to the respective braking grids when the
machine goes into dynamic braking.

The diesel engine is the prime power source. It is coupled directly to the AC generator. The battery bank
is four 12-volt lead-acid batteries connected in series/parallel to provide a 24-volt source for engine
starting, generator priming, lighting, etc. A separate battery charging alternator, driven from the engine,
maintains the charge on the batteries as in an automotive system.
The engine select switch in the cab controls engine rpm. The HI throttle position brings the engine speed
to 1980 RPM (the actual rpm can vary slightly between 1900 and 1980 depending on the engine controls
used by the engine manufacturer). All engine types are set for full load at 1900 rpm.
With high throttle activated, battery power is fed through the voltage regulator to prime the field of the AC
generator.
As the AC voltage rises, the voltage regulator begins functioning and takes over the generator field
regulation and brings the generator voltage up slowly over a 5 second time period. Once the specified
generator voltage has been obtained the VR circuitry will control the current in the field so that the
generator voltages are maintained within specified limits during normal operating conditions.
The AC generator is a three-phase alternator with wye connected output windings providing a nominal
output of 480-VAC at 66 Hz.
The 480-VAC is fed to a transformer/detector card located near the AC fuse assembly. This card divides
the high voltage on each side of a fuse to control signal levels that are used for blown fuse detection.
This card also contains a three-phase transformer that reduces the 480-VAC main voltage to 28-VAC
levels that are used to detect the timing relationships of the three-phase system. These are sent to the
drive modules. Drive module number 4 is used to control the VR converter, so these transformer signals
are used there to set up the VR SCR firing. The voltage regulator regulates the generator field current to
maintain a constant 480-VAC regardless of the generator load.
The diode bridge puts power into the DC bus to establish a source for SR phase current.

In the motoring mode, power is taken from the bus to energize the respective phase poles to
attract the rotor, and then to the next pole and so forth to provide a rotating attraction for the rotor
to chase.
In the braking mode, the rotation of the stator poles chases the rotor to retard its rotation. This
puts energy on the bus from the motor (now a generator). This will cause the bus voltage to
increase.
As the bus voltage increases, the SR control turns on the braking chopper, dumping the excess
energy to the braking grids.

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SR TRACTION SYSTEM OPERATION


Four SR traction motors, one directly driving each wheel, provide propulsion power for the loader/dozer. By
controlling the timing and magnitude of SR pole currents, the machine achieves an efficient and responsive
tractive effort. Power for the traction system comes from a diesel driven AC generator. The engine runs at a
constant speed, and the AC generator provides a power input for the four SR converters and the generator field
excitation VR converter.
The SR converter utilizes the IGBT as its basic power switch. The IGBT (insulated gate bi-polar transistor) is a
transistor switch with tremendous gain capabilities. A small amount of gate drive can turn on hundreds to
thousands of amperes of current, and when it is removed, current will turn off. Therefore, current through the
motor coil can be precisely turned on and off, to provide optimum system performance. The current flows from
the positive side of the bus, through the high side switch, through the stator coil, through the low side switch to
the negative side of the bus. At the proper time, the on switches will turn off, and the subsequent phase
switches will turn on. There will be overlap between the phases to assure smooth torque from the motor.
A diode bridge rectifier creates the front end. The generator produces 3 phase 480VAC. The diode bridge
rectifies the three-phase AC power to a DC bus voltage of approximately 600V. When the IGBT switches are
turning motor coils on and off there are spikes in the system due to the inductive load of the coils.
The bus voltage shown in the LINCS display has been filtered and only shows the nominal DC value. If the bus
is looked at with a fast oscilloscope when the IGBT are firing, spikes that are 100-150V above and below the
nominal voltage will be seen. The switches are protected by filter capacitors located on the bus side of each
switch. The IGBT switches are all rated for 1200V.

Blue line = nominal bus voltage as seen in LINCS display


Yellow area = voltage spikes that can be seen with a fast oscilloscope when the IGBTs are firing (park
brakes released)

When the system goes into a braking mode, power is regenerated to the DC bus. This will cause an increase of
bus voltage unless that energy is used somewhere. A chopper circuit turns on when an increase of bus voltage
is detected and dumps the excess energy into the braking grids. The chopper panel IGBT switch module is the
same as those used for the phase panel IGBT switches. The chopper panel only uses 1 IGBT module while the
phase panels use 2 IGBT modules.

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The traction drive system consists of four SR converters, four drive modules and one voltage regulator (VR)
converter. The voltage regulator self-regulates the AC generator by converting AC power to controlled DC
power for the generator field. The generator field current is controlled so that AC voltage remains at a specified
value during load fluctuation. The drive module contains the electronics to perform all the control functions.
There is one module per motor/converter and they are all identical. The fourth module is also used to control
the VR converter.
The high performance electric drive is integrated with LINCS. LINCS stands for LeTourneau Integrated
Network Control System, and represents a complete machine control and monitoring system. It manages all
loader/dozer systems including hydraulics, electrics, drive system, and engine. LINCS features multiple
microprocessor-based modules distributed throughout the machine that communicate over a network. A master
control module directs the entire system and is located in the cab of the loader. Remote control modules are
located throughout the machine, each placed near the systems they control, monitor and manage. A translator
module provides the interface to the engine and is able to talk to all intelligent engines, sending engine speed
commands and receiving engine data. It contains J1587, J1939, RS422 and RS232 communication ports. The
translator translates all engine input and output data to make it compatible with LINCS protocol. The drive
modules control the SR converters and VR converter.
The modules on a LINCS vehicle communicate over a controller area network (CAN) bus. It provides users
with the flexibility to handle large quantities of input/output (I/O), using multiple micro-controllers throughout the
machine.

Refer to sections on LINCS in the maintenance manuals for your machine for additional information
on the functions of the LINCS computer system.

