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')i

TARKA-SANGRAHA
OF

ANANDAJNANA

EDITED WITH INTRODUCTION

T.

M. TRIPATHI,

B. A.

Published under the authority of the Government op

HIS HIGHNESS THE MAHARAJA

GAEKWAD OF BARODA.

CENTRAL LIBRARY

BARODA.
19 17.

MAR 2 7 1967

^lii^iTY

Of

^^^

AEKWAD'S ORIENTAL SERIES


lited
e

under the

Curator

of

supervision
State

of

Libraries,

laroda.

NO. III.

Pablishcd by Janardan Sakliaram Kmlalkar,

M.

A..

LL.

Baroda, for the Barwla Govornmcnt, and Printed

The

l>y

D., Curator of State Librarietf,

Manilal Itcharaiii EKpai, at

Gujaratl Printing Press, No. 6, Sassoon Buildlnos,


Circle, Port, Bombay.

Price Rs.

21

CONTENTS.
Page
i-xxii

Introduction

The

present ^or)fi-Tarkasangraha
i

Its object
Its

procedure

ii

...

Its Subject-matter...^
II

iii

Anandjfianana or Anandagiri

The name Anandagiri

vi

and Jauardana the author of Taitvdloka same


Anandagiri was probably a native of Gujarat
Anandajfiana-an Achdrya of the Dvarkd-pitha

He

vi
vii
viii

His preceptors.
AnubhiltisvarupSchSrya

(1)

\x

Authorship of the Sarasvata grammar


Narendranagari

...

...

...

Suddhanauda

(2)

...
...

xi

His pupils.
(1)

Akhandananda

(2)

...

...

xi

...

commentator on the Kathopanishad

xii

Works by Anandagiri.
(a)

Printed

(b)

Unprinted

(c)

Doubtful or falsely attributed

xii

Some noteworthy works quoted

xii

in his works.

xiii

(1)

PrakatMha

xiv

(2)

DraJunaprahdiikCi

xiv

(3)

Paddrtha-tatlva-nirnaya

xiv

Some

notable authors quoted in his works.

(1>

Bhartriprapaficha

(2;

DravidScharya

(3)

Bbatta Bhaskara

(4)

Bhatta

(5)

Dharmakirti

Sambhu

Authors who

xv
xvi
xvi
xvii
xvii

refer to Anandagiri.

(1)

Prajridndnada

(2)

(Sesha) Sdrngadhara

xvii

xvii

(Vadi-Vdgisvara)

xviL'

(Vadindra)

xviii

CONTENTS.
(Knlarka-pati'lita)

...

(Bhuvanasundara)

...

(3)

RSinauanda?arasvatI

(4)

Sadananda Kasmirika

(5)

Srikrisbnatiandasarasvat?

(6)

Mahesvaratirtha

(7)

Kika

...

...

...

Index of Quotations
II Index of Verses
III Index of Technical Terms

,,,

^ix

...

...

...

xix
xix

xix
...

...

...

...

...

xix

...

...

...

...

...

xx
xx
xx

III
The Manuscript
Contents of the Text (in Sanskrita)
Erreta etc.

...

...

...

Anandagiri's date.

The Text

Page
...

xxi

(O-(^)
(^)-(^)

^_^^
(0-(*)
(0-()
(^)_(^.,)

INTRODUCTION.
I

(The present woik

Tarkasangraha .)*

Tarkasangraha iucliuled in the Gaekwad's Oriental Series, is an


work hy Anandajfulna or Anandagiri, the well-known erudite commentator on SdnkarachiJrya's Bhashyas.
Tills

orljjliial

It is

a critical examination and a systematic refutation of the Vaiseshika^

or the Aulukya system

of philosophy

the

losophy; or in other words, a logical

champion

Hindu

of

Realistic Phi-

refutation of the Creationist or Realistic

standard from the stand-point of the Polyonomic

standard;

or

according to

Sanskrit terminology, of the Arambhavdda from the point of view of the

Vivartavada.

Us founder, Kanada,^ the Empedocles of India, was a devotee of iiva,^


Somasarm^, and an inhabitant of Prabhds-Patan in Kathiavada.'*

pupil of

Its

Object.

It

seems that out

of all

present author chose this particular one for

the systems of philosophy, the


refutation,

and not Nyaya or any

other, because the Vaiseshikas are considered to be the greatest logicians, the
chief exponents of the atomic creation of
of matter.
{

They have thus been

Hhcdavddins).

things, and upholders of the reality

the pioneers of

the dualistic philosophers

all

In this connection, Anandajndna himself observes that "this

by arguments logical and authoritative, "the One without


Second; 5" and in the concluding part of the work he affirms that "by ap

effort is to establish,

This

the same work as

ifl

is

referred to

mentary on I'daynnrichurya's fy^iMinnaral', and

work
and

of the Ranjc

name by Annamblintta, who

So

1.

often

the

in

Kyi'iya-muLtdcai', a com-

not to be confonnded with the well-known

tloariehed between Mallinutha (A. D. 1875)

(A. D. 1585)

libatloji DikHhita

( tkifl),

is

called as

it

recognises a

particular

category

termed Particularity

('RI'*)

not accepted in other philosophies.

2.

He

is

also

known bj

of Anliikya (it being

iiis

the

name

of

K.Ttiabhuk and Katiabhaksha (synonyms of

meaning "eater of grannies," that have


ihWM {A;w,lalf p. 2).
">.

many Jain

See the ending


.iiitliorit

Ku^yapa

(his family name-*I^l'l), by the

patronymic, he being the son of Rishi Uluka), and

\eri>c of

Kanada)

fallen

these

being

on the ground,

name

From

this

name

those

quality-names

like a bird. Cf.

the Ptularlha-dharma-ian^raha.

generally designate the system by the

by

l^

of

literally

?f^W3'

circamstance

of raapata(see Shaddaria-

naeamuchcfiiiifa-rrttii of (iiinaratna p. 200).


i.

See the learned introdaction

(pp. 7-10).

5 c;^r^

fc

^^

m^

to

Kandali

by

^qFrnsj sfcr7i<P<sj*<^ sn?^:

Pan'Hta

VindfayeiTartpruwU

( y4<i<. p. 10 )

methods of arjjumcuts here propounded ia refutation of the Vaiseshika philosophy to other systems, the improbability of their theories and
plyinj; the

definitions will be manifest."*

In the same strain, Raghunathavarmd in his I^ukikanyayasangraha


declares that "poor Chiirvakas and others

by which

Vaiseshika,

the

become

vigorous, dry and cold logic,

conquered.^" This

is also

easily refuted

the protagonist of
the upholder the

truth of duality,

of

clear from a

remark

by arguments

known

disputants

of

Lakshmana

Sastri

for
is

to

his

be

Dravida

Khandanakhandakhadya to the effect that "by the above


proved that the idea of soul as propounded by the Xaiyayikas

in his preface to the


facts

it is

(logicians)

is not acceptable to Gautama, but


and therefore Sankaracbiirja refutes,

is

theor>',

in his

setting

him up

Some

identical with

the Vaiscshika

works, the Vaiseshika,

as his opponent. "^

of the

tenets of the

Vaiseshikas about topics

common

to other

philosophies arc controverted in several other works, such as Talliapradipikd


of

Chilsukha

none

etc.; but

mctically as the present

blishmcnt of the
Its

from

its

the subjects in the

work

of

them handles them

does, which

-The

so thoroughly and syste-

has in view particularly the esta

falsity of objects (Sec. 3, 4,

procedure.

rally follows,

of

work

69 and 70.)

author of the Tarkasaiigraha, in his task, gene-

tenth section dealing with 'earth'

Paddrthadharmasmgraha

the Vaiseshika

Philosophy

),

ffe'T), the order of

of Pras'astapada (the standard

and that

in

the

first

chapter of

the Paddrthatattvanirnaya of GangSpuri, omitting the section on enumeration


of categories
larities

cipation

),

HKimJl'+l'Ji

):

the section showing similarities and dissimiand the section about worldly bondage and emanas these are touched upon in the treatment of

( ?i,iJM^nm ). a"<i

frr^lv^^^^rTT^

He, moreover, includes in his refutations, 'uon-existance'


and
( arfTR ) which was held as a seventh category by the later Vaiseshikas,
disputation' (^t^) and other subjects specially treated by the Naiyayikas.
other subjects.

Many of the passages in this work, beginning with the words yallu
(qf ) and ending with /// ( ;;^ ) (e. g. on pp. 28, 65 etc.) are to be met with
in the Paddrlhatlvanirnaya-vivarana.

^URF^i^ir^d^^

1 i^siF^-iT^i^

rVc^

a^ g5i*ii^i^?^3

( ^. .

^^n^l'^rf^ ^jn*T^Rq

{^.^^^. p. 141)

^.

^t

^^.

Otr^^

p 23-24

h^
)

( et. jqr. . p.

