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TIE

(ROO

71"":'

/ANCHOR WAI..I..

I d
,~

!!

NOTE:

..;/

II d IS GENERAI..LoY EQUAl..
TO H/3 TO H/4 .
21 R IS THE TENSION IN
THE TIEBACK

Figure 3-87.-Schematic anchored wall.

Loads are transferred from the wall face to the anchor rods through
horizontal structural steel shapes called "walers." On occasions, rolled
steel channels are used in a back-to-back position. as shown in
figure 3-88. so that the tieback may fit between the channels. If a wide
flange section is selected as a waler, eccentric loading may result in
Significant torsal stresses. In this case, web stiffeners may be required
at the anchor connection.
Walers may be designed as simple spans and the maximum bending
moment computed using
M maz

= -R I

(3-126)

in which R is the tension in the tieback and l is the horizontal spacing


between tiebacks. Analysis of more complex beam loadings may result
in lighter waler sections. The required section modulus of the waler is
S

=~
Fb

(3-127)

in which F b is 0.66 of the steel's yield stress (for A36 steel, F b is 24 ksi).
To complete the waler-anchor rod assembly, the connection must be
designed. The waler must be checked for web cnppling. and the bearing
plate must be of adequate thickness to distribute the load.
lt is important to note that if the anchor rod or tie bar is not acting
perpendicularly to the wall. a significant vertical force will be applied to
the wall.

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\T1EBACK

I
STEEL
CHANNEL

Figure 3-88.-Typical waler detail.

3N.2 Anchor Walls

Continuous walls designed as anchors should be analyzed in accordance


with figure 3-89, using the Rankine method of analysis.
As shown in example (a) of figure 3-88, if the active and passive failure
zones do not intersect, the wall is analyzed in a conventional manner
and the maximum anchor tension that the anchor wall (soil) can support
is
~max

= Pp - Pa

(3-128)

If the active failure wedge of the retaining wall intersects the passive
wedge of the anchor wall (see example (b) in figure 3-88), then A pmax of
equation 3-128 must be reduced, as shown in
(3-129)
in which ~ is the depth to the intersection of the failure wedges (see
example (b) in figure 3-88).

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J2

45 _
a

r.l..

=-///=7',,- ;,Z= '/.>0//""/

+ - - -. P
/

,
,/

;:T/1~//=

~/

/45 +

::'y!

C> P""-::" /"--PA

/l.......~---

~,
Ap

c"

. . . ~;-l;p . . K/~/"../'/..
' e ' P'~p~........

I"

e.,.......

"
........... c'

Active wedge of bulkhead

45 /

"2

........... ~.

Passive wedge
01 anchor wall

h/3"'~"'"

h
.....

...

' ..........

'..........
............ c'

----------'
/

Forces per linear foot of anchor wall


Anchor wall right of cc'
Anchor wall left of cc'

/
45 -

:1.....

' -f,/
----J
j
=..,..""~,.,,m=~....,'

"'''/..7//..:;:'//,.:7//';;

.....

...

"I

2-

Pp

=(1/2) Kp 'Yh'

Pp

= (1121

Po

(1121 K,,'Yh'

Pp

p- Pal

K p 'Yh' - IP

(1121 Kp'Yh'- [(1/2JKp 'Yh,'-(1/21K,,'Yh,':

Pa =(1/21Ka'Yh'

Figure 3-89.-Continuous anchor wall-earth pressure distribution (after NAVFAC. 1982).

3N.3 Short
Deadman Near
Ground Surface

In this analysis it has been assumed that the passive wedge of the
deadman does not interact with the active wedge of the wall.
Experiments have shown that the maximum capacity of the deadman
(see figure 3-90). is

(3-130)
in which
L equals the length of deadman.
h eq:.mls the height of deadman. and
K" equals the at-rest earth pressure (granular soils).
For cohesive soils. A p is
(3-131)
in which c is the cohesion of the soil.

3N.4 Small
Structural Plates
and Bars

The anchors discussed in this section are typically used on horizontal


sheet pile 8r vertical culvert pipe walls. It is generally accepted that the
mode of failure of these anchors is. in effect. a localized bearing capacity
failure rather than a generalized mobilization of the traditional passive

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wedge. Hence, the ultimate capacity of this type anchor is taken as


equal to the bearing capacity of a footing. whose base is located at a
depth equal to the distance from the ground surface to the proposed
anchor.

"j
I

'-, " "."

A.

/ ACTIVE
/ wECGE

~/

"r/ 1
PASSIVE
WECGE
Po

= 1/2)"II2 Ko

Pp

= 1/2)"II2I<p

(OBTAIN

F'ROM

1<0

Kp

F'IG. :517 I

Figure 3-90.-Short deadman near ground surface.