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SR Control System Block Diagram

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SR OPERATION
Each converter group has its own DC bus, which becomes the hub for the flow of power to and from the SR
motor. Each DC bus contains a large bank of electrolytic capacitors. These capacitors are distributed around
each set of converter IGBTs, connected together by a laminated bus section. This is to minimize inductance
that can cause voltage transients during the IGBT turn off.
As the SR converter switches are turned on, current flows through the appropriate motor coil. This causes the
rotor pole to be attracted to the energized stator pole. At the designated time, the next set of IGBTs energize,
directing current to the next stator coil. Also at this time, the previous coil current is turned off. This sequence
continues, causing the motor to rotate.

The turn on and turn off times of the different phases overlap slightly in order to provide maximum
efficiency and smooth torque delivery.
The amplitude of the current (along with the timing) determines the amount of torque produced. The DC bus
provides the current for the motor coil. The bus is continually replenished via power from the diode bridge. The
large bank of capacitors provides ripple current smoothing, and it also has the benefit of supplying the reactive
element of the motor current input. This results in good power factor and reduced AC currents during the high
torque portion of the digging cycle.
In the power or motoring mode, the stator coils are switched on ahead of the rotor poles, causing the rotor to
chase the stator rotation. If torque command is higher than the torque requirement and there is no load, the
rotor will increase in speed because the control senses this error and increases the speed of the stator coil
sequence, causing acceleration. The slow speed current waveform will appear similar to the following:

Slow Speed Motoring Waveform

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During the slower speeds for a particular phase, maximum commanded current is reached before the rotor
overlaps the stator pole, and the switch has to turn off. The IGBT will go into a chopping mode to maintain the
proper level of current. A typical chopping waveform is shown below.

The current is controlled in the IGBT


switch system by chopping or turning
the switches on and off very quickly.
Both switches turn on and the current
rises quickly to the target level.
One switch is shut off and the current
freewheels through one of the diodes.
Both switches are turned on and the
current rises again.
The alternate switch is shut off and the
current freewheels through the
opposite diode.
This continues as long as the main
pulse is commanded.

Current Chopping

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Chopping Sequence

Both switches are open.


Converter is ready to go.

Both switches close and DC bus voltage is


applied to the coils.
The flux ramps up and generates force to move
the rotor.

Chopping mode to maintain a commanded


current level
One switch opens
Applies 0V to the coil
The current runs through the diode
Flux decays slowly

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Chopping Sequence

Both switches close and DC bus voltage is


applied to the coils.
The flux ramps up and generates force to move
the rotor.

Chopping mode to maintain a commanded


current level
The first switch closes and the second switch
opens
Applies 0V to the coil
The current runs through the diode
Flux decays slowly

Open both switches


The current in the coil passes through the diodes
The flux decays rapidly and the current is quickly
stopped by the bus voltage.

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As the speed and or torque requirements increase, there is only time to force a single pulse of current through
the coil. This is shown in the illustration "HIGH SPEED MOTORING WAVEFORM".
As speed increases further, less current can be produced, so torque reduces. This range of speeds is where
the horsepower curve flattens, becoming relatively constant (speed increases torque decreases).

High Speed Motoring Waveform

In the braking mode the stator coils are switched on behind the rotor poles, trying to draw the rotor in the
opposite direction. This produces braking torque. The waveform in this mode looks like the motoring waveform
inverted left to right as shown in "HIGH SPEED BRAKING WAVEFORM.

High Speed Braking Waveform

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B-40 3 Phase SR Converter and Motor


When a phase is energized, current flows from the positive side of the bus, through the high side switch, through
the coil, through the low side switch, to the negative side of the bus.

B-40 3 Phase SR Converter and Motor


In the power or motoring mode, the phases are energized just ahead of the rotor position so that the rotor is
constantly chasing the energized stator pole.

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SR Power Flow Diagram - Propel


In the braking mode, the stator energizing sequence is timed so that it actually chases the rotor, trying to pull it
back, thus creating the braking force. In both motoring and braking, the current through the IGBT and the coil is
in the same direction. The timing of the turn on/off with respect to the rotor position creates motoring and
braking.
When the system is in the braking mode, the SR Motor is now acting like a generator putting power back unto
the bus. This causes the bus voltage to rise. The control circuit senses the rise in bus voltage and turns on the
brake chopper circuit, dumping the braking energy to the braking grids. The braking grids are located at the rear
of the machine behind the engine radiator in the radiator air flow.

The generator maintains a constant voltage. When the motors are in braking and the DC bus voltage
rises to about 660VDC, the rectifier diodes will be reverse biased and current and will be blocked from
the generator. The engine will not supply any SR loads during this time. All of the energy on the bus is
generated by the motors.

SR Power Flow Diagram - Braking

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950 and 1350 Braking Grids and Warning Labels


When the chopper turns on, current is taken from the positive bus, through the braking grid, through the chopper
IGBT, and back to the negative bus. The chopper turns full on at a bus voltage of 740vdc and back off at
710vdc. The braking current is limited by chopping (turning the IGBT on/off) to maintain the bus level.
Machine

Individual Grid
resistance

Total grid
resistance

Configuration

HP rating (continuous)

L-950/D-950

.596

2.38

4 in series

175HP

L-1350

1.21

1.82

6 in series/parallel

270 hp
(GRADE CHART 207.5)

HIGH VOLTAGE PRESENT WHEN BUS IS ENERGIZED. Do not open the door over the braking grids or
touch anything on the grids when the LEDs are glowing red in the electrical cabinet. In the event of a
fault the grids can remain hot for up to 5 minutes after the loader goes to low throttle.

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Chopping Waveform for Voltage Control in Braking

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950 Braking Chopper

950 Braking Chopper Energized

1350 Braking Chopper

1350 Braking Chopper Energized

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Torque Production
Maximum torque is generated when the corner of the rotor pole crosses the corner of the stator pole. The
maximum torque is produced at the point when the tips of the stator pole and tip of the rotor pole start to cross
each other.