137

e'<3^?^i^

arftNi-

iii

It is one of the maxims of the Ny^ya philosophy that 'an object is real
cau be defined and proved.'* Anandajndua, therefore, in order to prove
that there is no real object except Brahman, takes up each and every 'object'
if it

the Vaiseshikas, first examining its various definitions (which, in one


way, may be said to rest mainly on sense-perception or inference) aud then
showing that the defined does not also stand the test of reasoning. In
some cases, he examines the 'indicative cause' ( Wi^ ) adduced for recognizing the same, and then proceeds to point out the fallacies in the syllo*
gistic inference advanced to prove it; aud then ends by concluding the nonof

reality

3?-^^)

The

of the object (

^, TTN )

handled.

and syllogisms controverted are principally those of his


Sridhara etc. and others
Prasastapida, Udayana,
from Nydyasdra (chapters first and second, chiefly iu sections 42 to 48 of the
present work), Mdnavtauohara and others.
definitions

predecessors-some of

After offering homage to the Almighty and his


commences with declaring the general doctrine of all
entity and
philosophers, that there are two main categories

Its Subject-matter.

preceptor, Anandajnaua

the dualistic
non-entity

MH

He

Mi^t)*

then proceeds to the examination of the 'Entity'

meanings or definitions, and all its sub-divisions as expounded by the Vais'eshikas, details of which will be gathered from the contents
through

its

possible

given here in Sanskrita.


It

may be noted

with 'duality'
(pp.

61-63),

in the course of this,

that,

''pp.

he deals

some length,

at

1-1), the origin due to excessive heat

( Mi^Hlr'4Pi )

and separateduess resulting from division (finuMf^m/i)

(pp.

73-75), as they are considered to be the special features of the Vais'eshika


division '( f^tnn ) Cpp.
system; and also with 'differentia' ( g^^^F?^ ) and
they are mutually
because
75-77),
'distance'
and
71-75),
( Mir^ Ur^ ) (pp'

l'

related

and help

in

proving the 'theory of separateduess'

tion to the 'theory of one unit or uon-duality' ( ^thij^t^

The

author, in this division,

and

or more properly 'Reality,'

matter
the

(^fvifl).

because

"substance"

and

all

its

deals

more

fully

i(^^

), in

opposi-

).

with 'substance'

principle sub-division

ysq

Earth or Thermal

the other categories or entities are

their other sub-divisions follow the

dependent on
case of Earth.

Subthe non-establishment of these two, all others fall to the ground.


stance or Reality cannot be proved, because it is incapable of being defined.'

On

After treating thus all the 'Entities' ( n7T^' ) with their sub-divisions
17
to 128), the author proceeds with 'Non-entity' (snn^ ), and its sub(pp.
divisions (pp. 128 to 133).
1

sgqsRMPHrt ^fefe:


The

conclusion, Anaudaj nana

alwaj-s

according to the

tions, after discussing

arrives at in

the respective sec-

rules of reasoning

>
propounded
by those who call themselves Logicians, is that no satisfactory definition of
any can be maintained, or no sound argument can be advanced to support
such a thing, and therefore, all such subjects are unreal mere effects of
delusion (snr ) or nescience ( arf^ ) on the part of individuals ( ^^^: ); just
as, a serpant mistaken for rope does not admit of any definition or proof.
But no delusion takes place in vacuum or without some substratum, and
this substratum, where the world-delusiou has taken place owing to i^artial
ignorance of the true and only thing, is nothing else but the Self, llrahman.

ver>-

The author, at this point, enters into an examination of the superimposed ( MMlOfMnH. ) the seeming world the aggregate of all objects that
formed the subjects for refutation whether it is real or false, or both real and
It cannot be said to be
false, or something different from the last (p. 133)

real ( iT^-fi^.|''.mv.MH

appears

),

because in

a later stage,

to the befltted

without the least shadow of doubt;

false

it

cannot be said

srPi^fnfr ),

to

be

it

false

because it is different from such as never becomes an object of cognition;


and it cannot be both at once on account of contradiction. Hence the superimposed is peculiarly different from all these, or is 'inexplicable' A/infdc/iya
also,

or Anin'achatiiya
that

as

it is

technically termed.

cannot be defined nor that

it

have

tried it), but

thinker

may

hit

may be

means

It (p.

can be an object

135) does neither mean

fit

for definition

for

some

any way that a


upon, as has been shown throughout the work by arguments,

at least

which can be

it

it

that

it

is

indefinable in

applied, as recjuired, to other cases not included

put forth in future.

One should be

careful

cability is not predicated as a real property of the

unreal thing can have no quality real, but that


sense that the substratum of the super-imposed

(The cases

it

is

here or that

here that this inexpli-

super-imposed, because an

only suggests or conveys the


the thing real (p. 136),

of particular delusions, such as that of a serpent in

rope

or of silver in a mother-o-pearl and other cases of undoubted illusory knowledge are instances confirmatory of the above inference and

serve

for

the

inductive process.)

Now
no

must have some cause for its appearance. But


can be the material cause of an unreal thing. Hence it must

this super-imposed

real thing

have for its cause an equally unreal thing and such cannot be any other but
the nescience or ignorance of the substratum ( 'srfiaHWHH ).
This Nescience

may

is

impossible in

Brahman (the Highest Being), one

because the
Veddntin holds them non-different froiu Brahman. But this is not so; for, it
is not possible to deny nescience (absence of true knowledge) because this is
say, as

it is

omniscient; also impossible in individual souls,

qi^^

'nR3T?^:-^f^ jqpwgq?^.


cverywlicre evident. This nescience, again,

is

not independent or self-existing,

would be no nescience. Then, if it is dependent, it can only


be dependent on Brahman, for it is the sole thing; and this Brahman, which
is Omniscient ( n^ ) according to the Logician, can be called so only through
nescience, which alone can become the means of its (i.e. the Brahman's) being
for iu that case,

it

connected with other things.

As long

or the other order or system of

all

as this nescience lasts, there

is

the one

things, just as in a dteani.

Every phenomenon can be accounted

by the acceptance

for

of

one

nescience in connection with the Brahman. Accordingly there is no necesPresumptive evidence and law of
sity to assume a plurality of nescience.

parsimony

( fTnTTR;

are

satisfied

the

iu

acceptance of nescience as a unity

possessing wonderful potentialities (p. 13S).

assumes

there

disappears,
state

is

no reason why

should not disappear.

In fact, this

unity of nescience

one form the dreaming state


another from the sensuous waking

forms, and therefore,

different

if its

its

should be remembered that though the forms

It

of this

one nescience are numerous and outwardly diKerent, they are

nature

f^K^

(p. 139)

one nescience only

is

much

in as

as they

the root-cause of

or different perceptions,

all

of

all

all

are unreal (

different

^M

appearances

which crumble down

unreality

to

one in
Thus,

all

lM im?:)-

SkmHihr

when the
true know-

is destroyed by the advent of


proving duality are worthless, for they
arguments
( f^TjT ).
are found to be vicious on the attainment of the truth, even in this same state

root-cause nescience

Even

ledge

of

disappears or

logical

mundane

To

affairs (p. 140).


the enlightened then, this dualism

on account of
with his

remnant of nescience

is

perceptible only as a phantom,

( -jT^^n^si

that ends simultaneously

life.

Thus nescience is one, but is both dependent on the pure-soul, and


makes him the object of its operations. It also belongs to the individual soul

who

is

not at

all

different

The shadow

from the pure-iutelligence-Soul

of this unreal nescience

( f^-;

makes the pure

rm

).

soul think himself

be fettered, and himself to be happy at the disappearance of the darkness


by the light of knowledge; but, in fact, the Vedanta neither
preaches nor asserts plurality of souls ( ifR^n ) nor that of nescience.
to

of ignorance

Thus
sentence"

to the right thinker,

on

"That thou art," there

either

bondage or emancipation; but

which

is

tion.

The

also the individual soul

This knowledge
notion

is

(in

nature)

notion of

"I"

is

him there

is

only the

Highest Being

real Self. (p. 141).

re-cognition ( tRRrin ) or rc'presenta-

(modification of the
it

"great

not-there was not-and there will not be


to

the

Nescience arises in the Self; and as


the 'quality of doer' or agency ( ij5g

purport of the

his realising the


is

internal

organ

|^

of

"I"

originates in the vicinity of the

)is falsely attributed to

destroyed by the rise of knowledge,

it

or of
Self,

the Self. When this

leaves behind a synUar

form

"That

(am). "Here too subjectiveness and


tisap^e ( 3T3IT ) or convenience,
though nothing is really a property (^ ) of the Self-who is not different or
distinct from Brahman, (the sensuous world being an illusion thereon ).
impression

^FTR

) in the

of

objectiveness are attributed to the Self throti<Th

In short, Anandajuana concludes, one inexpliablc Nescience

( -jtjtr )

seeming differences ( ht ) through which, one (Sc'fj-really


thinks himself to be really
free and unconnected in all ways with any thing
in an opposite condition, until the Nescience (the cause with its effects) is
destroyed by acquiring the true knowldge from the Vcdanta. Thus "absolutely
real" is neither bondage nor emancipation, (^the one or the other notion being
mere error-one thought of as the removed, the other as the remover,-) but it
is only the Self-Bliss (/is-co\eted by the removal of Nescience with its effects,
and always unconnected in the least with any object. This position as proved
is

the cause of

all

here

unrefutable.

is

Tarkasattgraha then
rationally inquiring into the

a polemical work of Metaphysical Philosophy,


fundamental nature cf things, and is thus useful

is

to seekers after truth as well as to those

who want

to cultivate their

powers of

argumentation.
II

AnandajnAna or ANANDAGIRI
The Name Anandagih.
colophons of

known

all

his

who

He

in

some

of

his verses

given as Anandajfiana, he

is

and
is

in

the

popularly

by which name he too designates himself.'

as Anandagiri,

authors

Though

works, his name

Other

quote him do so by the latter name.

and Janardana the author of Tattvaloka same. As

iu very

an ascetic ( qfenn: ) (as in the


case of Sarasvatitirtha author of a commentarj' on the Kavyaprakasa) can be
ascertained, the acceptance of the ascetic's mode of life ( -ininr ) being consifew cases the previous details of the

life

of

dered a new birth and so no reference being


ter of satisfaction to be

able to gain

made

to his

former

life, it is

a mat-

some information about the author on

this point.

