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Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto

Construction of Weakly Self-Dual Normal


Bases and Its Aplication in Orthogonal
Transform Encoding Cyclic Codes
Irwansyah

Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Advisor :
Dr. Intan Muchtadi Alamsyah
Aleams Barra, Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad Muchlis
Dr. Djoko Suprijanto
Algebra Research Group, Institut Teknologi Bandung

Introduction
Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Introduction
Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Let Fqn dan Fq be finite fields with q n and q elements, respectively.

Introduction
Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Let Fqn dan Fq be finite fields with q n and q elements, respectively.


Definition 1
A normal bases for Fqn over Fq is a bases of the form
2
n1
{, q , q , . . . , q }, for some Fqn .

Introduction
Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction

Let Fqn dan Fq be finite fields with q n and q elements, respectively.


Definition 1
A normal bases for Fqn over Fq is a bases of the form
2
n1
{, q , q , . . . , q }, for some Fqn .

Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

The notion of dual bases defined by a surjective map called


Pn1 k
trace(denoted by tr), i.e. tr() = k=0 q .

Introduction
Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction

Let Fqn dan Fq be finite fields with q n and q elements, respectively.


Definition 1
A normal bases for Fqn over Fq is a bases of the form
2
n1
{, q , q , . . . , q }, for some Fqn .

Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

The notion of dual bases defined by a surjective map called


Pn1 k
trace(denoted by tr), i.e. tr() = k=0 q .

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Definition 2
Given two bases A = {0 , 1 , . . . , n1 } and B = {0 , 1 , . . . , n1 }.
Bases B called dual bases of A if

1, if i = j;
tr(i j ) =
0, otherwise.

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Bases A called self-dual, if B = A.

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Bases A called self-dual, if B = A.


If there is an element Fqn and an integer r such that,

tr(i j ) =

1, if j = i + r
0, otherwise.

Then B called weakly dual bases of A.

mod n

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Bases A called self-dual, if B = A.


If there is an element Fqn and an integer r such that,

tr(i j ) =

1, if j = i + r
0, otherwise.

mod n

Then B called weakly dual bases of A.


A called weakly self-dual normal bases if A is a normal bases
with its weakly dual bases is A.

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases

Bases A called self-dual, if B = A.


If there is an element Fqn and an integer r such that,

tr(i j ) =

1, if j = i + r
0, otherwise.

mod n

Then B called weakly dual bases of A.


A called weakly self-dual normal bases if A is a normal bases
with its weakly dual bases is A.

Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Furthermore, we can prove that, if A is a weakly self-dual normal


bases, then Fq and r = n2 or r = 0.

DFT and Cyclic codes


Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Let C be an [n, k] code over Fq and Fqn be a primitive n-th root


of unity (i.e. satisfies n = 1), and choose m such that n|q m 1.

DFT and Cyclic codes


Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction

Let C be an [n, k] code over Fq and Fqn be a primitive n-th root


of unity (i.e. satisfies n = 1), and choose m such that n|q m 1.
Definition 3
Let c = (c0 , c1 , . . . , cn1 ) C , discrete Fourier transform of c
defined by f = (f0 , f1 , . . . , fn1 ) Fn(qm ) , where

Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

fk =

n1
X

cj jk

j=0

for every k = 0, 1, . . . , n 1. We called f as DFT spectra of c.

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

We can associate c = (c0 , c1 , . . . , cn1 ) C with a polynomial


Pn1
c(x) = k=0 ck x k Rn = Fq [x]/(x n 1).

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

We can associate c = (c0 , c1 , . . . , cn1 ) C with a polynomial


Pn1
c(x) = k=0 ck x k Rn = Fq [x]/(x n 1).
we can associate DFT spectrum of c with a polynomial
Pn1
f (x) = k=0 fk x k .

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto

We can associate c = (c0 , c1 , . . . , cn1 ) C with a polynomial


Pn1
c(x) = k=0 ck x k Rn = Fq [x]/(x n 1).
we can associate DFT spectrum of c with a polynomial
Pn1
f (x) = k=0 fk x k .

Introduction

Definition 4

Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases

A code C is called cyclic codes if C is an ideal of Rn .

Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto

We can associate c = (c0 , c1 , . . . , cn1 ) C with a polynomial


Pn1
c(x) = k=0 ck x k Rn = Fq [x]/(x n 1).
we can associate DFT spectrum of c with a polynomial
Pn1
f (x) = k=0 fk x k .