Location of Maximum Torque

Angle of Maximum Torque

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Torque - varying over a complete cycle

Phase A - shows the positive part of the torque curves for a B-40 motor.

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Phase A, B, C torque curves for a B-40 motor.

Total Torque

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The last chart shows the total torque with all the phases added together. This chart assumes that the current
turns on instantly at the unaligned position and turns off instantly at the aligned position. This nearly happens at
slow speed but the angles are adjusted at the speed goes up to allow for current ramp times. Note the torque
ripple with a peak every 15 degrees.

Position sensing

The position sensing is all done within the drive module by software that analyzes the shape of the
waveforms when the switches are turned on. This information is provided for reference only as these
waveforms are not available on the machine to be looked at with an oscilloscope.
The control system has to know the rotor position accurately so that the coils are turned on at the proper time for
power and braking. The position sensing is achieved without sensors using a sensor-less calculating method.
The coils are an inductive load and the overall impedance of the coil varies depending on the position of the
rotor pole with the stator coil. The impedance is lower when the rotor pole is away from the stator coil. The
impedance is highest when the rotor pole is aligned with the stator coil. Based on the current waveforms for
current that result when the IGBT are closed/opened - the control system can analyze the impedance at various
positions and is able to determine the position of the pole in relation to the stator pole.
If the motor is turning less than 900 rpm, the off phase(s) are given fixed width diagnostic pulses that are
approximately 140 microseconds wide. The voltage pulse signals are a square wave.
Because of the inductive coil - the current cannot increase or decrease instantly. The current will increase
gradually and will have a slope with an angle dependent on the impedance. The inductance varies as the rotor
turns. The control system analyzes the rising slope and the peak for the diagnostic pulses to determine the
position of the rotor. As the speed increases there is not enough time for the diagnostic pulses so the system
looks at the slope of the firing pulses to determine the position of the rotor.

Control system analyzes current waveform slope and peak to determine rotor position

When the rotor pole is away from the stator pole there will be low impedance and the current pulse will
be higher magnitude and have a steeper slope.
As the rotor pole approaches the current pulses will have a lower peak with a lower slope.

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When the rotor pole passes the stator coil the current pulses will begin to increase because of lowering
impedance.

The following image shows how the diagnostic pulses will produce a varying current pulse depending on the
position of the rotor with respect to the coil. This image if for reference only to help explain the changes in angle
and peak of diagnostic pulses at different angles when the motor is turning. In an operating motor that is turning
the diagnostic pulses are typically mixed with the power pulses.

Slow Speed Diagnostic Pulses


Above 900 rpm, position sensing can be either diagnostic or current rise, depending on torque and speed. The
diagnostic pulses are very short pulses where both switches close. The amplitude of the current pulses will vary
with the change in inductance giving position information. Depending on location of the rotor these pulses can
be up to 90A.

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Slow Speed Diagnostic Pulses

SR Position Sensing Power Mode


The above illustration represents a single circuit performing position sensing while in power mode, and is
indicative of a motor turning less than 900 rpm. During this time frame there are in reality three separate circuits
looking at and determining motor position.

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SR Position Sensing Retard Mode


The above illustration represents a single circuit performing position sensing while in retard mode, and is
indicative of a motor turning less than 900 rpm.
As speed and torque increase there is not enough time to generate diagnostic pulses. The main pulse only has
enough time for a single on/off cycle. This gives the smoother waveform shown below. At this time the
calculations change and the rate of rise of current is used to determine position.

Higher Speed/Torque Use slope of current to determine position


The areas for speed sense overlap. Diagnostic pulses are used at all speeds with low torque. The current rise
is used whenever the waveform changes to the point where there is enough angle to get good measurements.
See the following figure. This is all a part of the fixed characteristics of the B-40 motor and is not changeable.

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Position Sensing Regions


With position information, speed can also be measured, giving both position and speed data for proper gating of
the IGBT switches.
This is a dynamic process and the waveform changes automatically between the two sensing methods based
on the speed and torque requirements of the motor.

VIDEO CLIP
Click below to see the video of the waveform changing from diagnostic pulses to slope method.

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CONTROL LOGIC AND SIGNAL FLOW


Troubleshooting and repair of the power conversion system can be accomplished without knowledge of its inner
operation. However, since various signals are brought out to the display screen, it is very helpful to know where
they come from and what they do.
"SR BASIC LOGIC AND SIGNAL FLOW DIAGRAM" shows the signal flow for the system. The three remote
modules located in the cab, read the entire operator control elements (switches, accelerator pot, direction select,
park brake release, etc.). The appropriate drive and remote modules located on the machine also read motor
and generator temperature signals. These are converted into data that is given to the master via the CAN bus.
The master then sends the various commands to the appropriate remote and drive modules.
When the operator moves the engine select switch to the HI throttle position the master module commands the
engine to reach operating speed. At the same time 24V battery voltage is fed to the generator to prime it until
the voltage is high enough for the control system to take over.
The Voltage Regulator circuit maintains the AC voltage at 480VAC during varying load conditions
See the next section for details on how the Voltage Regulator controls the voltage.
The control system operates on the basis of a closed loop system. In other words, a feedback is used to
insure the response meets the command. When the operator depresses the accelerator pedal, the machine is
commanded to go a certain speed. This creates an overall command that will produce motor torque in the
selected direction at the four traction wheel motors. A small movement of the pedal initiates a small command
and resulting small torque. A large movement will give high torque. The torque command actually is derived
from the difference between the command speed and the actual speed. This difference is called an error. As
the machine approaches the commanded speed, the error decreases so the torque command will taper off. The
actual speed achieved will be the commanded speed, less the error it takes to maintain the required torque.
The full pedal position represents maximum machine speed. The top speed is variable within the LINCS
menus.
L-950
L-1350