Anandagiri in his hdvasya-bhashya-lippana says:

"Hmm^rncTT^ ^T^
work (p.2)he

Now,
is

says:

Ananda. Ed.)

y^itHiivr: (p. 15.

aud

vmrrrf^w;
also

there exists a

work named

5^
This

ia

the

qfr-

same

V^M'^miH'-iiMftT-^T 5JN*MlNH5r(.*4^TL.;jv:i^|H|'iMHl'|.<j-4r1pi^TT^^rr^-

Tattvaloka'^ by Janilrdana

found the refutation of the Pariijdmavada (doctrine of

2.

in

^?^Hii

ii--hir*i*i

not to be confounded with

( \.

J?r.

in

which

evolution) of

qr.) 3To

^ (?. i.6\).

(Xyuy)jra//ra/o/(4i short connncntiry

OB tb Njfiifatitnu bj (AbhinaTt) YactiMpatimiira <boat A. D. 1400.)

and fifteenth sectionsi (pp. 8a to 9a of a ManuDeccan College No. 762 of 1891-95) while the second reference'
be met with at the end of its eighth section (p. 5b).
iu its fonrLcenth

Bhaskara,

script iu the
is

to

Taitliriya-bhdshya'iippana

Again, in his

he says:

m'HNMlf^H^Ff

cl^Mrai% KAnauda. Ed. p. 6, Giij. Pr. Ed. p. 5). This point


too is found treated in the seventh section"* of the same work. (pp. 4b, 5a
of the same Ms.)

*li'<<'4lfM4(*l''i*

dana.

These
This

facts leave
is

no doubt as

to the identity of

further supported by a

similarity

Auandagiri and Janarin

in ajguincnts (chiefly sections 17 to 37 of Tativaloka)

method

and in

of

sections,

style of

Talud-

loka and Tarkasan^^raha.

Moreover, Kika in his liopanishad-bfidysh attributes the authorship


directly to Anaudagiri* (p. 27b of a Manuscript copy

of this Tattidloka

with me).

Jauardana, therefore, was Anandagiri's name in his previous stage of


life

("Hiw?).

Anandagiri was probably a native of Gujarat. One is further tempted


Janardana, the author of Tatlvdloka with Pandita Jauardana, who
has written a b/idsya. (commentary) called Jandnandanam ( jRFT^ ) on Me'
ghadula (Ms. at Sdntiuatha's temple, Cambay, copy dated A. D. 1410), and a
(Ms.
Praianubhdshya ( TJ?T5>n'^ ) (small commentary) on Raghuvania^
He wrote his comment on Mcghadiita after consultfragmeuts with mc)
aaeva (A.D.
ing the previous commeutaries of Asada(A. D. 1192), Va
to identify

1.

It

begins: r s^I^^Rhr:

5^^ ?T5^^^

^\

SS^^Pl

=^

cin?qiJ|in^^iff

3.

5.

There

in

of a

S5ri?t

f^fi<MlNl<.lH*i<Ot^

'^^JTT'5^:

( arTIo )

^FR^^^n^

rl?rRr*^^iTrR^^ H'qinRTTa5q:

(giving also

NRjuf^i

later

fxplanations in

wm^?:, cR^ 3T5^no^TfiRf%^(w)^

%'.

( ??ITo lTo )

origin

another

Hiuiilar

Gujarat! by Simala,

by caste ( 'i^l^^I^RMId'^lsRlf^^'^:

^H^^Pn^T^^ITH^.

son
.

).

comiuontary
of

on

the

Ra^huran^a

Luniga, a Nagara firahmana

(Manuscript datad A.D. 16;2.)


1163) and Sthtradcva. The peculiarity of these conimentarics is that besides
giving explanations, and occasioually ligures of speech and parallel passages,
they are intermingled with the meanings of the text-words in the
Gujarati language also.*

In

giri.

These appear

to l)e early literar>'

fragment of Kiii;li!i:atnaUia>hya (|Uotations from

the

old

attempts of Ananda-

Rudrata's

Kdvydlaiikara only are met with. Mr. Nandargikar, in his preface to Rii^^hw
lania (p. 2Z ) puts this Jauardana before A. D. 13S5. The epithet 'Paudita'
to this Jauardana, his (Auandagiri's) connection with Dvarka (where the
Gujarati was and
etc.

is

the vernacular language), aud the juxtaposition of dates

do not go against

this inference.

Anandajfiana an Acharya of the Dvarka-pitha

n^wm ).~The

heads of the several monasteries said to be


established by Sri Sankarachan,a are, on mauy grounds, considered to he
The
spurious, and new historical matter coming into light supports it.
chronological

lists

of the spiritual

of Anandajfiana, Suddhauanda and Auubhiitisvarupa (supposed to be


connected with Dvarka see below), are not to be found in any of the lists.
Now, Anandagiri in his works generally bows to Vishnu (jWlHij),
and in some places (see Mdndulyablidshyadku v.l in the beginning and the

names

end) to his particular incarnation


to the Icngh of specifying

him

and

This

j;

M.l( v^M(d (p. 142).

( ar^nn:

of Krishna, but in this

as 'the I^ord of DviirkA


is

gKTT^mi

work, goes
aud 142)

p. 1

very significant, and doubtlessly shows that

The word 'Bhagvat'


name may be also indicative of

Anandajfiana was once the Acharya of the Dvarkapitha.


(

nnt

) (^^"^

worshipful)

Again,

the same.

prefixed

to

his

end of his Sds/mpraldiild, he declares:

at the

This verse may mean

'I

composed the said exposition

speech having followed the path or gaiued the rank

( i^fff

of

Suresvara's

) of the worshipful

Visvanubhava."

Now,
is to

if

we

take the

first

be observed that there

is

meaning
yet

of the

word (pa(hrt)

i.e.

footpath,

it

no trace of a commentary on Drihadd-

ranyaka-bhdshyavdrtika of Sures'vara, previous to that of Anandajnaua. There


one by Anandapurna (called Nydyakalpalatilcd) on the same, but it

is

appears that he flourished sonie-what later than Anandajfiana, and he cannot

On the other hand,


one may try to identify VispvSnubhava with Visveveda (the author of a commentary on Sankshcpaidrika), but he is not known to have written anything
on the ydrtika.
For this reason, there is no alternative but to accept the second interpre*
tation i. e. 'having attained the rank of the revered Visvflnubhava*. Visvunube said in any way to be the same with Visvdnubhava.

Q;^

e.g.

n<JiRidii4i

CB^ H^*IiI

^Tf^

etc.

Ji^: 5?r?Fl

w:

ai

(Peter. Eep. Ill p. 325)

fPT^

^ g\5mr

%fc

%5^

3T?r

may be safely taken to be Visvarupa," which is another name of


Mandanamisra or Surcsvara, and by which name he is often quoted by Vidyaraijya in his Viiaraijn fira nicyasangraha and Tailliriyadipika; and Visvaiupa
is said to be the first Acharya of the Saradiipitha at Dvarki in Mallidmitdya
l)hava

and ^fall;clh^riHa.
It may also be inferred from the large number of his works, that he might
have enjoyed a long life.

His preceptors (Gurus). In TattvdloU, he


pupil of Anubhutisvariipachar\a,* and in his other

No

describes

works

himself as

the

as the pupil of Sud-

well-known that a
instance, Jagannatha Pau'litaraja in his Rafas^ani^ddhara mentions about four. But in the case
of 'Sannyasins' and 'Tautrikas' they have generally two, one 'Vidyiguru'
(teacher of various branches of knowledge) and the other 'Dikshaguru' or
'Mantraguru' (Spiritual preceptor, one who initiates him). In these cases,
mention of the 'Dikshdguru' is always made. Thus the famous Anubhutisvariipachdrj-a seems to be Anandagiti's (Jandrdaua's) 'Vidyaguru,' aup
dhiinanda.

person

contradiction

may have

Suddhananda

is

to be seen in this, for

it is

different teachers in different subjects,

for

his 'Dikshaguiu'.