Introduction

Definition 4

Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases

A code C is called cyclic codes if C is an ideal of Rn .

Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Furthermore, if C is a cyclic code, then we have C = hg (x)i, for


some g (x), where g (x)|(x n 1).

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Let C be a cyclic code with generator polynomial


Q
g (x) = iT (x i ), where T {0, 1, . . . , n 1} is a defining
set for C , for some g (x)|x n 1.

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Let C be a cyclic code with generator polynomial


Q
g (x) = iT (x i ), where T {0, 1, . . . , n 1} is a defining
set for C , for some g (x)|x n 1.
We can see that polynomial c(x) Fq [x]/(x n 1) is an element
of C if and only if c( i ) = 0 for all i T .

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Let C be a cyclic code with generator polynomial


Q
g (x) = iT (x i ), where T {0, 1, . . . , n 1} is a defining
set for C , for some g (x)|x n 1.
We can see that polynomial c(x) Fq [x]/(x n 1) is an element
of C if and only if c( i ) = 0 for all i T .
Therefore, the component of DFT spectrum f of a codeword c,
will be fi = 0 for all i T .

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Let C be a cyclic code with generator polynomial


Q
g (x) = iT (x i ), where T {0, 1, . . . , n 1} is a defining
set for C , for some g (x)|x n 1.
We can see that polynomial c(x) Fq [x]/(x n 1) is an element
of C if and only if c( i ) = 0 for all i T .
Therefore, the component of DFT spectrum f of a codeword c,
will be fi = 0 for all i T .

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction

Let C be a cyclic code with generator polynomial


Q
g (x) = iT (x i ), where T {0, 1, . . . , n 1} is a defining
set for C , for some g (x)|x n 1.
We can see that polynomial c(x) Fq [x]/(x n 1) is an element
of C if and only if c( i ) = 0 for all i T .
Therefore, the component of DFT spectrum f of a codeword c,
will be fi = 0 for all i T .

Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Any spectrum which is :


zero in each coordinate i T , and

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction

Let C be a cyclic code with generator polynomial


Q
g (x) = iT (x i ), where T {0, 1, . . . , n 1} is a defining
set for C , for some g (x)|x n 1.
We can see that polynomial c(x) Fq [x]/(x n 1) is an element
of C if and only if c( i ) = 0 for all i T .
Therefore, the component of DFT spectrum f of a codeword c,
will be fi = 0 for all i T .

Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Any spectrum which is :


zero in each coordinate i T , and
all components of its inverse discrete Fourier transform (IDFT)
are in Fq .
called the codeword in spectral domain.

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Therefore, encoding a cyclic code in spectral domain via DFT is


accomplished by calculating IDFT.

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Therefore, encoding a cyclic code in spectral domain via DFT is


accomplished by calculating IDFT.

Fumys [3] approaches were using normal bases and its dual.
Therefore, self-dual normal bases are very usefull.

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto

Therefore, encoding a cyclic code in spectral domain via DFT is


accomplished by calculating IDFT.

Fumys [3] approaches were using normal bases and its dual.
Therefore, self-dual normal bases are very usefull.

Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Theorem 1
Fqn has self-dual normal bases over Fq if and only if n is odd or q is
even and n 2 mod 4.

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto

Therefore, encoding a cyclic code in spectral domain via DFT is


accomplished by calculating IDFT.

Fumys [3] approaches were using normal bases and its dual.
Therefore, self-dual normal bases are very usefull.

Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes

Theorem 1
Fqn has self-dual normal bases over Fq if and only if n is odd or q is
even and n 2 mod 4.

Conclusion

Fact : In F32 , there is a weakly self-dual normal bases over F3 .

Construction of weakly self-dual normal bases


Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Let be a map from Fqn to Fqn where () = q for all


Fqn and G = hi is a cyclic group generated by .

Construction of weakly self-dual normal bases


Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Let be a map from Fqn to Fqn where () = q for all


Fqn and G = hi is a cyclic group generated by .
Define
Fq [G ] =

( n
X

)
k

ak | ak Fq

k=0

Fq [G ] forms an algebra over Fq .

Construction of weakly self-dual normal bases


Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Let be a map from Fqn to Fqn where () = q for all


Fqn and G = hi is a cyclic group generated by .
Define
Fq [G ] =

( n
X

)
k

ak | ak Fq

k=0

Fq [G ] forms an algebra over Fq .


Pn1
v = k=0 ak k Fq [G ], define a conjugate for v ,
Pn1
v = k=0 ak k .