15 MPH
10 MPH

If the road surface is hard and level, the top speed can be achieved because it takes only a small amount of
torque to maintain it. If the machine is climbing a hill, is on under-footing having high rolling resistance, carrying
heavy loads, or whatever condition is present that requires higher torque, a lesser speed will be achieved.
The operator interface to the drive system goes through the master module and the data bus. The direction
select switch, accelerator pedal, park brake switch, engine select switch, etc. are coupled to the three remote
modules in the cab. They are passed as data to the master module, and then, after performing the necessary
calculation and control functions, are passed as data to the drive modules.
The master module creates all the control functions that allow the four drive modules and SR converters to work
as an integrated machine system. As the operator works the accelerator pedal, the difference between the
command speed and the actual speed creates a common torque command to all four drives. The four wheel
speeds are averaged to obtain an overall machine speed which is used to null the common torque as
commanded speed is reached. The common torque command is also modified to compensate for machine
variables that require a reduction in torque. These would include programmed torque ramps and filters, engine
loading limits, acceleration rate limit and programmed horsepower limits. The common torque command is then
split into individual motor and drive torque commands for the four wheels.

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The individual commands take in information that relates to that particular drive. The slip limit control is the
main modifier of the individual commands. A maximum allowable speed for each motor is calculated based on
the slowest motor speed and steering angle. If an individual speed goes beyond the prescribed limit, the
command to that drive is reduced to prevent the wheel from going beyond that limit. This then controls the
wheel slippage, enhancing tire life. The allowable limits are modified with steer angle and overall speed. The
steer angle input gives the system information so that during a turn the outer wheels are allowed to go faster
than the inside wheels. As the overall speed of the machine increases, slip control is relaxed to allow for wheel
speed differences due to tire wear.
When the machine is traveling at some speed, and the accelerator is released, an error is created that says the
machine is traveling faster than commanded. This error creates a braking torque to reduce the machine speed.
With the SR system, braking is instantaneous because there are no currents to reduce or switch directions.
Braking torque is achieved by simply changing the timing of the converter firing to following behind the rotor
movement, pulling it back to reduce its speed.
The Torque limit puts a top clamp on the Torque Command. The Torque Command is free to function as
described until it tries to exceed the Torque Limit. Motor, Generator, Converter and VR Temperatures, Operator
Adjustable Torque Limits, and Hill-Hold are the functions that impose the various limits. Individual limits relating
to converter and motor temperature constraints are directed to the individual drives. For instance, if one drive is
indicating a motor or converter temperature that is climbing above safe values, that drive goes through a
cutback (starts at 85C), warning on display (85C) and eventually a shutdown (90C) if the condition is not
corrected.
The actual SR control logic is highly embedded in the drive module card. This control relies on motor
characteristics and limits that are programmed into the control code. These are originally done through a
characterization of the B-40 motor, where phase turn-on and turn-off time and angle are established for the full
range of operating speeds and current levels. The sensor-less position information for a B-40 motor is also a
part of the characterization process. With this information programmed into the drive module, the proper
triggering of the IGBTs for the various speed and torque demands is achieved.
The SR control logic also reads bus voltage to ensure it does not fluctuate beyond safe levels. As bus voltage
rises, the chopper IGBT turns on to dump excess energy into the braking grids. The chopper turns on when the
bus voltage rises above 730 VDC, and off when it goes below 710 VDC. The length of the on versus off time
determines the amount of energy dumped, and this is controlled directly as a function of bus voltage. An overvoltage fault and a converter shutdown occur if bus voltage exceeds 820 VDC.
The SR control also monitors temperature and IGBT faults and reports them to the master. Appropriate
shutdowns are implemented for the various faults.

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NOTES
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SR Basic Logic and Signal Flow Diagram

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GENERATOR VOLTAGE CONTROL


The generator voltage is controlled by varying the current to the generator rotor. The current to the rotor is
provided by an SCR half wave converter Voltage Regulator Panel. Various inputs to the control determine
when operating voltage is commanded and when the generator may be primed.
When the operator moves the engine select switch to the HI throttle position, the master module commands the
engine to reach operating speed. At the same time, 24 volts DC (battery voltage) is fed to the priming circuit,
providing an initial current for the AC generator field and at the same time the VR SCR control turns on all the
SCRs continuously.
As the AC generator voltage builds up to about 140 VAC, the VR converter begins controlled operation and will
ramp the generator voltage up to its rated value. The ramping (about 5-6 seconds) is a required feature that
provides a soft build up of bus voltage to limit the charging current of the bus capacitors.

The generator must NOT be jumped off by applying 24V directly to the #7 wire as the generator
voltage will rise too quickly and can cause damage to the large bus capacitors. The generator voltage
must be ramped up.
The priming function is now shut off and the VR takes over total regulation of the field excitation. As the load on
the generator varies, the field current will adjust so that the proper voltage is maintained. The AC voltage is
limited as a function of the frequency of the generator so operation at lower engine rpm will maintain the
generator at a proper volts/hertz level. This could occur if engine speed were slow to respond, or during the
shop mode and auxiliary power modes of operation.
The field excitation is regulated to maintain a voltage ratio of 8.5 volts per hertz below approximately 57 hertz.
At 56.5 Hz the voltage levels off at 480-VAC. This is boosted on a load ramp to 505-VAC as the generator is
loaded, and this range is maintained during the normal full power fluctuations of engine speed.
The VR blown fuse circuit monitors the voltage on each side of the 3 VR fuses. The two voltages on each fuse
are compared with an analog op-amp circuit. Normally the two voltages will be equal and will cancel each other
out. If the fuse is blown then the two voltages will be different and the circuitry will generate a VR blown fuse
alarm. The 3 blown fuse circuits are combined into a single alarm that is fed to LINCS. If any one of the fuses
is blown - an alarm will be generated.
The circuitry for comparing the voltages and providing a single alarm is on the VR/PRIME interface card (the left
card on the VR panel).
See the following pages and the Appendix for detailed drawings of how the various Voltage Regulator control
circuits work.