(1) AnubhQtisvarupacharya ( v^^if^^^rTrar^). Heisnot "amanabout


whoui we know nothing. " lie is famous as the author of Sdraivalafiraknyd.
(Grammar). His other work< are known to be (2) (,aii<ljpddiyaiMandul.yahdr{l:d)bhdihy,i-l'dd (a copy of which exists at Tekkematlia at Trichur in the
Cochin state), ^3) Nydyanialaraitda'ian^ra/ia (a commentary on the Nydyawa-C-flr<i/;rt' of Anandabodha) Ca copy of it at the same place),
and (4) a
commentary called Chandrikd on the Nydyadipdvall of Anaudabodha (Dec.
Col. Ms. No. 766 of 1891-95), and (5) Nibandha (a commentary on the
P/d/<iiiattidld of Anaudabodha (M.<. No. 1915 in the Raghunatha Temple

L,ibrar)-Kdsmira).

be seen from this, that he has commented on all the known


Anaudabodha. As at the end of his Snrasiaiaprakriya and in his

It w-ill

works

of

Chandrik'iy he invokes the fnvour of


the Southern India only,

from the

fact that

it

God Hayagriva,

a deity worshipped iu

appears that he was a native of the South;

Janardana was

his pupil,

and that the study

of his

but

Sdrasa-

valapraktiy<\ has prevailed specially in Gujarat from a very old time, it is


very probable that for some reason he had come to live in GujarSta IQthiSvdda, perhaps at DvirkS, and that he thus gave an impetus to the study of

higher Nyaya and Vcdanta iu those parts.


Sdrasiali-prakrlya

(on grammar), of which,


1
rii

The Colophon

vi;ii^^

rniw-^fcl

Pif^rfl):^ .n7v^ip:i%

^rnWffnf^I

it is

a vrittioM the SarasLolimtras

is

very probable that the author was AnnbhOti-

>1<g>^a^l=^Rr5Il'n ^54'<M<Kr<l*<J<wW<'T^
p5;rfH>s'in: M

on.

;':-)
I-.

*it-


The

svarClpa himself.

tradition

is,

that iu the course of a debate, be beiug old

locative plural of
pronounced punkyJiH (^r^)
He was
the word pumdn), instead, of the correct form pioissu ii*^).
thereupon challeuged, and be gave as bis authority the Sarasvalisiiiras. He
was asked to produce the work, which he did ucxt day, composing it in one
This was an iulcllectual feat, uot uucomuion in India; as for example
night.

and

he

bis teeth fallen off.

Venkata-natha (A. D. 1300), the famous Kamamija author, composed bis


fddukd-sahasra (poem) in one night.

The

is supported by the fact that a special


form the ioxm pitnksliii^ (in the sense of

truth of the above tradition

Siitra is there in the

Sdrasiafa

to

Paramatma-the supreme soul), which form is not lobe found


grammar, (p. 103) of the edition with Chaudrakirti's com.;
Its

authorship etc. It docs not seem strange then,

iu

any other

thi;t

uuder the

circumstances, Auubhutisvart'ipa attributed the authorship to a deity, though


he jv-as really the author of the Si'dras and afterwards of its : rilti. It is easy
to understand that

conceal

to

his

rr/V// (brief
( nfi:qT )

( 5r5

);

make

notes)- to

as laid

down

or to annotate

'drlikas in bis rr/V//.

the "rules for fonnation and inflection of words

in the Saras: (ili-snlras

them

many
He wrote the

authorship he purposely omitted

things in the Siiltas and supplied them by

in the

(TR^^

easy to be understood

very order as they (the Sutras) stand (as

qt ^jf.mjM fi by Anandajnana in his CItlidnd. Dhd. Tika)


and be did not "re-arrange (?) the whole matter" as Dr. Belvalkar interprets
the words. Thus, also, Dr. Belvelkar's view that "the Mahomedan rule of
India is to be credited with having produced the demand which eventually led
to the rise" {Syilcms ot Grammar p. 93) of this school of grammar seems to
!r? is

explained to mean

be far-fetched.
It

may be

^arada-matha

that Anubhutisvarupa

at Dvftrka

was in some way connected with the


and Sarada beiug a synonym of

as hinted before,

Sarasvati the So Iran were

named

after that deity.

Narcndranagari or Narcndrapurl ( ^jpmri ). He was one of the


pupils of Anubhutisvarupa, and seems to have written (1) a commentary on
the Sdrasialaprakriyd or some kind of work connected with the system as can
be inferred from the words of Amritabharati a commentator on the S.prakriyd.^
Ihc followiag extract

1.

bodba nilL

l-c

%t[\m\ H^fd...ig

^ ^iPiwinm

"sJ*1^ UTM^lWI'Mrxfi: :iy

<^VAJI<l|HiM

liuMfuk<*

is

in i-onuccliou vitbtbi:)

fonnfryni

found interesting, "^?T^^^R?IFT1^*T^

not to

^|'#

etc..(

.>flr(Maif(ri'*/i'^*of

J|^qi?*l%

3J<Mo

).

Aiiuiltl-Larali

(ai biu b.ipi>cncd in

l>r.

Salja-

^WFIS^H

?%

^fd fijjft^, f^TTNfci^(^)2f'^t q^m^^jjif^

ir.>'V-*.Iqim'?l'!i:i.'n'i*ii'n'ir(

k confwundcd-

^\'^

^raif^

'
II

(ji

p.lSb.

( 5|M*rt'il ) tbc
Bclvclkur'-?

!<ytt<mt

Ha)

Author of

of

Sam'

XI

a Tlppana on hha-lhuihya (Ms. with Govinda


Nasika ), and (3 ^ a commentary on Panchapddika-vivarana
(see San'adar'sanasangraha^ (Ananda. Ed. p. 169>, where his name is given
as Narendragiri probably through a mistake on the part of the copyists).
One of Narendranagarl's pnpUs was the author of Sara r.atnmnndana

He

is

also the autlior of (2)

Sastri Nirantara of

-a commentary on the .S'</ra STY/ /a) (an incomplete Ms. at SantiTemple, Canib.iy), composed at MAtripura (probably Matar in

'

ry-4 <T H 'f -T

natha's

lie eulogises N'areudranapiarl very hijjlily for his learning in several

Gujarat),

branches of knowledge (verses 3-4-5). In the fourth verse is mentoined the


name lUiatta Tuugilra, who seems not to be a separate person (cf. the case of
Satyapral)odha in the note), but an epithet or popular

name

Xarendrapur?

of

(Pet. Rep. Ill pp. 204-205).

His another pupil was Prajnauftnanda ( ujihu-i ), the author of Talivaprakd'^ikily a learned commentary on the Tatlvdlokn of Anandajnilna. In it

he hows

to Auubhiltisvarupa in the third verse (evidently as his grand-preceptof

or Paramaguru', and in the fourth and in the seventh to Narendranagart.


All this goes to prove doubtlessly that Anubhutisvarfipa and Narendra-

nagari were different persons.


(2) Suddhananda
jnana, and
is

( i\^ \ K-\ ).

He was

the spiritual master of Ananda-

always spoken of with great reverence by him, but nothing more

is

known about him.

'^

He

is

not to be confused with Suddhdnanda, one or

the teachers of Svayamprakasa the author of Advaitamakarada't'ika and other

works,

who

flourished later on about

Anandagiri's pupils.

One

the author of Tallvadipaun

Here Atiandashaila

krUa

whom

Gramiiiiir (p.

ugara pupil of

is

(wbo

is:

fits

well.

It

its

author

),

i.e..

ViJTfrat-

commfntary D'piLa),

name

epitlietical

of ViSve^Tarabdhi.

in th*' last Torse of S'Jrtrata.,

Narendra (sJftT JR^S^Tgi^P^: ^tl1T

n?5RIWT?TcT.,.( Vr*J^

synonym

was a practice with some not

that Ainritablifirati and Kfihemondra. la facp of the

of AnnlhutisTari'ipa as

( < fe<'iCH'< ),

commentary on the Pancha'

fourth verse

Its

calls his

Styaprabodha ocems to he an

to

(1) Akhaudananda

with Sntynprnbodha Cbattiiraka alias Vi^ToiTaritbdhi

Bralitna>.'ij,'ara

It seem'^

is

a famous

evidently for Anandagiri {Shaila being a

the description

MT)

them

of

( flr^fi'H ),

pddikdvivarana of Prakasatman.

of ^/V/*), to

A.D. 1650.

JTfen

tnenlion of the

attribnted

the

name

anthorehip

f?TgiR;Tft^"tqt^: |...(?R?Wo)

wd

probably because they lired too far from Gnjarat and migtook

the pupil and the author as ono person.


1 SarradarSamitaTigrahti

as

is

( <i'H*l'1*<M^ )

is

not by MudhaTachjirya

generally suppo^aed. bnt by a nephen of MttdhaTuchitrya,

(A.D. 1398)
3.