Irwansyah

Advisor :

Theorem 2
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Let be normal bases generator for in Fqn over Fq , and



Pn1
R = i=0 tr i () i , then :

Irwansyah

Advisor :

Theorem 2
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Let be normal bases generator for in Fqn over Fq , and



Pn1
R = i=0 tr i () i , then :
i. If v Fq [G ] satisfies

v2 v = R
then v has an inverse in Fq [G ].

(1)

Irwansyah

Advisor :

Theorem 2
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Let be normal bases generator for in Fqn over Fq , and



Pn1
R = i=0 tr i () i , then :
i. If v Fq [G ] satisfies

v2 v = R

(1)

then v has an inverse in Fq [G ].


ii. : v 7 v 1 is one-to-one correspondence beetwen the
solution for equation (1) and the set of elements in Fqn which
generate weakly self-dual normal bases.

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

The search for v that satisfies (1) leads to the the problem of solving
the following system of non-linear equations,

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

The search for v that satisfies (1) leads to the the problem of solving
the following system of non-linear equations,
For n is an even integer,

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

The search for v that satisfies (1) leads to the the problem of solving
the following system of non-linear equations,
For n is an even integer,
Pn1 2
al
Pl=0
n1
l=0 al al+1 mod n

Pn1
l=0 al al+k mod n

Pn1
l=0 al al+n1 mod n


n
tr 2 ()

n
tr 1+ 2 ()


n
tr k+ 2 ()


n
tr n1+ 2 ()

=0
=0

=0

=0

(2)

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

For n is an odd integer,

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

For n is an odd integer,


Pn1 2
l=0 al
Pn1
l=0 al al+1 mod n

Pn1
l=0 al al+k mod n

Pn1
l=0 al al+n1 mod n

tr ()
=0
tr (())
=0


tr k ()
=0


n1
tr () = 0

(3)

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

For n is an odd integer,


Pn1 2
l=0 al
Pn1
l=0 al al+1 mod n

Pn1
l=0 al al+k mod n

Pn1
l=0 al al+n1 mod n

tr ()
=0
tr (())
=0


tr k ()
=0


n1
tr () = 0

The system (2) and (3) can be solved using Gr


obner bases.

(3)

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Example 1
Let be a normal bases generator for F36 over F3 , where is a root
of f (x) = x 6 + x 5 + x 2 + x + 1. We have the following corresponding
system of non linear equations.

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Example 1
Let be a normal bases generator for F36 over F3 , where is a root
of f (x) = x 6 + x 5 + x 2 + x + 1. We have the following corresponding
system of non linear equations.

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

= x02 + x12 + x22 + x32 + x42 + x52 1


= 0
f1 (x0 , x1 , . . . , x5 ) = x1 x0 + x2 x1 + x3 x2 + x4 x3 + x5 x4
+x0 x5 1 = 0
f2 (x0 , x1 , . . . , x5 ) = x2 x0 + x3 x1 + x4 x2 + x5 x3 + x0 x4
+x1 x5 = 0
f3 (x0 , x1 , . . . , x5 ) = x3 x0 + x4 x1 + x5 x2 + x0 x3 + x1 x4
+x2 x5 1 = 0
f4 (x0 , x1 , . . . , x5 ) = x4 x0 + x5 x1 + x0 x2 + x1 x3 + x2 x4
+x3 x5 = 0
f5 (x0 , x1 , . . . , x5 ) = x5 x0 + x0 x1 + x1 x2 + x2 x3 + x3 x4
+x4 x5 1 = 0
f0 (x0 , x1 , . . . , x5 )

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Example 1 (contd)
Vector (2 1 1 1 0 0) is the solution of the system. Therefore, we have
2
3
4
5
= 3 + 3 + 23 + 3 is generator for weakly self-dual normal
bases for F36 over F3 .

Orthogonal Transform Encoding Cyclic Codes


Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Fumy [3] gave the following simplified approach to calculating IDFT


using normal bases and its dual.

Orthogonal Transform Encoding Cyclic Codes


Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Fumy [3] gave the following simplified approach to calculating IDFT


using normal bases and its dual.
1 Represent the coefficients of the DFT spectrum
Pn1
f (x) = k=0 fk x k with respect to a normal bases
Pm1
A = {0 , . . . , m1 } of Fqm over Fq , i.e. fk = l=0 ekl l .