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Priming

The generator priming can be turned off in the LINCS menus. If the Generator Prime has been disabled a
notice screen will appear each time the engine is brought to high throttle to indicate that this has occurred.

LINCS Menu and Notice Screen


When the operator moves the engine select switch to the HI throttle position, the engine rpm will start to
increase to either 1500 rpm (shop mode) or 1980 rpm (high throttle) .
If the Generator Prime is Normal in the LINCS menus when the switch is activated the #4 drive module VR
outputs are enabled. Each pulse is 15V amplitude and 30 microsecond duration

Drive Module Gate Pulse for the Voltage Regulator


During priming the Drive Module puts out a continuous string pf 15V trigger signal pulses to the trigger card on
the VR panel. The trigger card in turn puts out a steady stream of pulses to the gate of each of the 3 SCR. This
makes the SCRs act like a diode bridge during the initial stage of priming.

Continuous Pulses - during priming

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The trigger card turns the continuous low power signal pulses from the Drive Module into a high power low
voltage (about 1-2V and 1A) pulses to the gate of each of the 3 SCR. This makes the SCRs act like a diode
bridge during the initial stage of priming.

Continuous SCR Gate Pulses - during priming

When the rpm reaches 1100 rpm the following signals are created:
Generator Prime Enable high side switch which provides 24V to close the contacts on the prime
relay on the VR panel. The contacts allow prime current to flow to the 7 lead of the generator. This
relay opens the contacts after priming is complete and protects the prime SCR from voltage spikes that
might occur during normal machine operation.
Generator Prime Gate low side switch on a 50 % duty cycle which is used to trigger the gate on the
priming SCR on the VR/Prime Interface card. The prime SCR provides an isolated 24V supply across
the prime resistor and to generator rotor. This provides about 2.4 amps of priming current to the
generator rotor
140VAC base voltage the base voltage of 140VAC is loaded into the voltage command logic
One second after the AC generator voltage builds up to 120 VAC, the VR control circuitry changes from
continuous pulses to synchronous pulses that are timed in reference to each phase waveform and the
Generator Field Command. There is a slight hump in the generator voltage when this changeover occurs.

Generator Command and Voltage - during priming and initial control

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The Voltage Regulator begins controlled operation and will ramp the generator voltage up to 480VAC over
about 5 seconds. The ramping (about 5-6 seconds) is a required feature that provides a soft build up of bus
voltage to limit the charging current of the bus capacitors.

If there is a problem with the gate pulses or SCRs and they are not firing the 2.4A provided by the generator
prime will only cause the generator to reach about 50VAC.

The generator must NOT be jumped off by applying 24V directly to the #7 wire as the generator
voltage will rise too quickly and can cause damage to the large bus capacitors. The generator voltage
must be ramped up. If you wish to check a generator you should apply 24V to the prime resistor or
disconnect all of the leads from diode/chopper panels.
At 120VAC the VR control changes from continuous pulses to synchronous pulses. One second later a signal is
generated that indicates that priming has been completed. The priming relay is opened and the trigger pulses to
the Prime SCR are turned off. The Voltage Regulator Control Loop takes over total regulation of the generator
field excitation.

Voltage Control Loop


The Voltage Regulator control operates on the basis of a closed loop system. A command is provided indicating
the desired voltage (Generator Voltage Command Echo) and a feedback is provided indicating the output of the
generator (AC Voltage). The output (Generator Field Command) will vary in order to maintain the generator
voltage at the commanded level.

Voltage Regulator Control Loop

Generator Field Command Echo: This channel is the voltage command and will vary between 0 and
560VAC. When you first go to high throttle this will be a base voltage of 140VAC. Under normal high
throttle operation it will ramp up from 140 to 480VAC. Once in operation it will vary from 480 to 495VAC
(L-1350) or between 480 to 505VAC (L-950 and D-950)
AC Voltage: This signal is generated on the Diode/Chopper Interface Card. The main phases of the
generator are stepped down on the transformer board to about 28.8 VAC. Three stepped down phase
voltage inputs go into the Diode/Chopper Interface Card and are inputted into an op-amp circuit that
converts the AC phase voltages to a 0-5VDC analog signal called AC Volts. This signal is sent to the
Drive Module to be used as feedback for the Voltage Regulator control loop.

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Generator Field Command: This signal is the output of the Voltage Regulator control loop. It varies
from 20 to 160. This represents the firing angle for the SCRs. 20 is maximum firing angle and 160
is the minimum firing angle. Under normal operation this signal will typically be in the 70 to 90 range.

The Generator voltage control loop is done in the #4 drive module. All 4 of the Drive Modules and interface
cards have identical Voltage Regulator control circuitry but the control software that makes it function is only
loaded into the drive module located in the #4 position.
The Drive Module provides timed synchronous pulses to the Voltage Regulator panel. The timing is done by
using the AC Phase waveform as a reference to determine the 0 crossings of the waveform (the points where
the waveform is 0 volts which are 0 and 180). The pulses are amplified on the trigger card and used to trigger
the 3 SCR modules on the Voltage Regulator panel.

Gate Pulses
The 3 phases of AC voltage from the generator mains are stepped down on the transformer board and interface
card to about 1% of the actual voltage. This voltage feeds the Drive Module and is used as a reference to
determine the phase angles of the AC waveforms. This is done by using 0 crossings. The Drive Module looks
at each of the 3 phase waveforms and finds the 0 crossings.

0 Crossings
The 0 crossings information is used by the Drive Module to determine the angles of the reference waveform.
The firing range for firing the SCR is in the positive part of the waveform between 0 and 180. The channel
called Generator Field Command is limited between 20 and 160.

Firing Angle limited by the Generator Field Command


The typical operating range of the Generator Field Command in actual use is between 70 and 90.