The

pnpil of (Sarrajila) Visbnn-bbatta (Ind.


attriiiDtion of the

Anfrecbt's Cat. Cat.

is

a mistake.

aQthor<bip

of

or

Vidy^ranya

named MadbaTUja (VTRI^)

Ant. Feb. 1916 p. 21).

Gmdapadahha$hjattka to him

in

Dr.

XII

to ;jlve the

name

proper form, but

own

of one's

preceptor

in other equivalent

a-;

words.

verse forced the writer to mention a proper

same

In this

sense.

way

of the cklesl sou, wife etc.) in its

Sometimes, the measure of the


in other words giving the

name

the author of Samkshepa-St'triraka

names

Dcvesvara (verse 11) instead of Suresvara, and Suresvara


Vedhas for Sankara (Z?r/. l^drf.)

Akhaudinanda
Bodhaprithvidhara

calls

his
his

gunt
guru

third verse of the above work mentions ^ri


mountain of knowledfje), which, like Anandasaila for

in the

(lit.

Anandagiri, seems to be a substitution for

here the author takinfj

Jfianafn'rii

up the latter half of the full name Annnda-jnilna, according; to the maxim of
naming a thing by its part instead of the whole ( ?[^w\, 4uri\''Hm ).
The name Akhandanubhuti, given in the colophon as that of the pre*
'

ceptor of Akhandclnanda,

is

that of his DilsIu'f_Qurii (as explained before.)

Another pupil of his is known


the KatUopaiiishad (Ulwar Ms. No. 382).
{2)

Works' by Anandagiri. f/^j

to

have written a conmieutary on

(Printed).

(1) rn^i'-^HPJi-fi'-T'iq. (1) (%5t) r^'-^rin^f^'i^ivj-^TTiniiT, (3) (t^t) fTT^i^rnn^TPJ^TT.

(i.e.

1)

'

'^.infnijr'T-^TT. (5) i'JCmriJ-*.^;iMMir, (6)

*< l

'

Jn'jn'tt M (n>TT^ -'^j


l

^T^TrnrrvTT^rnmT-STTT )-(his niasterpeicc), (ll) ^iM^^.vTT^(

fc'j l,

(T)

jfr^T )-^'Tf^'iIii:

I^K*mvi(jrpn )-5TTPTf^T: (13) jfMlMM - f^'^^HH (lO TSITrn-fT^r^f with a


commentary called Tatt-.nchandrikd by Ramatirtha pupil of Jagannathasrama,
about A.D. 1550) and (15) jtwt^.
(12)

(/?;

On.

{Unprinted.)

(Mss. As. So. Beng. I.O. 31; Mysore Govt.


Li. 1796; Raj. Mit. VIII p. 288; Sringeri Matha; Ind. Of.
n?) ^Ti7lf;^(m)-^IT?T|{H (Ulwar 558; Raj. Mit. VIII p. 331 Nos.
(16)

j'

.iV Hi;^J i(rm)-fi|fi


i

178 and 1324; N. P. VIII 40).''


(18)

v^

Temple Library
(19)

at

)'<I'-Hj1hV;^i ( fifi

)!T?rm-jfm

(Benares Sanskrita College;

Tiruvida)

( Tr|T ) HfcMnj Ji^


'

-gm

(Ben. Sk. Col).

%n(rt?)!T^:T^f-^m (Ulwar 516; Dec. Col. No. 138 of 1883-84.)


(21) M^p^^Mfi'lM-^^rnm (a commentary on the PaddrtJi(Uatt:'anirnaya
of Gangapuri Bhattaraka (Ms. in Sangha's Bhandar at Patana, complete with
the text; first chapter only of the commentary in Dec. Col. No. 613 of 1884-87).
(20)

(22) (VTP?r)?T^^rTW (Mss. Dec. Col. No. 7622 of 1891-95, dated A.D.
1434; Ben. Sk, Col. Vedanta No. 253; and a fragment with me dated
A. D. 1518.)
1.

Dr. Aufreclit in hi^ Catalogui Catalogorum ba^

(.tiled

to

di^itingnish

betweea

Anandajnana and Anandatirttu (MadhruchArya).


2.

win

Copy belonging to (Sarraridyanidhrtna )KaTlndriicli:ir}-t-arasrati, a great anthor


and who was 'bighly in farour with Sbah Jahan and hia aon Pars

lired at Benaros

Sbnkoh'.

(Dr. Stein'o Cat. of Sk. Maji.

Jamma.

Introd. p. 85).

Xlll

It is in two chapters coutainiiin; sixty sections. The work is commented


upou by PraJMunananda, a pupil of Narendranagari (Mss. Sutitinutha's Temple,
Cambay; and Bhau Daji Collection, Bombay.)

C. ( IVorhs Doubtful or falsely attributed)

CI)

The

printed

text

In this

of jm^rai-^ftTT.

troductory nor ending verses, such as are found in

there

all

are neither in-

the other works of

Moreover, the author quotes Dlpika (of Sankarananda) on

Anandajfiana.

pp. 46-47 and also refers to one I'dcliaspalya, which are not referred to in
any of his other works; and Sankarananda probably flourished somewha.

than Anaudajnana. Further, five Manuscripts of it consulted in the


Anandis'rama edition of it, and Ulwar Ms. (No. 420) attribute the same text
of the fik'i to Abhinava Nar^yancndrasarasvatJ.

later

(2)
ply to this

The

printed text of T?Tt?fh^T7rTl-jfTTi.

work with the exception

All the

above remarks ap-

that the I^lpikii quoted here (pp. 23-25-26)

and that the same text of the Tiled ii


same Abhinava Xarayanedrasarasvati in manuscripts at Raghu-s

as Sdyan'tya (Vidyaraiiya's) Dipikd,

ttributed to the

Batha's temple in Kasmira.


(printed).

(3) i\T\v'.Yf.\-rm

This

is,

in fact,

by Sflrya Pan'lita (A. D.

commentary on the
ParamdrtUaprapd. Herein, commenting on the 66th
verse, he quotes Rdvnna-hhsdhya on Veda (may this not be a mistake for some
Bhdshya by Rcvana, a well-known Mimausaka,) just as he has quoted it in
his Gitdtikd Adhyaya III IS, and ^^8.
Similarly his Prabodhasudhdkara is
(1538)

as is clear from the sixth verse at the

end

of his

Bhii!;a:ad'G'ita called

Sankaracharya,

falsely attributed to

(4)

^frt ^r iMPiM4( aTT|T

(5)

fiJHM fi
i

'

jri

)>rr^-^T (Ulwar No 401)

(leaves 150).

(Bfihler's Gnj.

Ms. Cat. C. p. 82.)

1967; Dec. Col. No:


257 of 189-95; HGltz II No. 1387). The first verse of it quoted by Dr
Hiiltz shows it to be the work of a pupil of Sankaranarayanananda.
(6) gfi ^f

lM

^ -far'JnT. (Dr. Steins

Kas-Cat. No.

(Printed in the Bib. Ind. Series).


In this work its
(7) ^rrrfriTi:
other names are given as ^^r^rtf^f^^ and q^^^TH^. The author gives his

own name
of Sri

as Anantanandagiri ( ^{^h-jUiR )

Sankaracharya.

In the fourth

and describes himself as the pupil

chapter,

he mentions Chidvildsa,

who

flourished very late (about A. D. 1200) as one of Sankara's pupils. In chapter

47, he

quotes from Adhikarana-ratnamdldy which proves that

its

work

is sufficient to

author

and VidyHranya, Kven the trifling nature


show that it is not a work of Anandagiri.

flourished after P.haratUiratha

of the

(8) f^'^TfrH^Tni.- AchyutarSya Mo'laka in his commentary on Madhava's


XVI, v. 103) says:-u.^^NMI<< i8->J|;iR^<|
ftq^The work is otherwise quite nnknown. *
>pr;;{f^ f^

Sankaradigc'ifaya (Canto

XIV
(9)

^i

(10)

^iNHH^

ij^>5jft

rf^j l (M?'. Sriiigeri Matlia).

(Ms. Sringeri Matha).

Some noteworthy works quoted

in

Anandagiri's Works.

quoted in Tai. Dh:>. Tippnnn (p. 31 Ananda. Kd.) Ka.


litin. TIppnna (p. 119), Mil. lilut. I'yuUhyann (p. 32) and K,. Vu. Virnrana
Tlip work is also found referred to in Siisfra-f:itiHlidnl(t-le'>a'
(p. 22).
(1) !nfn>i.-It is

sa tt^^/j// a au(\

\\\

Surirala-raliiapra/'lui (.\d. 1-1-1 1) wlicre a certain

of the author of PraKalartlin


(i. e.

by Amalananda, A. D.

is
1

said to

view
be refuted by the author of Kalpataru

247*60)

Janardana (Anandagiri) has based his Tatlvaloka on this.* Its full name
is a comiusntan.- on the Sariiala-Sdra'
bh.'.sliya of ^ankara. There exists a copy of it at Tekka Matha.
Its author's

is

^ar'irnkabhdihyaprakatdrtha and

name

is

not yet known.

commentar}- on

siddhdiilaleiasons^i.iliii^

Pralaldrlhavivarana

called

it

but the

name

is

Sas/rw
known. He may

referred to iu

of its author is not yet

turn out to be Anandagiri, as he has not only often referred to Pral.afdrllia, but
has based one of his works on it, aud has named two of his commentaries

No copy

Vivarana (see .above).


