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RESULTS & SOIL INVESTIGATION

RESULTS & SOIL CLASSIFICATION


3
3.1. Soil Testing Results

Experiment

Quantity

Sample No.
1

Max. Dry Density (g/cc)

2.036

2.032

2.028

2.017

2.042

Optimum Moisture Content (%)

11.8

12.2

12.6

12.6

12.8

Specific Gravity

2.67

2.67

2.675

2.67

2.678

Sand (%)

49

55

53

54

52

Silt (%)

49

41

44

41

44

Clay (%)

Liquid Limit Test

Liquid limit (%)

23

24

24

23

22

Plastic Limit Test

Plastic Limit (%)

22

21

22

21

20

C.B.R. (%)

10.36

11.02

10.2

9.93

10.95

Proctor Compaction Test


Specific Gravity Test

Grain Size Analysis

California Bearing Ratio Test

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RESULTS & SOIL INVESTIGATION


Table 3.1 Soil Testing Results

3.2. Aggregate Testing Results


Sample No.
Experiment

Aggregate Crushing Value Test

Aggregate Impact Test


Los Angeles Abrasion Test
Specific Gravity Test
Water Absorption Test

Quantity
1

Mean

Aggregate Crushing Value (%)

15.6

13.2

14.4

Aggregate Impact Value (%)

10.35

9.69

10.02

Aggregate Abrasion Value (%)

17.7

14.53

16.12

Specific Gravity

2.60

2.64

2.62

Water Absorption (%)

0.7

0.4

0.55

Table 3.2 Aggregate Testing Results

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RESULTS & SOIL INVESTIGATION

3.3. Bitumen Testing Results


Sample No.
Experiment

Quantity
1

Penetration
Test
Ductility Test

Mea
n

Penetration Value (1/10


mm)

58.6

72.4 63.7

64.9

Ductility Value (cm)

53.5

61.2

57.3
5

--

Table 3.3 Bitumen Testing Results

3.4. Soil Classification


According to IS Classification soils are broadly divided into
three major divisions:
1. Coarse grained soils
2. Fine grained soils
3. Highly organic soils and other miscellaneous soil materials

3.4.1. Coarse-Grained Soils: In these soils, more than 50%


of the material by weight is larger than 75 micron I.S. sieve size.
They are further divided into two sub-divisions, i.e.
a. Gravels
b. Sands

3.4.1. (a) Gravels (G): In these soils, more than 50% of the
coarse fraction (+ 75 micron i.e. > 0.075 mm), is larger than 4.75
mm. This sub-division includes gravels and gravelly soils, and is
designated by the symbol G.

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RESULTS & SOIL INVESTIGATION

3.4.1. (b) Sands (S): In these soils, more then 50% of the
coarse fraction (+ 75 micron i.e. > 0.075 mm) is smaller than 4.75
mm. This sub-division includes sands and sandy soils.

3.4.2. Fine-Grained Soils: In these soils, more than 50% of


material by weight is smaller than 75 micron i.e. 0.075 mm). These
soils are further sub-divided into the following three sub-divisions:

3.4.2. (a) Silts (inorganic) represented by symbol (M). It


consists of coarse, medium and fine silts as shown in Fig. 3.16.

3.4.2. (b) Clays (inorganic) represented by symbol (C).


3.4.2. (c) Organic silts, organic clays, and organic
matter represented by symbol (O).
The fine grained soils are further divided into the following
groups on the basis of the following arbitrarily selected values of
liquid limit, which is a good index of compressibility:
I.

Silts and clays of low compressibility (L), are those having

II.

liquid limit less than 35; and are represented by symbol L.


Silts and clays of medium compressibility (I) are those having
liquid limit greater than 35 and less than 50 ; and are

III.

represented by symbol I.
Silts and clays of high compressibility (H) are those having
liquid limit greater than 50; and are represented by H.
A step by step procedure for classifying fine grained soils as

per IS 1498-1970 is as shown below in the form of flow chart, with


the help of which we will classify our soil. Also various values of L &
IP have been plotted on Plasticity Chart for fine grained soil, with
which also we can classify the given soil.

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RESULTS & SOIL INVESTIGATION

Fig 3.1 Classification of Fine Grained Soil as per BIS Code

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RESULTS & SOIL INVESTIGATION


60

50

40

30

20

10

0
10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

109

Plasticity Index IP

RESULTS & SOIL INVESTIGATION

Liquid Limit
Fig 3.2 Graph showing variouspoints plotted on the Plasticity Chart
L
So, after having a look on the chart given by BIS for classifying the fine grained soil and plotting the
various points of Plasticity Index (I P) & Liquid Limit (L) on the Plasticity Chart, we can classify the given

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RESULTS & SOIL INVESTIGATION


soil samples as follows:

IS Soil
Grain Size Properties

Atterbergs Limit

tion

Soil
Sample

Classifica

% Finer
than 75

Clay

Silt

Sand

Liquid

Plastic

Limit

Limit

( L)

( P)

Plasticit
y Index
(IP = L P)

52.23

49

49

23

22

ML

51.30

41

55

24

21

ML

52.60

44

53

24

22

ML

50.42

41

54

23

21

ML

53.40

44

52

22

20

ML

Table 3.4 Classification of given soil sample as per BIS Code