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Typical firing angle in operation

On the L-1350 the VR panel is run off of the main generator phases and the reference waveform
and the actual waveform are the same.
On the L-950 the VR panel is run off of the generator tap phases which are 6 lagging from the
main voltages used for the reference waveform

The following diagram shows the 6 lagging voltage for the tap voltage as compared to the waveform for the
main phase voltage.

L-950 tap voltage 6 lagging


This means that the actual firing angle range is between 14 and 154 on the waveform. This does not affect
the control of the voltage since the PID loop automatically compensates.

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L-950 tap voltage 6 lagging


The 3 phases of AC voltage from the generator mains are stepped down on the transformer board and fed to a
circuit on the interface card where a 0-5V analog signal is created to represent the AC Voltage. This acts as the
feedback for the generator control loop.
Gate pulses created in the Drive Module are 15V amplitude with 30 microsecond width. Under normal control
mode there is a 3.450 millisecond burst of pulses for each time the SCR is fired.

Gate Pulses from the #4 Drive Module

Synchronous pulses during normal VR control


These are the 15V pulses from the Drive Module. These do not have enough energy to trigger the SCR directly.
These pulses are input to the Voltage Regulator trigger card where the voltage is dropped but the current goes
up to about 1 amp which will trigger the SCR. A burst of pulses is provided to assure that the SCR fires. This is
called picket fence triggering on the analog loaders.

Synchronous SCR gate pulses during normal VR control

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As the load on the generator varies, the field current will automatically adjust so that the proper generator
voltage is maintained.
The AC voltage is limited by a channel called Generator Voltage Command Limit as a function of the frequency
of the generator so operation at lower engine rpm will maintain the generator at a proper volts/hertz level. This
could occur if engine speed were slow to respond, or during the shop mode and auxiliary power modes of
operation. For example at 1200 rpm the generator voltage is limited to 339.5VAC and at 1500 rpm the
generator voltage is limited to 425VAC.

VOLTAGE LIMIT CURVE


600

Generator Voltage Limit

500
400
300
200
100
0
0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

Engine RPM

The field excitation is regulated to maintain a voltage ratio of 8.5 volts per hertz below approximately 57 hertz.
At 56.5 Hz the voltage levels off at 480-VAC based on the command. The limit goes on up to 552.5 to allow
higher voltage during load bank testing.

Voltage Boost
The 480 VAC level is boosted when the generator is loaded. The boost is 15VAC on L-1350 and 25VAC on L950.

VR blown fuse:
The VR blown fuse circuit monitors the voltage on each side of the 3 VR fuses. The two voltages on each fuse
are compared with an analog op-amp circuit. Normally the two voltages will be equal and will cancel each other
out. If the fuse is blown then the two voltages will be different and the circuitry will generate a VR blown fuse
alarm. The 3 blown fuse circuits are combined into a single alarm that is fed to LINCS. If any one of the fuses
is blown - an alarm will be generated.
The circuitry for comparing the voltages and providing a single alarm is on the VR/PRIME interface card (the left
card on the VR panel).

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See Appendix for drawings related to VR Blown Fuse Troubleshooting for more description.

Voltage control in load bank:


Load bank mode is selected in the LINCS menus. The park brake must be set, and the direction select must be
placed in the neutral position. When the high throttle switch is selected the generator will prime per normal
methods and the voltage will be regulated at 125VAC.
The accelerator pedal acts like a voltage control when load bank mode has been selected. The generator
voltage command and voltage will rise in proportion to the amount the accelerator pedal is depressed. When
150VAC is reached, the four choppers will turn on continuous and place each braking grid section across its
respective DC bus. As the accelerator is continued to be depressed, the generator voltage will continue to
increase until the master senses full engine loading (engine droop based on the AC Frequency). At this point,
the AC voltage will stop increasing to maintain full engine loading without dropping the engine rpm any further.

Load Bank Voltage Control

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Voltage control in standby mode:


Standby mode is selected in the LINCS menus. The value for standby voltage is also set in the LINCS menus.
The generator will prime as normal and ramp up to the selected voltage level.
The generator voltage can be adjusted between approximately 300 to 500-VAC.

Standby Voltage Control

Note that there is another voltage limit based on rpm. At 1500 rpm (50 Hz) only 425VAC can be
selected on an L-950.

If engine rpm varies between +10% and 15% of the set values, the generator output will shut down. This
indicates the engine is being loaded or regenerated beyond its ability to regulate.
Also if the voltage fluctuates more than +15% and 15%, the generator will shutdown, again indicating the load
is beyond its capability to control.
See VR blown fuse troubleshooting
See VR prime troubleshooting
See VR trigger troubleshooting

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GROUND FAULT
The ground fault monitoring system consists of a 100-ohm (L/D-950) or 75-ohm (L1350) power resistor
assembly that is connected between generator neutral and machine frame.

GF System
The AC/high voltage DC bus part of the drive system is isolated from the 24VDC system. The AC portion is
referenced to generator Neutral and the high voltage bus is floating.

GF Resistor Layout

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A ground fault occurs when electrical energy leaks from the high voltage circuitry to machine frame. The
ground fault limiting resistor assembly provides a return path for this leakage current and therefore facilitates
monitoring of ground fault current flow by measuring the voltage between Generator Neutral and Machine
Ground. The leakage may occur due to a breakdown in electrical insulation caused by mechanical damage,
moisture ingress or a build-up of conductive debris on components like brush gear in the motors or the main
generator, or a build-up of mud on the retard grids.

GF Current Flow Path


The VR interface card contains circuitry that measures the voltage across the resistor and hence the current
through it. It measures both AC and DC current. Since both the generator and converter outputs are
referenced to neutral, any leakage to frame will flow through the resistor to neutral. The card gives a ground
fault alarm when Neutral voltage with respect to ground reaches 38V (fault current 0.5 amps). If a generator
phase goes directly to ground, the fault current is limited to 3.7 amps.