(2) insrafrrf^-It

work

is

of

quite an

iu the Tativdloka, It is also

Chitsukha fAVa. Makci.

it is

hitherto

known

to exist.

unknown work. Anandagiri


referred to

refers to this

by Anandabodha according to

T'lkd. p. 346)

(3) iT?TO<r^{H^: (Mss.-Ben. Sk. Col; Sangha's Bhandara at Patana).


Anandagiri has written a commentary on this work. It is by Gangapurl Bhattaraka,*

who

This work

is

is

referred to in Sayoftaprasadini-CJiilsul'Iiitikd pp. 8, 63).

Appaya Dikshita (A. D.

referred to in Sdslrasi(idlidiil<ilt''sad^sohy

1587-1660). Gangapuri flourished after the author of the Nydyalili'ivali (somewhere between A. D. 984 and 1078) according to Anaudajridna, and before

AnandabodhScharj'a (before A. D. 1200) according to Chitsukha.


1 51Rl<'*5l*<liM+.-il*5PH'VJH4^

3RT^ PrH^

dT<=<I^4.

r^^^ll (Dec.

Col.

Ms.

p. 2C ).

2 7?R or
conrey

tlie

^^

is

a derlvatlre of Bhattn, applied

Saira sects, and seems to

l^e

to

Godi and learned persona

It

T?R^ ?qi^

by that word. Hint in the line ^ISK^R-eT-TJ.W

^M-|'J^fe

a pnn on the word BhattAra which snggestR Haricliandra to be a Saira.

abore

in

to

vas aftked to the names of the saints or cbtefa of the


tnken into use by the Jainas etc. Kings were also addresied

sense of 'Teneral>le.'

connection with Narendranagaii

is

in the

^^^HR

) there

ia

referred to

same way derired from the word ^T?^

meaning the topmost of Bhattas.

Some

writers of the Pratyabhijuri Saira

word to honor some of their most sacred works,


Srachcftanda-bhaltarala etc.

syiitem hare

gone fnrther

aiid afFised this

e. g. VijTtana-bhatiOrala, Mrit^t^jia-lhatlarala,

This work

is

chapters cousisling of Kdrikds add

iu Ibrcc

Vrilli^

IbC

which, giving an epitome of the Vaiseshika philosophy is called 'Tarka*


viveka', aud the last giving that of the Vedauta philosophy is called
of

first

'SiddhaQtavivcka.'

Some
is

(1)''IT^3. Bhartriprapancha
notable authors quoted by him.
only upto this time, but according to Anandajnana be is the

knuwn by name

A'a. B/i<i. Tikd p. 2) and also


Brihaddraiiyakopanishad (according to the Madbyandina

auihoT oi (I) a d/ids/iya on A'dH'opn/tis/hid


(3) of one on the

recension) {Bri. Bhd. Tikd p. I).

He

is

''

referred to in the text of the Briha'

ddranyaka-Vdrlika by Suresvara (pp. 666, 671, 1789, 1843), aud Anandagiri


quotes directly from him (pp. 1728, 1879).

Though Sankaracbarya
ranyaka^

iTi'/Zis,

commentaries on KatUa and Drihadi'

styles bis

yet as they are really d/id^/iyas,

controverts in his SUra/didskya

may

it

appears that in old times

So the Vrittikara whose views Sankara

both the words were interchangeable.

be this Bhartriprapancha, as similar views

was the Vrittikara, whom,


Sankara follows, just as Rainanuja is bebeved to follow Bodhayana. Some seem to have confounded Bhartriprapancha with Bhartribari.
are generally refuted in Brt. Bhdshya. Upavarsha
it is

believed,

is the Teacher ( vrar^ ) who is generally referred to in


'Karmasamuchcbayavadi' ( MHi--^^^ nfT)i aud on accoimt of
his throwing 'knowledge' iuto the back-ground in bis theory, he is styled ironically 'Aupanishadammanya' ( vtrf^JF^ ) by Sankara Bri. Bhdihya p. 309) i
and 'Sampradayavid' ( TiT^f^T ) and 'Brahmavadi' ( sr^Trff ) by Suresvara.
His whole philosophy is a mixture of Vcdanta, Saukbya aud Nyaya.
The principles of his system as can be gathered from the above mentioned
references seem to be that the whole world is made up of three groups ( nfv )the corporeal aud incorporeal ( qjTT^ )
( -)
)i
(1 the Highest Being ( hm
and (3) the individual souls ( ifHT: ) who are the doers, and enjoyers of the
fruits of their deeds. These souls consist of knowledge ( f^ ), deeds (
)
and impressions ( {^^ujti-t^[T). The individual soul, according to him, is a
part ( 'TT^ ) of the Highest Soul ( ^nu^T{\ ), and is such on account of nescience (?^ ) which is manifested from It, and modifying a part of It lives in
the inner-organ ( sttt^.tttt ) as a quabty ( vj^ ) of it which is not soul ( 9?^tm )

Bhartriprapancha

Vedanla works

as

'

'-*<

'

As an instance of it (
( VfK^ ) as related to

<mrn^^^;T'ir'nrii^

the earth

( ^fj^T

),

he

cites

the

case of saltish laud

In consequence of his holding that emancipation can be obtained by the

conjunct operation of deeds and knowledge

acknowledge a middle

btate

^KTTrpn^jnjf or

T'HJR'Its^^T^ ), he is forced to
) before obtaining final re-

-^mn

be appio.icbcj Hirijyagatbha (the Lord


( m* ) a stage in which
having creative jKiwer,) aud there he becomes not a bbeialcd one ( 5?^ ), but
ouly cue facing towards the Highest Being ( 'iwrwif^g^ ). Like the Vaiseslikas
he believes that desire (vm) aud iruprcssious of the past ( ^\tm ) arc residing

licmpliou

XVI

m the soul ( -TPnf^ ), and also tbal the Soul ( -*nrin ) is diffcreutiated (;fHi^)
by diflcreucc of qualities ( -a^^ ) aud by difference of sland-poiuts
( jf^ ),
but not by any liuutatiou ( TTlft ) as the followers of Saukara hold.
As rcfjards Brabaman, he holds It to bo one ( nrn ), but both dual
aud nou-dual Ct^^Twm:^) as in the case of the ocean aud its waves
( ^^ST^rjr^^ ); and thus there being a kiud of duality,
lUiartriprapaficha
asserts the logical necessity

Thus he

( *i*i<'i ).

and

effects

to refute

It will

is

umi'"4

of the cercmouia'

led to argue the reality

portion of the
)

of the cause

li(/as

aud

its

pure non-dualism.

be seen from the above outline that Saukara was not the

introduce the elemeut of 'nescience'

3?^

parts of the theory of Bhartriprapaficha


to

it^t^

first to

and that some


arguments arc resorted

in the Vedanta,

and some

of his

by Ranianuja, Vallabha aud others.

(2) ?f^i^iM. Dravidacharya, according to Anaudajnana, also prcccedcd Saukarachilrya, and has written a Iiltd$h\a ou the C/thdndoi^ya L'paiiishad
(larger than that of Saukara, which is contrasted with the former by the word
'small'

9Fri;f{.

and (3) one on the Uriliad.iranyaka Ufynisliad. He is called


Iili:<sh\a II 32) aud 'Satupradayavid' (both mcauing
one

'Agamavid' {Mniidii.

well-versed in traditional

knowledge)

iu the case of IJhartriprapancha,

He

in

anothei

place, but not ironically as

and his views arc not controverted

in

any

said iu the Dri. l\,rliin (p. 970) to be the originator of the story
of 'a King's son reared by hunters' ( ph^to^^ nhi
IjimiP^^ ) to explain the

place.

is

gist of

the Great

'

Sentence 7>r//;Y7;//ffj7 (That thou

art),

occuriug iu the

Chhandogya Upanishad.

quite

From all this, it can be inferred


new views out of his own fancy (

preceptors

flr^n

),

Sankarachar>a did not proiwuud


), but had a scries
of previous
such as Dravidicharya and Gaudapada, whom he followed.
that

RrfvniPI

Dramidachar>a ( jfftrrar^ ) referred to in works of the Ranianuja system


appears to be a different person, and to have written some work based on the
Paucbaratra System and iu the Dravidi language. He is probably Sathakopa,
known as BakuUibharana, one of the Alvars, and author of the Dravtida-saiiliild.
(3) vrs^TFT^. Bhatta Bhaskara is referred to iu islt.\. Bhd. Tikd,
(p.

11) aud

He
alter

is

Muni.
a

JJ/id.