The Terzaghi bearing capacity equations for local shear are
recommended for computing the anchor capacity (see equations 3-40,
3-43. and figure 3-35). A factor of safety of 3.0 should be applied to the
ultimate anchor capacity previously computed.
The designer should note that for a constant factor of safety against
pullout and constant anchor size. the anchor spacing should decrease
with increasing depth. However, the anchor spacing. S, should be
greater than or equal to 3B (B is the width of the anchor plate or bar) to
prevent the overlapping of stress bulbs.
The thickness of continuous bar anchors is determined by conventional
structural analysis. assuming that there is a uniform soil pressure
between the tie straps. The anchor should be analyzed as a continuous
beam with moment redistribution for plastic bending. The frictional
resistance developed on the tie straps between the critical failure plane
and the anchor may be considered in this analysis. When analyzing the
frictional forces on the tie straps. the designer should use the horizontal
stress at a given depth. not the vertical stress, unless the strap is lying
flat as in reinforced earth.

3N.5 Rock
Anchors

The information in this section is taken from NAVFACS DM7. It is


presented here for the convenience of the user.
There are two general categories of anchors:

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(1) Grouted anchors where load is transferred from tendon to

grout then from grout to soil. Load transfer is by either friction


along a straight shaft or bearing against an underream or both.
(2) Mechanical anchor where load is transferred to soil by an
expanding bit or other means.
The basic components (see figure 3-91) of a grouted ground anchor are:
(1) The prestressing steel, which may be one or more wire cables

or bars; the bond length of the steel is the grouted portion of


:he tendon which transmits force to the surrounding soil or
:ock; the stressing length of the tendon is the portion which is
free to elongate dUring stressing.
(2) The stressing anchorage, which permits the stressing and
anchoring of the steel under load.
(3) The grout and vent pipes required for injecting the anchor
grout. Secondary grouting of the stressing length is often done
for corrosion protection.
Rock anchors have a wide variety of applications and may be installed in
most rock types. Figure 3-91 shows the basic components of a rock
anchor. Rock anchor design must consider the following failure modes:
(1) Failure of steel tendon. Design stress within the steel is

usually limited to 50 to 60 percent of the ultimate stress


(50 percent for permanent installations).
(2) Failure of grout-steel bond. The bond capacity depends on
the number and length of the tendons. or steel bars (plain or
ceformed) and other factors. For gUidance see Rock Anchors.
State oj the Art. by Littlejohn and Bruce in the reference
section.
(3) Failure of grout-rock bond. The bonding capacity between
the rock and the grout may be determined using
(3-132)
in which
Pu equals load capacity of anchor.
d s equals diameter of drilled shaft.
Lo equals length of grout-anchor bond. and
8skin equals grout-rock bond strength.
Typical grout rock stresses for various rock types are presented
ir.. table 3-23.

235

Table 3-23.-Typical values oj bond stressJor selected rock types.


Rock Type
(Sound, Non-Decayed)

_Ultimate Bond Stresses Between Rock


and Anchor Plus ( 8 skin), psi

250 - 450

Granite (. Basalt
Lime~tone

300 - 400

(competent)

Dolooitic Limestone

200 - 300

Soft Limestone

ISO - 220

Slate~

120 - 200

and Hard Shales

30 - 120

Soft Shales

120 - ISO

Sandstone

Note:

Chalk
(varidble properties)

30 - 150

Marl
(stiff, friable,
fissured)

25 - 36

It is not generally recommended that design bond stresses exceed 200


psi even in the most competent rocks.

(4) Failure of rock mass. The criterion for failure in rock mass is
based on the weight of rock contained within a cone emanating
from the bonded zone. Figure 3-93 shows design criteria.
Actual anchor failure in this mode would be controlled by
discontinuity patterns and weathering of the rock.
The capability of epoxy grout to bond with rock 1s so great that the rock
strength is the controlling strength factor. Figure 3-93 shows a graph of
compressive strength in ksi versus ultimate anchor capacity in kips per
foot of grouted length. The figure should be used for preliminary
estimates of the reqUired grouted length of anchor. A suitable factor of
safety should be applied to the grouted lengths detennined from figure 3-93; that is, in the range of 3 to 10, depending on the rock quality.

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PRESSURE GROUTED SOIL ANCHOR

<:!:-...~~~~- STRESS ANCHORAGE

a BEARING PLATE

SHEATHING

a PRESTRESSING STEEL

GROUT (WITHDRAW CASING OR


AUGER SIMULTANEOUSLY)

."Y .

.~K

ANCHOR
GROUT TUBE

I.~~;;;r;;~~r- STRESSING ANCHORAGE


~
BEARING PLATE

!-M'--

t---

PRESTRESSING STEEL

SECON8ARY GROUT I CORRaS,ON PROTECTIU..J \YTIONAL

- - =,;:; I'~ARY

~J

GROUT

Figure 3-91.-Basic components oj ground anchors.

237