GF Alarm Creation
A ground fault alarm will activate if a fault over 38V is sensed for more that one second. The AC generator
voltage will shut down if a ground fault is detected and the machine is traveling less than 200 rpm (approx 2/3
mph). The 200 rpm speed is from the signal ABS Average Motor Spd. This is done to allow the machine to
stop safely under full control before AC voltage, and therefore machine control is disabled.
The neutral voltage is measured from the N connection on the right side of the VR panel.
See the troubleshooting section and Appendix for detailed troubleshooting information and drawings.

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HILL HOLD
The Hill Hold function available on SR drive systems in L950/D950 and L-1350 machines is designed to hold the
machine in a stationary position within the specifications of the machine speed grade chart for short periods
without application of the service brakes.

The purpose of Hill Hold is to hold the machine stationary while the operator is in full control of the
machine. Hill Hold should not be used for holding the machine stationary for extended periods or if the
operator wishes to leave the operators cabin. Use of Hill Hold for extended times heats the drive
componentry which may cause a reduction in torque output of the drive system which may allow the
machine to roll. If the machine is to be held stationary for more than 1-2 minutes the park brake should
be applied.
The SR drive system is capable of running in two modes, torque and speed.
Under normal operation the SR machine will be operate in torque control mode similar to a DC machine. In this
mode a command based on a combination of accelerator pedal, direction select switch, engine droop and
machine accelerator are compared against actual machine speed and generates a torque command for the SR
drive packages. A torque limit is also provided that is based on things such as motor over temperature, panel
over temperature, generator over temperature and configuration torque controls.
The drive system will switch into a speed control mode under certain conditions. The drive modules will now
control the torque based on a speed command input. Note that the only speed input that is used is for 0 mph.
The torque limit is active in speed control mode and is used to control the torque required to obtain and maintain
0 mph.

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Speed and Torque Mode

Typically only 2-20% torque is required to hold the machines on a grade.

Hill Hold Mode

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ACTIVATION OF HILL HOLD


Hill hold will be activated when the following conditions are met:
Foot pot is released.
O Foot Pot at < 0.01% for .5 seconds
Braking torque is less than 25%
O Braking torque <25% for .1 seconds
When hill hold is activated the following things occur:
Drive modules switch to speed mode
0 mph is commanded
Brake Boost raises the speed feedback by a factor of 1.5X
Torque on the motor is kept the same as the previous torque command
Torque automatically varies within limits to bring machine to 0 mph
Torque automatically varies within limits to maintain 0 mph.
Slip limits are deactivated

STEERING DURING HILL HOLD


If the machine is steered while in Hill Hold mode then the motor torque will be held constant at the value it was
when steering commenced. This is done because steering in this mode will cause the wheels to rotate and the
torque would ramp up quickly on the motors and fight the wheel rotation. The torque is held at the value it had
immediately prior to steering. This allows the machine to steer with only a little bit of torque fighting the steering.

DEACTIVATION OF HILL HOLD


Hill hold will be deactivated when:
Foot pot depressed
o Foot pot greater than 0.01% for .05 seconds
The activation and deactivation is smooth and an operator will not normally be able to feel the switch between
Torque mode and Speed mode.

MACHINE OPERATION DURING HILL HOLD


If the operator lets up on the accelerator pedal the machine will go into braking, switch into speed mode and
bring loader to 0 speed and hold the machine stationary even if on a grade. When the operator depresses the
accelerator pedal the machine will switch back to normal control.
The torque limit command for hill hold will initially begin at the same value it was at in torque mode at the instant
it switches to speed mode. It will then ramp up at 20% per second up to a maximum of 72% for L-950 (80% for
D950 and L-1350). This means that there is a smooth transition into the hill hold mode.
Note that only about 20% torque is required to hold on a very steep grade. Less torque is required for lesser
grades.
If steering is used while in Hill Hold the torques will be held at a constant value. The initial torque on the motors
will be the same as it was immediately prior to steering. This has to be done as the hill hold will fight the
steering and there will be high motor torques and high steering pressures.
When steering stops the machine will again return to variable torque hill hold mode. The initial hill hold torque
on the motors will be the same as it was in torque mode prior to swapping into hill hold mode. The torque will
then ramp up at 20%/second until the required torque to maintain 0 speed is again reached.

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SPECIAL OPERATIONAL MODES


The Load Bank Mode
Load Band Mode allows the four converter DC buses to be connected to the braking grids to load the engine to
check engine horsepower.

SR Power Flow Diagram for Load Bank Mode

The load bank mode is activated by selecting the mode via the keypad and master menu. Park brake has to be
set, and the direction select placed in the neutral position. The engine fan will automatically go to high speed.
With the above conditions set, the engine is brought to Hi Throttle.

Menus 1 and 2 for activation of Load Bank Mode

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Menus 3 and 4 for activation of Load Bank Mode


At this point, the generator primes and voltage is regulated to 125vac. As the accelerator is slowly depressed,
the generator voltage rises with accelerator position. When 150-VAC is reached, the four choppers turn on
continuous, placing the braking grids across the DC bus.
At this point, approximately 90 electric horsepower (depending on the machine it may be higher or lower) is
immediately applied to the engine. As the accelerator is continued to be depressed, the generator voltage will
continue to increase until the master senses full engine loading. At this point, the AC voltage will null to
maintain full engine loading. The master then determines the engine horsepower by adding the four converter
electrical HP readings (bus voltage squared divided by grid resistance) and dividing by generator efficiency.
The measured horsepower is presented on the screen. Adding the parasitic loads to this figure will give an
approximate horsepower reading of the engine. The parasitic load at high fan speed has been empirically
measured. It should be noted that this measurement is an approximate representation of true engine
performance and should not be used as a precise measurement.