Tikd. (p. 38)

iu Tailvdloka.

commentator on the Drahmastilras and seems

^ankara, about A. D.IOOO.

main doctrine was to


cause and its effects is both
(or his

and

He

is

known

assert that the

to

have flourished

as 'Bhcdabhcdavadi'

nature of the relation

HTT^^^Tlft )

between
and non-differeuce (w^Oi and
that such a relation exists between Brahman-the supreme cause and its effect
the world. He seems to have modified the system of Bhartriprapaficha to some
extent, and to have given a basis to Vallabhiicharya ( A. D, 1500 ) for his
system

of

difference

He

sTJTHg^T^

uess' (

( mmh^-^vj^^ ) doctrine of 'con*


aud knowledge ( JIR ) to that of 'orderly conjuncti.e. first deeds aud then knowledge, -both, one after

also modified

junctuess' of deeds

fW

Bhartriprapaficha's

another, are the cause of final liberation.

He also advocated a kind of asceticism ( fi<Fj<'"m ) in which the daily


aud the sacred thread ( Trfn ) (the ensiguia belonging to the men of
the first three castes, on their being called to the study of the Vedas) are not
dispensed with. This is accepted in the RSmanuja sect as the true Sannydsa.
rituals

Bhatta Sambhu

on the topic
where
Anandajfiina
hints that
),
Sambhu has not properly understood the purport of Mimdnsdbhdshya and
Vdrlika on this point.
(4) ^zTi^.

of 'authenticity

From

knowledge'

of

is

referred to in Tattvuloka

irwuiMr^M

it appears that he has


which he has quoted, from the original
works of the Sunyavadi Bauddhas, authorities to show that they predicate the
negation of auy positive esse ( 5I?q?TT ) not only of the outward things, but of

a quotation in the ChttsukhUikd (p. 71)

written a great

work

in the course of

their inner coguition too.

He may
Charila

be the same mentioned as a logician

( 5iT5nkTfTTfnrT;T7: etc. H^-iSHf^M^^'"^-

temporary
(5)

of

^-

the Prabhdvaka'
and so he any be a con-

( ^rft ) in

^^^ )i

kiug Bhoja of Dhdri (A. D. 1050).

^l^^^. (Dharmakirti.

About 635

to

650 A. D.)

Many

his

of

verses probably from the Pramdna-vurtika or from the Pramdna-zfinikhaya are


to

be found quoted in the Bri. Bhd. Vdrlika.

Chitsukhis commentator directly attributes to him the authorship of


the Nydyabindu (pp. 71, 215).

Authors who refer

Anandagin'. It

to

(1) aiTRHfiJ.

(2)

of later writers.

Tattvdtoka but

i iq M i ^ 'vit-

him.

name

of

Anandagiri.

Sarugadhara

In his

as an authority

is

the next earliest author

probably

are to be

and contests

met with

who

Nydyamttklavali a commentary on Udayandchdrya's

Lakshudvaliy he always names him in the plural


his reverence,

but natural that such a learned

by a number

does not mention the

refers to

is

Prajuanananda has commented upon bis

and great author should be quoted

number (?I*^^*Ki:) showinjj

his views in several places.

in the present

All

these

references

work.^

Sdrngadhara was not on\yd. guru (preceptor) of Sesha Ananta

(^ *R^)

(author of the Paddrthachandrikat a commentary on the iyaptapadarthi

(the

dated A. D. 1459) and of a commentary on the


^ydyasiddhdnta-dipa of Sas'adharfichdrya ( ?nrTO^ ) (A. D. 1156. Epi. Ind.

earliest

known Ms.

1.

of

which

y^ayamuLtaiali pp.

is

14, 18,

20,88,

21, 26-27, 28, 44-45, 47, 47, 48; reepcclifely.

40,

41 and

48; and

Tarkatangarha
^f.

Up.

10-17), but was also the ^//r (father) to Ananta, as his surname Sesha
^m (Ms. ?lrT: ) 5n^^TTl^#

indicates. In the N. S. PradAu, the tenth verse reads

which is obviously for ?TrTOTo. Ananta wrote the latter work


King Pratapa or PratSparaja, whose particulars cannot be

protege of

as a

yet

satisfactorily

traced.

Sarngadhara has also written (2) a brief commentary on Saptapaddrthl


(Bill. Guj. Cat.), which in its turn is commented upon
Pattavardhana by a work named Padarthachandrikdi'iUisa

(Ms. date A. D. 1485)

by Krishnabhatta
(Ben. Sk.Col.)

He seems

to have flourished about A. D. 1450, as the latest author he


Vadindra (about A. D. 1325). As very little is known about some
of the authors he quotes, it would not be out of place to throw some light on
them.

quotes

is

5T%Tift'*T.

VSdi-Vagisvara

is

name

the

the

of

author

wflw^Aara (most probably a work of the Vaiseshika system).


often contested by GangSpuri and Chitsukha (A. D.
thaji's

temple

at

1200).

Mima-

of

His N-iews are


(Ms. at SrinS-

Ndthadvdra).

His

name is Mahadeva Vddindra, and his


which also he is sometimes named, are NyaydHe seems to have flourished
chirya, Paramapandita, Sarvajria, and Bhatta.
about A. D. 1325, as his pupil Raghava has written a commentary on the
NydyasCtra of Bhasarvajria* in the year A. D. 1352. There is some doubt about
^ift^?

or gift^.

full

honorific titles, by any one of

the exactness of this date as the verse giving


ferent

way (giving

the year A. D. 1252)

it

can be interpreted

a dif-

in

but the point can be settled by the

fact that Jayasinha Siiri (who has also written a commentary on the same
work (about A. D. 1366) is described by his pupil Nayachandra Sflri (in his

Hammira KAvya)
logician;

and so

to

RAghava.
VSdtndra was a pupil
styles

can be safely identified with

1.

Bh;i9arTaju

(A. D.

flourished at

976

g[^3^nf^R??rPTqNnf^

),

for

Vogisvara

of

himself Sankarakiftkara

pttimi^ra

who was

have defeated' in a debate Saranga

this Sllranga

the

the

ftr^JlK: (p. 33),

latest

name he

is

is

known

as

of

quoted in

A, D. 9O0-025 before

about

author of Nyayalflarali remarkii

and Vikhaspati

a great

father

and he therefore

Sankara,

alias

V^^(^|;^) by which

the

in

Viclias-

one

place:

Tatparjicharya. (see

VindhyeJTarlprasida'B Introd. to Kiranarali.)


It

may be

passingly noted here that

NgafnlalUa

of

.Tayanta

and A>c^a/liMuman-

jaU-tarLa mentioned in Shaddar/anoBamuchhaifcrrritii (p. 94) of Onnaratna (A. D. 1409)


are not commentaries

on Xgayruara, as misonderstood by some.

work by the anthor

Ifgayamanjari similar to

BtfgA 14'28.

of

Njagalalila

Ngagat^ra, and the other

is

is

the famons

XIX
Sarvoffarsatiasangraha. (Anand.

Ed.

He was

p. 98.)

perhaps a PSsupata, as

is

the case with the old Naiydyikas e.g. Uddyotakara, Hhasarvajna,

(who

aud learning

elaborately praised for his asceticism

is

Naroda (Ranoda)

a well at

in the

(Unfortunately the inscription

and

Gwalior State

undated.)

is

in

(Ep. Ind.

Vyomasiva
an inscription on

I.

354-361).

pp.

His works show him

to

be a great

very often referred to in Cfiilsnkhilika^ but no trace of him


found in either Chitsukha's or Anandagiri's work.
logician,

is

is

His known works are (1) R.isasdra, a commentary on Gunakirandvali


(Ms. Ten. Sk, Col.; and (2) .\f,ihdvidyd:'idambatia^ ( R^lft'IT^TT^ ) referred
to by the name Djijsloklviiiambaua in the Lukshnavall-tikd (p. 6). As re,

name

gards the
(

;^ l v'l -^^ l

) IS

manuscript

of a

it may be
mentioned that Daiailokt
embodying sixteen syllogisms. The colophon

Dasailokividantbauu

work

in ten verses

of this runs: jfn M^'jyi'iMMl'-H^^Wil^T^lf^'Jlfl^'J WMIH*1

The author

of this Daiailokt {Shodaioddharana) is Kularka Pandita


Bhuvanusundara informs. Kularka Pandita is referred to in
Chitsuhhi-tlka Cp. 304), and he may be also the writer of the vritti on the said
ten verses. It may be observed here that Kuldrka Pandita does not seem to be

(f^'d^)''

a proper

name

as

but originally an epithetical name-Panditakuldrka

(i.e.

the

Sun

assemblage of learned men), mistaken for a proper name by separating


the first word Pandita and transposing it.
in the

Bhuvanasundara
works are:

(1)

>|^J! *i'^f

about A. D. 1425)

Soltioddharana-vydkhydttam.

or

tippana^

Mafidtidydvidambatta-likd and
It

was

Jaina.

His

Mahdvidydlaghuvritti-

(2)

may be

incidentally

remarked

here that, in this latter work, Bhuvanasundara mentions at one place 'Gaurjari lipi' (irtHTT f^fi). from which it can be inferred that the Gujardti characters

had assumed a

different

shape from the Devandgari before A. D. 1400.