Orthogonal Transform Encoding Cyclic Codes


Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Fumy [3] gave the following simplified approach to calculating IDFT


using normal bases and its dual.
1 Represent the coefficients of the DFT spectrum
Pn1
f (x) = k=0 fk x k with respect to a normal bases
Pm1
A = {0 , . . . , m1 } of Fqm over Fq , i.e. fk = l=0 ekl l .
Pn1
2 Generate the polynomial e0 (x) = k=0 ek0 x k and reduce e0 (x)
modulo the minimal polynomial of the n-th root of unity over
Fq , or calculate e0 ().

Orthogonal Transform Encoding Cyclic Codes


Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Fumy [3] gave the following simplified approach to calculating IDFT


using normal bases and its dual.
1 Represent the coefficients of the DFT spectrum
Pn1
f (x) = k=0 fk x k with respect to a normal bases
Pm1
A = {0 , . . . , m1 } of Fqm over Fq , i.e. fk = l=0 ekl l .
Pn1
2 Generate the polynomial e0 (x) = k=0 ek0 x k and reduce e0 (x)
modulo the minimal polynomial of the n-th root of unity over
Fq , or calculate e0 ().

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

3 Write the resulting residues in linear combination of dual bases


Pm1
of A, i.e. e0 () = k=0 uk k , for some uk Fq , where
D = {0 , 1 , . . . , m1 } is dual bases for A. Then we have
ck = uml , where l satisfies k = q l .

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Our complete approach :

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Our complete approach :


1 Given Fqm which generate normal bases. Construct weakly
self-dual normal bases B = {0 , 1 , . . . , m1 } and then its dual
bases is D = {(0) , (1) , . . . , (m1) }, where = tr (10 )2 .
Represent the coefficients of the DFT spectrum
Pn1
f (x) = k=0 fk x k with respect to bases B.

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Our complete approach :


1 Given Fqm which generate normal bases. Construct weakly
self-dual normal bases B = {0 , 1 , . . . , m1 } and then its dual
bases is D = {(0) , (1) , . . . , (m1) }, where = tr (10 )2 .
Represent the coefficients of the DFT spectrum
Pn1
f (x) = k=0 fk x k with respect to bases B.
Pn1
2 Generate the polynomial e0 (x) = k=0 ek0 x k and reduce e0 (x)
modulo the minimal polynomial of the n-th root of unity over
Pm1
Fq , i.e. write e0 () = k=0 uk ((k) ). Then we have
ck = uml , where l satisfies k = q l .

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Example 2
Let be generator of weakly self-dual normal bases for F23 over
F2 , where is a root of h(x) = x 3 + x12 F2 [x].

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Example 2
Let be generator of weakly self-dual normal bases for F23 over
F2 , where is a root of h(x) = x 3 + x12 F2 [x].
We can check that, = + 2 is 7-th root of unity. Let
f = ( + 2 0 0 0 0 0) F723 be a vector in spectral domain,
or we can write its corresponding polynomial
f (x) = + ( + 2 )x F23 [x].

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Example 2
Let be generator of weakly self-dual normal bases for F23 over
F2 , where is a root of h(x) = x 3 + x12 F2 [x].
We can check that, = + 2 is 7-th root of unity. Let
f = ( + 2 0 0 0 0 0) F723 be a vector in spectral domain,
or we can write its corresponding polynomial
f (x) = + ( + 2 )x F23 [x].
As in [3], e0 (x) = 1 + x, we have the inverse discrete Fourier
transform for f is a vector c = (0 0 0 0 1 1 0) in signal domain,
or its corresponding polynomial is c(x) = x 4 + x 5 .

Conclusion
Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

We have shown that we can construct weakly self-dual normal


bases generator with the solutions of equation (2) or (3).
Moreover, the encoding of cyclic codes using Fumys approach
can be completed in such a way that we make use of weakly
self-dual normal bases for undelining finite fields.

Conclusion
Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

We have shown that we can construct weakly self-dual normal


bases generator with the solutions of equation (2) or (3).
Moreover, the encoding of cyclic codes using Fumys approach
can be completed in such a way that we make use of weakly
self-dual normal bases for undelining finite fields.

Irwansyah

Advisor :
Dr. Intan
Muchtadi
Alamsyah
Aleams Barra,
Ph.D.
Dr. Ahmad
Muchlis
Dr. Djoko
Suprijanto
Introduction
Construction of
weakly self-dual
normal bases
Orthogonal
Transform
Encoding Cyclic
Codes
Conclusion

Thank You