Standby Power Mode is available on the machine to allow operator setting of the generator voltage and
frequency (engine speed) to use the machine as a standby engine/generator. Power can then be taken from
the generator to operate other electrical equipment. The standby power mode is activated by selecting the
mode via the keypad and master menu. The engine is brought to HI throttle in the normal manner, and the
voltage/frequency adjusted by menu and keypad.
The generator voltage can be adjusted between approximately 300 to 500VAC.
The frequency is adjusted by varying the engine speed between approximately 1410 to 1980 rpm (47 to
66 Hz).
If engine rpm varies between +10% and 15% of the set values, the generator output will shut down. This
indicates the engine is being loaded or regenerated beyond its ability to regulate.
Also, if the voltage fluctuates more than +15% and 15%, the generator will shutdown, again indicating the load
is beyond its capability to control.
A standby power option is available that includes a junction box with a fused output bus to facilitate connections.

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LOAD
BANK
PROCEDURE

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LOAD BANK MODE PROCEDURE


The retard (braking) grids can be used to obtain a horsepower reference for the engine. This method is not
intended to accurately measure engine horsepower. The measurement taken is the summation of the four
converter outputs to the grids. To this number, system efficiencies and parasitics are added to obtain an
estimate of engine horsepower output. Since there can be significant variations due to temperature and altitude
differences, the numbers presented in this procedure should serve as a reference only.

SR Power Flow Diagram for Load Bank Mode

The machines braking grid system may not be capable of absorbing full engine horsepower continuously and,
therefore, testing time is limited to 20 seconds to avoid damaging the grids. Someone should be behind
the machine and monitor the grids during the test. If the grids turn red the operator should be notified so
overheating can be detected and stopped.
The mode can be selected from the maintenance menu on the LINCS display via the keypad.

Enabling Load Bank Mode via LINCS

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Enabling Load Bank Mode via LINCS


With load bank mode selected, the engine in low throttle, park brake set, and the direction select placed in the
neutral position, bring the engine to HI throttle. The engine fan will automatically go to high speed. At this point,
the generator primes and voltage is regulated to 125-VAC.
In Load Bank Mode the accelerator pedal acts like a voltage control. As the accelerator is slowly depressed, the
generator voltage rises with accelerator position. When 150-VAC is reached, the four choppers turn on
continuous, placing each braking grid section across its respective DC bus. At this point approximately 90
electric horsepower (may be slightly higher or lower depending on the machine) is put through the grids, loading
the engine that amount. As the accelerator is continued to be depressed, the generator voltage will continue to
increase until the master senses full engine loading. At this point, the AC voltage will null to maintain full engine
loading. When the engine has stabilized the LINCS system automatically calculates the measured HP by
summing the four Power to Grids signals. These signals contain the grid resistance and generator efficiency
numbers. The HP Converter Total Loadbank channel on the master gives this reading.
Alternatively you can wait until the engine has stabilized with the accelerator pedal fully depressed and record
the four converter bus voltages. Using the values of ohms as listed for the grid resistance, the engine
horsepower can then be determined by using the following formula:
L-950 / D-950

L-1350

Watts = (M1DCBusVolt)2/2.38
+ (M2DCBusVolt)2/2.38
+ (M3DCBusVolt)2/2.38
+ (M4DCBusVolt)2/2.38

Watts = (M1DCBusVolt)2/1.82
+ (M2DCBusVolt)2/1.82
+ (M3DCBusVolt)2/1.82
+ (M4DCBusVolt)2/1.82

ELECTRICAL HP = Watts/746/0.95

ELECTRICAL HP = Watts/746/0.95

With 0.95 being the generator efficiency and 746 the watts to HP ratio. This gives the approximate horsepower
input to the generator.
The loads that cannot be electrically measured, the parasitics, then have to be added to the measured
horsepower. This includes hydraulic loads to circulate fluid and operate fan and blower loads, air compressor,
battery charger, air conditioner, etc. This has been empirically measured and is estimated to be:
L-950 at HI fan speed: 250 HP
D-950 at HI fan speed: 200 HP
L-1350 at HI fan speed: 320HP

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These measurements were taken with the engine warm and the hydraulic oil at normal operating temperature.
It should be noted that this measurement is an approximate representation of true engine performance and
should not be used as a precise measurement.

TESTING PROCEDURES
Perform the following steps for the load bank test procedures.
a.

Close the cabinet doors.

b.

Start engine and allow the engine and hydraulics to warm up at LO throttle.

c.

Ensure park brake is set.

d.

A service menu access is required. Select load bank mode.

e.

Place engine at HI throttle. Ensure engine and hydraulics are fully warmed up to normal operating
temperatures. Ensure that the radiator fan is at HI speed verify that the pressure is per specifications.

f.

Slowly depress accelerator pedal enough to sense that the choppers have turned ON and the engine is
beginning to load.

g.

Slowly depress the accelerator pedal to full position. Have someone monitoring grids to signal a shutdown
if grids overheat (begin to glow dull red).

h.

Let the readings stabilize and ensure the % engine load (from translator module) is 100%. Record the HP
Converter Total Loadbank reading channel from the master.
Alternate method: Note and record the four bus voltage readings.

i.

Return the accelerator to minimum position. Keep engine at high throttle for 3 to 5 minutes to allow grids to
cool.

Engine fan must stay ON at HI speed.


Visually monitor grids during test to detect overheating.
Park brake must be set.
Allow the engine to idle for a minimum of five minutes before turning it off. Failure to
comply could result in damage to the turbochargers.

j.

Position engine select switch to LO idle.

k.

Un-select load bank mode.

l.

Return machine to normal operation.

LETOURNEAU TECHNOLOGIES, INC.


Copyright 2007

SECTION 2: Page 76 of 76

LETOURNEAU SR POWER CONVERSION SYSTEM

NOTES
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LETOURNEAU TECHNOLOGIES, INC.


Copyright 2007