Ramiiuanda-sarasvati (about A.D. 1575) in h\s Sd;


(3) c UM-^HiH 'ft.
Dhd. Ratnaprabhd refers to Auandajfidna by the name of "the old" (|?i:).
(p. 5. Nir. sag. Ed.)
i

(4) ?rT5Frfa5frfH. Saddnanda, who flourished after Nrisinhdsrama


(A. D. 1547) (the author of Advaila-dlpikd and other works, and who is said
to have converted Appaya Dikshita from Saivism to Sankara VedSntism) quotes
from 5u. Bhd. Ttkd of Anandagirisvdmi in his Advaila-brahmasiddhi (p. 11),

(5)

work

>ri t>^ JiH'<H<.H<ft

'

'

Srikrishndnanda-sarasvati

also

quotes the same

in his Siddhdnlasiddhdnjana (Vol. II. p. 194).

The work

is

ander preparation for publication in the Gaekwad's Oriental Series.

2 |.<?5l4Mr"<dr<f+ldflCl^I^ f^|Hf^^iTl:

etc. (in

iiaharidjiavriUHippona).

XX
(6) i?^fTfra. ^fabesvara-tirtha (perhaps a pupil of Ramattrtha about
bis coinmeutar>' Laji^husattj^afia on tbe Drihaddranyaha-

A. D. 1650) bases

commentary on tbe

vdrtika-sdra of Vidyaranya, on Anandagiri's


(7) ^fr^.

KikS, in bis Jsahfidsltya,

refers

ydrtiia.

Anandaf^ri's

to

comment

on hdbhdsliya and bis Tatlvdloha. KikS, son of Ganga, was a Nagar Brabmana
and bas also written a commentary on the Kliaucfa-praiasti (Ms. at Baroda

He

Central Library).

flourished proably in tbe sixteenth century.

Anandagiri's date.

From Anandagiri's

blished above, and other data (given above),

with Jan^rdana esta-

identity

it

becomes easy

to arrive

bis

at

approximate date.

A manuscript of PrajnanSnanda's commentary on tbe


natha's temple at

Cambay)

is

some years for tbe real date


more for that of tbe original

Tatlvidold (at Santi-

dated A. D. 1376 (Pet. Rep. Ill p. 208). Allowing

of tbe composition of tbe

commentary, and some

text of Tatlvdloka^ the latest date

author

for its

may be

Anandagiri

On
seems

fixed as

A. D. 1320.

the other band, Vidyiranya's Vivarana-pramcya-s.mgralia evidently

be written

after tbe Vi.'t.idv.i-dlpana of Anandagiri's pupil.


For,
the use of tbe word 'prameyam' ( !jinR ) in tbe latter work docs not refer to
Vidy^ranya's work but bears tbe same sense as the word dsthcyum ( M ^jJ q )

to

or j;VjW//aw

( fir?:?! )

very often met with in the present work bears;

'^

aud

other respects too the Vi. pra. sangrcJia seems to have drawn from

in

Tattva-

This circumstance also strengthens the conclusion that Anandagiri

d'tpam.

flourished before Vidyarapya (A. D. 1331-1387).

Again, as Anandagiri referes to

Khaudma

in Taitt. hha, iippana (p.

49

whose author ^ribarsha* flourished (about A. D. 1187) in the


latter half of the twelfth century, aud as AnubbQtisvarflpa author of Sdrasavata
grammar and tbe teacher of Anandagiri was probably a contemporary of Bopadeva (A. D. 1260), if not earlier, it is safe to conclude that Anandagiri flouri-

Guj. Pr. Ed.)

shed at the
1.

for in

it

latest in the latter hali of tbe

He

was not a contemporary of Udayana

he refers to Vfaltirirela and

its

in tbe early part of the elcrcnth century,

UtftPJ inH(??)

irf^

jrf^flTJ^:

2. This thirteenth

and pupils

13th century.*

II

in the field of the

cf.

( MuiHH.

Century,

it

(A.D.

anther Mahim.i

980

i.e.

as

is

generally

Bnpposed,

Mahimabhatta, who flourished

o'-Jptt-Rj^l^SS

^P-J^t+f^^-^*^

^TS'Iwt-

p. 1327. Chow. Ed. )

seems, ha? produced

Vedanta Philosophy.

many

great authors, as teachers

For conrenience' sake, they may be

pnt as under:
(1) Chit.^nkha (about

A. D. 1200) (author

8nkhapraku$a (author of XifayadipacalitUa

1260) (author

etc.),

and

of

Tatlca-dfpiLa etc.),

his pupil

his

pupil

Amaluntnd* (A. D. 1247-

of Kalpalaru etc.)

(2) AnnbhutisTart^pa, his

pupil

Narendranagari,

and

his

pupil

Prajuanananda;

Annbh&tifrarvipa, hia pupil Anandagiri, and bis popil AkbandAnanda; (tbe detidls of whose

worka are giren abore

folly.)

XXI
III

(The Manuscript.)
This

edition of

Tarhasaugraha

based on

is

existing in Vadi-Parsvanatha's Bhandara at P^tana.

written generally in the prishlha-vi,ilrd style.

and each

line about 85 letters.

It

Each

manuscript

single

consists of thirty leaves,


side

of

contains 21

it

has, on each side,

margin of about
one inch marked out by a line in the red ink which sometimes obliterates the
last letter in the lines.
Each marginal space has, on both sides, about the
middle, circles made in red, those on the right containing the running number
of leaves (of works copied one after another) in black ink
in the present
case from 1042-1071, while its right corner is marked with the number of the
lines,

It

work. It begins with the words: i ;nT: ^(^)jrpi


evidently copied by a Jaina scribe, probably in the fifteenth century.

leaf of the present particular

and

is

one can meet with examples of mistakes committed by scribes,


fndird, mistaking a marginal note in
the original copy for a part of the text (p. 130), introduction in a wrong place
In

it

such as interchange of a;/jr'ara and

addition in the margin (verj- rarely), omission to write

textual

of

on

letters

letters duplicated but undeleted, letters of the original

to be repetitions,

^ for fr.

for ^>

t! for

and vertical-liiie-punctuations

(or

5^.

The

or

f T or
,

(or ^,

for

TT for r^, f^ for f^,

*T,

for

dropped thinking them

wrong

^ and H,

as,

7.

for

f,

of the

written
for

for

^ and

?f

for ? etc.^

difficulties, tried to

can, by consulting

Some

places.

such

^ for % I for wf, ^ for ^, f

editor has, under these

correct as best he

make

this edition as

corresponding portions in

Taitvapra-

Nydyamukldvali oi Sarngadhara, Paddrihadharntasangand other works to settle the doubtful or incorrect readings of the
Chitsukha,

r/Z^/Xa of
TcJia,

in

always confounding or interchangable,

letters are
I.

numbers

transposed (rarelyj, and omissions and additions of Aarai (KdnSs),

manuscript.
In this edition, the letters cr words that appeared to have inadvertently
fallen off in the original

different reading is

manuscript are marked in paranthesis, and when a


it is
sometimes marked with a note of inter-

suggested

The punctuations have

rogation.

not been uniform and in some places were

found inadequate to convey the proper sense perfectly.


printed text
It

show

iuctaia',

though not marked as such

remains to be added that the work

being very

The
in

asterics in the

the manuscript.

difficult,

the editor has

(8) Sanknrananda (author of l/paniihad-dtpiias and Atmapurana, big pnpil Vidji*


tirtha,

and

his papil Bhuratitirtha

(aathor of Adfularanaratnamola and spiritaal preceptor

of MiidliaTa (Vidyurnnya).
1.

One, who has to deal with reading such old mannscripts,

will

benefitted

bj

(Bom. Sk. Series) and pp. V to VII of the


introdoction by Dr. Uoemle to the PrakritalaLihanam of Chandiu (Bib. Ind. Series.)

referring to pp. 17 to 19 of the Mnchhakatika

xxu
thought

it

advisable to take

the

liberty of separatinj;

Satidhis

which are strictly observed in the orig^inal) generally, in order


to some extent the study or reading of this work.

The

reader

errata^ before

is

requested

commencing

to

to read

kindly correct the

(the rules of
to

make easy

work accordiog

to the

it.

In the end, the editor feels thankful to his friend Mr. D. V. Gokhale,
B.A.

and

Sustri Venkat'ichala for kindly

suggestions as to proper readings in

We

going through the proofs, and making

many

places.

have to thank Seth Vadilll Hirachand, the keeper of the Bhand'ir


Temple at Patana, for lending the rare manuscript
of the present work for publication, and to Mr. C. D. Da'dl, M.A. for drawing
attention to it and kindly procuring it.
of Vadl Parsvaratha's

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NOTICE.
We

are sorry to

announce that owing

to the

sudden death

Mr. C. D. Dalai, M.A., the editor of the work, the Notes

to this

of

work

have remained incomplete.


J. S.

KUDALKAR

Curator of State Libraries.

- "

B
132
V2A5
1917a

''inn

Ci

4.

*^%30

Anandagiri, 13th cent.


Tarka-sangraha of Anandajna

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